Spilosmylinae Krüger, 1913: 51

Martins, Caleb Califre & Price, Benjamin W., 2020, An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the Osmylidae collection (Neuroptera) at the Natural History Museum, London, Zootaxa 4883 (1), pp. 1-61 : 30-48

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4883.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4E9CC17B-0A98-472B-9468-7843693E3E7A

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4329474

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CD87F5-FFF9-FF98-FF4E-FEFBFBBDF95F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Spilosmylinae Krüger, 1913: 51
status

 

Subfamily Spilosmylinae Krüger, 1913: 51  

Original combination: Heliosmylus fraternus Banks, 1931: 417  

Current combination: Thaumatosmylus fraternus ( Banks, 1931)  

Type locality: [“ From Borneo; Mt. Kinabalu, Kamborangah, 7,200 ft., and Lumu Lumu, 5,500 ft., April.”], Malaysia, Sabah (state), Borneo (island), Gunung Kinabalu (mountain), Kamborangah and Lumu Lumu (6°4’30”N, 116°33’30”E) GoogleMaps   .

Syntype ♀ with labels: ( Fig. 30 View FIGURE 30 )

Condition of type: good condition, costal region of right hindwing damaged, abdomen stored in gelatine capsule pinned together with specimen.

Missing parts: left flagellomeres.

Syntype ♀ with labels: ( Fig. 31 View FIGURE 31 )

Condition of type: good condition, abdomen stored in gelatine capsule pinned together with specimen.

Missing parts: flagellomeres of both antennae.

Comments: In the original description, Banks (1931) cited that the specimens are from “Borneo; Mt. Kinabalu, Kamborangah, 7,200 ft., and Lumu Lumu, 5,500 ft., April.”. In the NHMUK collection there are two specimens, originally from the Federated Malay States Museum, with labels from Mt. Kinabalu, Kamborangah, and similar date from the Banks description, however these specimens have labels stating they were collected at 7,000 ft. altitude, not 7,200 ft. as listed in the description. Despite this difference we believe these specimens are syntypes of Heliosmylus fraternus   .

There is another specimen from the same locality, but it was collected in March, so we did not consider it as syntype. In the MCZ, there are two syntypes of this species, one (16494) from Kamborangah with label of 7,000 ft. and other (630799) from Lumu Lumu with label of 5,500 ft. Winterton et al. (2019) transferred this species to the genus Thaumatosmylus Kr   ̹ger, 1913.

Original combination: Osmylus conspersus Walker, 1853: 234  

Current combination: Thaumatosmylus conspersus (Walker, 1843)  

Type locality: [“ East Indies”], probably Myanmar, Mon State (state), Mawlamyine (16°29’N, 97°37’E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♀ (by monotypy) with labels: ( Fig. 32 View FIGURE 32 )

Condition of type: bad condition, many missing parts, apex of right forewing damaged, abdominal apex and genitalia in a microvial with glycerin pinned together with specimen.

Missing parts: flagellomeres of both antennae, anterior right tarsomeres, anterior left tibia, anterior left tarsomeres, medial left tibia, medial right tarsomeres, medial left tarsomeres.

Comments: In the original description Walker (1853) mentioned this specimen was deposited on Archdeacon Clerk’s collection, however this collection was purchased by the NHMUK in 1843. Despite the specimen’s original label referring only to “East Indies”, the accession register states this specimen was from in “E. Indies (Moulmein)”, as can be confirmed for specimens of Lepidoptera from Archdeacon Clerk’s collection in Swinhoe (1890), who mentions “we find that all the moths recorded in Walker’s catalogue as from the East Indies, and from Hindustan, from Archdeacton Clerk’s collection, are from Moulmein”. Such locality is actually district of Mawlamyine, Mon State, Myanmar ( EB 2009, Ray 2017). Winterton et al. (2019) transferred this species to the genus Thaumatosmylus Kr   ̹ger, 1913.

Original combination: Osmylus flavicornis McLachlan, 1875: 179  

Current combination: Spilosmylus flavicornis ( McLachlan, 1875)  

Type locality: [“ Japan; Yokohama (Pryer)”], Japan, Kantô (region), Kanagawa Prefecture (prefecture), Yokohama (city) (35°26’39”N, 139°38’17”E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♀ (by monotypy) with labels: ( Fig. 33 View FIGURE 33 )

Condition of type: good condition.

Missing parts: right flagellomeres.

Comments: The specimen was collected by Mr. H. Pryer (Henry James Stovin Pryer, 1950–1988), who became a renowned naturalist in Japan ( Pereira 2019a,b). This specimen was sent to Mr. Percy C. Wormald who allowed its study by McLachlan (see introduction of the article with the original description). In the original description McLachlan (1875) mentioned that the type is deposited on collection of Percy C. Wormald, however the type is now in the NHMUK collection. The specimen was part of the large McLachlan collection purchased from the nephew of Robert McLachlan in 1938.

Original combination: Osmylus inquinatus McLachlan, 1870: 250  

Current combination: Spilosmylus inquinatus ( McLachlan, 1870)  

Type locality: [“ Ceram”], Indonesia, Molucca Island (archipelago), Ceram (island) (1°25’60”S, 130°54’60”E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♂ (by monotypy) with labels: ( Fig. 34 View FIGURE 34 )

Condition of type: bad condition, costal region of right forewing damaged, right forewing glued on mesothorax, mesothorax with glue on left side.

Missing parts: apical flagellomeres of both antennae, medial left femur, medial left tibia, medial left tarsomeres, right hindwing.

Comments: This specimen was likely collected by Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913) (see label “Wallace”), who was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, biologist and illustrator, and also conceived the theory of evolution through natural selection independently of Charles Darwin ( Berry 2013).

Wallace mentioned in his books The Malay Archipelago (1869): “The remaining orders of insects, comprising probably more than two thousand species, are in the collection of Mr. William Wilson Saunders, who has caused the larger portion of them to be described by good entomologists”, so probably this specimen was sent to William Wilson Saunders (1809–1879), an English entomologist and botanist and was subsequently presented to the NHMUK in 1868 along with his collection.

Original combination: Osmylus interlineatus McLachlan, 1870: 199  

Current combination: Spilosmylus interlineatus ( McLachlan, 1870)  

Type locality: [“ Port Natal”], South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (province), Durban (city) (29º51’S, 31º01’E). Holotype ♂ (by monotypy) with labels: ( Fig. 35 View FIGURE 35 ) GoogleMaps  

Condition of type: good condition, specimen complete, apex of left forewing damaged, specimen glued on the paperboard.

Missing parts: there are no missing parts.

Comments: In the original description McLachlan (1870) mentioned that he was inclined to believe that the locality “Port Natal” is erroneous, and that the specimen is in reality from India. Tjeder (1957) mentioned that the type locality of this species is “Port Natal (i.e. Durban)”, Port Natal was a British colony, named as Durban since 1824, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ( Walker 1957). The accession register notes: “Port Natal. Mexico (Pacific coast)”, “(Klingman a German Botanist)”, and “Collected by Gueinzuis”, however this species is distributed in Madagascar, Mozambique, and the Republic of South Africa, as well as there is not know extant Osmylidae   species to Central and North America, so probably it is an erroneously entry.

Original combination: Osmylus langii McLachlan, 1870: 197  

Current combination: Thyridosmylus langii langii ( McLachlan, 1870)  

Type locality: [“ India septent[rionali]; Masuri”], India, Masuri (probably the hill station of Mussoorie ( Hindi : Masűrî ), located in Uttarakhand State (30°27’17”N, 78°04’14”E )) GoogleMaps   .

Lectotype ♂ (by explicit designation, as “type” or “typus”) with labels: ( Fig. 36 View FIGURE 36 )

Condition of type: good condition, right forewing and left hindwing glued on meso-metathorax, abdominal apex and genitalia slide mounted and pinned together with the specimen.

Missing parts: flagellomeres of both antennae.

Comments: In the original description, McLachlan (1870) mentioned that he used a long series of specimens, however only three specimens (one male and two female) remain in the NHMUK collection. Kimmins (1942) designated the male specimen as “type”, which is considered the lectotype ( Fig. 36 View FIGURE 36 ) of the species by explicit designation of “type” (article 74.6 of ICZN), and the other two specimens (NHMUK010594310; NHMUK010594309) are considered paralectotypes.

The specimens were collected by the Captain Lang and donated to Robert MacLachlan (see original description). The specimens were part of the large McLachlan collection purchased from the nephew of Robert McLachlan in 1938.

Original combination: Osmylus lineatocollis McLachlan, 1870: 196  

Current combination: Spilosmylus lineatocollis ( McLachlan, 1870)  

Type locality: [“ India septent(rionali)”], India, northern (no further locality data).

Syntype ♀ with labels: ( Fig. 37 View FIGURE 37 )

Condition of type: good condition.

Missing parts: there are no missing parts.

Syntype ♂ with labels: ( Fig. 38 View FIGURE 38 )

Condition of type: good condition.

Missing parts: left flagellomeres, posterior tarsomeres.

Comments: In the original description McLachlan (1870) used three specimens, however was not possible to identify the third syntype from the other specimens in the NHMUK collection. The specimens were purchased by the NHMUK in 1855 from Captain Stevens and have a note in the register that they were “Collected by Capt. Reid”.

Original combination: Osmylus tuberculatus Walker, 1853: 235  

Current combination: Spilosmylus tuberculatus ( Walker, 1853)  

Type locality: [“ East Indies”], probably Myanmar, Mon State (state), Mawlamyine (16°29’N, 97°37’E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype (sex undetermined) (by monotypy) with labels: ( Fig. 39 View FIGURE 39 )

Condition of type: bad condition, meso-metathorax glued on the pin.

Missing parts: apical flagellomeres of both antennae, posterior right tarsomeres, abdomen.

Comments: In the original description Walker mentions that the specimen is from Archdeacon Clerk’s collection, however this collection was purchased by the NHMUK in 1843. Despite the specimen’s original label referring only to “East Indies”, the accession register states this specimen was from in “E. Indies (Moulmein)”, as can be confirmed for specimens of Lepidoptera from Archdeacon Clerk’s collection in Swinhoe (1890), who mentions “we find that all the moths recorded in Walker’s catalogue as from the East Indies, and from Hindustan, from Archdeacton Clerk’s collection, are from Moulmein”. Such locality is actually district of Mawlamyine, Mon State, Myanmar ( EB 2009, Ray 2017).

Original combination: Lysmus leucomatodes Navás, 1911a: 234  

Current combination: Spilosmylus leucomatodes ( Navás, 1911a)  

Type locality: [“ Congo ”], probably Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Holotype (sex undetermined) (by monotypy) with labels: ( Fig. 40 View FIGURE 40 )

Condition of type: bad condition, many missing parts, prothorax, left forewing and apex of abdomen damaged.

Missing parts: head, antennae, anterior part of prothorax, apical part of left forewing, anterior right femur, anterior right tibia, anterior right tarsomeres, medial right femur, medial right tibia, medial right tarsomeres, posterior left leg.

Comments: Abdominal apex damaged making it difficult to identify the specimen’s sex. In the article with the original description, Navás mentioned his gratitude by Dr. Schouteden, Director of Belgian Congo Museum (now Royal Museum for Central Africa) who sent specimens from Congo for his study. Probably Navás was referring to Henri Schouteden (1881–1972), a Belgian zoologist, ornithologist and entomologist who was honorary director of this Museum (Louettte et al. 2010). The specimen was donated to the NHM in 1900 by “Dr. Bennett”.

Original combination: Lysmus nikkoensis Navás, 1911b: 113  

Current combination: Spilosmylus flavicornis ( McLachlan, 1875)  

Type locality: [“ Nikko (Japon)”], Japan, Kantô (region), Tochigi Prefecture (prefecture), Nikko (city) (36°43’11”N, 139°41’53”E) GoogleMaps   .

Syntype (sex undetermined) with labels: ( Fig. 41 View FIGURE 41 )

Condition of type: bad condition, many missing parts, left hindwing glued in the metathorax, abdominal apex missing.

Missing parts: pedicels and flagellomeres of both antennae, right hindwing, apical half of left forewing, abdomen.

Comments: Navás (1911) did not indicate if the species description was based on a series of specimens, and the measurements provided in the description suggest that it was based on a single specimen. There is only one specimen with the label “Nikko; Sept. 1886, Leech” as mentioned by Navás (1911) in the original description, however there are doubts about the number of specimens used to the species description, so in accordance with ICZN recommendation 73F, we assume that more than one syntype was used by him. The specimen was probably collected by John Henry Leech (1862–1900), an English entomologist, specialized in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, his collections from China, Japan and Kashmir are now in NHMUK ( South 1902)   .

This species is considered a junior synonym of Spilosmylus flavicornis ( McLachlan, 1875)   .

Original combination: Spilosmylus alleni   New, 1991: 16

Current combination: Spilosmylus alleni   New, 1991

Type locality: [“ Thailand, Khao Yai NP ”], Thailand, Sankamphaeng Mountain (mountain), Khao Yai National Park (park) (14°26’29”N, 101°22’11”E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♀ (by original designation) with labels: ( Fig. 42 View FIGURE 42 )

Condition of type: good condition, apex of right hindwing damaged, abdominal apex and genitalia in a microvial with glycerin pinned together with specimen.

Missing parts: apical left flagellomeres, anterior left tarsomeres.

Comments: Specimen collected by Col. M.G. Allen, who collected in Nepal, Thailand and Borneo. This species was named after him.

Original combination: Spilosmylus ceyloniensis Esben-Petersen, 1927a: 349  

Current combination: Spilosmylus ceyloniensis Esben-Petersen, 1927a  

Type locality: [“ Ceylon: Nuwara Eliya”], Sri Lanka, Central Province (province), Nuwara Eliya (city) (6°58’0”N, 80°46’0”E) GoogleMaps   .

Syntype (probably ♀) with labels: ( Fig. 43 View FIGURE 43 )

Condition of type: bad condition, costal region of right forewing damaged, mesothorax glued on metathorax, meso-metanotum and first abdominal segments with glue, abdomen in bad condition making it difficult to identify the sex of the specimen.

Missing parts: flagellomeres of left antenna; apical flagellomeres of right antennae; left posterior leg.

Syntype (probably ♀) with labels: ( Fig. 44 View FIGURE 44 )

Condition of type: bad condition, meso and metathorax covered with glue and damaged, metathorax with a hole on the left side, costal region of left forewing damaged, abdomen in bad condition making it difficult to identify the sex of the specimen.

Missing parts: left flagellomeres, medial left tarsomeres, posterior left leg.

Comments: Esben-Petersen (1927a) mentioned that he used two specimens (syntypes) to describe this species. They are deposited in the NHMUK collection and are in bad condition.

In the article with the original description Esben-Petersen mentions the kindness of Dr. Guy A. K. Marshall, who made it possible to study specimens of Imperial Bureau of Entomology. Sir Guy Anstruther Knox Marshall (1871–1959) was an Indian-born British entomologist, and scientific secretary to the Entomological Research Committee (Tropical Africa) from NMHUK ( CABI 2020). The two specimens probably were collected by George Morrison Reid Henry (1891–1983), an entomologist and ornithologist in Sri Lanka ( Henry 1986).

Original combination: Spilosmylus inthanonensis   New, 1991: 18

Current combination: Spilosmylus inthanonensis   New, 1991

Type locality: [“ Thailand, NW, Doi Inthanon NP ”], Thailand, Chiang Mai (Province), Doi Inthanon National Park (park) (18°35’32”N, 98°29’12”E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♂ (by original designation) with labels: ( Fig. 45 View FIGURE 45 )

Condition of type: good condition, abdomen stored in gelatine capsule pinned together with specimen.

Missing parts: flagellomeres of both antennae.

Comments: Specimen collected by Col. M.G. Allen, who collected in Nepal, Thailand and Borneo.

Original combination: Spilosmylus lichenoides Navás, 1913: 501  

Current combination: Spilosmylus lichenoides Navás, 1913  

Type locality: [“Desconocida”], unknown.

Holotype (sex undetermined) (by monotypy) with labels: ( Fig. 46 View FIGURE 46 )

Condition of type: bad condition, many missing parts, apex of right wings damaged.

Missing parts: head, antennae, posterior legs, abdomen.

Comments: Navás (1913) described this species based on a single specimen without an abdomen, which is considered the holotype by monotypy according to article 73.1 of the ICZN. In the original description, Navás stated “Un ejemplar sin abdomen en el Museo de Cambridge” (one specimen without abdomen in Cambridge Museum), however the type is deposited in the NHMUK collection, being part of an exchange in 1950.

One of the labels mentions “probably:/ Malay Peninsula. Skeat Expedition. Reg. 30, xi, 1899.”. Walter William Skeat (1866–1953) was an English anthropologist who studied the Malay people, in 1899 he began to mount expeditions to the interior of Malay Peninsula, where he collected material to study ( Skeat 1913).

Original combination: Stigmatosmylus pretiosus Banks, 1931: 417  

Current combination: Spilosmylus pretiosus ( Banks, 1931)  

Type locality: [“ Borneo; Mt. Kinabalu, Lumu Lumu”], Malaysia, Sabah (state), Borneo (island), Gunung Kinabalu (mountains), Lumu Lumu (6°4’30”N, 116°33’30”E) GoogleMaps   .

Lectotype ♀ (by explicit designation, as “type” or “typus”) with labels: ( Fig. 47 View FIGURE 47 )

Conditions of type: good condition, abdomen in a microvial with glycerin pinned together with specimen.

Missing parts: apical right flagellomeres, left flagellomeres.

Comments: Banks (1931) did not mention the number of specimens used in the original description, but there are two differents localities to this species “Kamborangah and Lumu Lumu” and his work suggests that the description was based in at least two specimens, so the specimens used by Banks in the original description are considered syntypes.

New (1991) designated a holotype for this species, but actually this specimen is considered a lectotype ( Fig. 47 View FIGURE 47 ) by explicit designation of “type” (ICZN article 74.6) and the other two syntypes (NHMUK010595125; NHMUK010594876)—which are from Kamborangah—present in NHMUK collection are considered as paralectotypes instead of paratypes. The three specimens present in NHMUK were obtained by Henry Maurice Pendlebury (1893–1945) who was an English entomologist (see introduction of Banks 1931).

In the original description Banks (1931) cited that specimens are from “Borneo; Mt. Kinabalu, Kamborangah, 7,200 ft., and Lumu Lumu, 5,500 ft., April”; in the NHMUK collection there are three specimens with labels from April and from “Kamborangah and Lumu Lumu”, originally from the Federated Malay States Museum. Only the lectotype has a handwritten “type” label ( Fig. 33 View FIGURE 33 ); one paralectotype ( NHMUK010594876 View Materials ) has a label with 7,000 ft.   altitude, not 7,200 ft, an inconsistency, which occurs with other species of Banks (1931), such as Thaumatosmylus delicatus Banks, 1931   .

In the collection of MCZ, there are two syntypes (16496; 630800), which are from 7000 ft. and from now on must be treated as paralectotypes.

Original combination: Thaumatosmylus delicatus Banks, 1931: 418  

Current combination: Thaumatosmylus delicatus Banks, 1931  

Type locality: [“ From Borneo; Mt. Kinabalu, Kamborangah”], Malaysia, Sabah (state), Borneo (island), Gunung Kinabalu (mountain) (6°4’30”N, 116°33’30”E) GoogleMaps   .

Lectotype ♀ (by explicit designation, as “type” or “typus”) with labels: ( Fig. 48 View FIGURE 48 )

Condition of type: good condition.

Missing parts: apical right flagellomeres.

Comments: In the original description, Banks (1931) mentioned that he used “Over thirty specimens from Mt. Kinabalu, Kamborangah, 7,200 ft., and Lumu Lumu, 5,500 ft., April and last days of March.” to describe the species. There are 30 specimens in the NHMUK collection, which correspond to the data (locality and date) mentioned by Banks (1931).

New (1991) erroneously mentioned a “ holotype. ♀, ‘B.N. Borneo’ (now E. Malaysia, Sabah), Mt Kinabalu, Kamborangah, 7000 ft, 31.iii.1929.” for this species; however the “ holotype ” of New (1991) is considered a lectotype ( Fig. 48 View FIGURE 48 ) by explicit designation of “type” (ICZN article 74.6) and the other 29 specimens—which are also from Kamborangah—are paralectotypes (NHMUK010595368; NHMUK010595362; NHMUK010594906; NHMUK010595209; NHMUK010594908; NHMUK010594909; NHMUK010595087; NHMUK010594804; NHMUK010595099; NHMUK010594991; NHMUK010595395; NHMUK010595102; NHMUK010595313; NHMUK010595077; NHMUK010594841; NHMUK010595436; NHMUK010594767; NHMUK010595333; NHMUK010595101; NHMUK010594984; NHMUK010595076; NHMUK010594882; NHMUK010595340; NHMUK010595151; NHMUK010594973; NHMUK010595393; NHMUK010595279; NHMUK010595224; NHMUK010595111). The specimens housed in NHMUK were obtained by Henry Maurice Pendlebury (18931945) who was an English entomologist (see introduction of Banks (1931)) and were originally from the Federated Malay States Museum.

Some paralectotypes have a label from Mt. Kinabalu, Kamborangah, but with 7000 ft. in altitude, similar to the lectotype and different to the data mentioned by Banks (1931); this difference occurred in other specimens col-lected at the same altitude of this locality and used to describe other species, so we believed, despite the difference in altitude, that these specimens are the syntypes of Thaumatosmylus delicatus   used by Banks (1931). There are two specimens from the same locality and altitude of the Banks syntypes, however these specimens are from the beginning of March and were not treated as syntypes.

In the collection of MCZ, there are four syntypes (630802; 630804; 630805; 16495), which are from 5000 and 7000 ft. and from now on must be treated as paralectotypes.

Original combination: Thyridosmylus langii angustus Kimmins, 1942: 848  

Current combination: Thyridosmylus langii angustus Kimmins, 1942  

Type locality: [“ Assam, Khasi Hills”], India, Meghalaya (state), Assam (region), Khasi Hills (hills) (25º34’9”N, 92º7’2”E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♂ (by original designation) with labels: ( Fig. 49 View FIGURE 49 )

Condition of type: good condition.

Missing parts: apical left flagellomeres, medial right femur, medial right tibia, medial right tarsomeres, posterior right tarsomeres.

Comments: The specimen was part of the large McLachlan collection purchased from the nephew of Robert McLachlan in 1938. The specimens possess a label “Khasis. Nat. Coll.”. The mountain formation of Khasi Hills is present on the Shillong Plateau in Meghalaya state of India ( Chaudhuri & Sarkar 2003).

Original combination: Thyridosmylus perspicillaris fenestratus Kimmins, 1942: 852  

Current combination: Thyridosmylus perspicillaris fenestratus Kimmins, 1942  

Type locality: [“ S. India, Nilgiris, Gudulur”], India, Tamil Nadu (state), Nilgiris (district), Gudalur (city) (9°40’52”N, 77°14’56”E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♀ (by original designation) with labels: ( Fig. 50 View FIGURE 50 )

Condition of type: bad condition, specimen broken, mesothorax glued on the pin, metathorax and abdomen glued on paper card.

Missing parts: right flagellomeres, apical left flagellomeres, medial right tibia, medial right tarsomeres, posterior right tarsomeres.

Comments: Kimmins mentioned in the original description that the specimens used to describe the species were collected by Col. F. C. Fraser and presented by him to NHMUK. Colonel Frederic Charles Fraser (1880–1963) was an English entomologist who specialized in Odonata, however he also published on Neuropterida ( Wigglesworth 1964).

Original combination: Thyridosmylus perspicillaris minor Kimmins, 1942: 851  

Current combination: Thyridosmylus perspicillaris minor Kimmins, 1942  

Type locality: [“ Sikkim, Phedong”], India, Sikkim (state), East district (district), Pedong (city) (27°9’0”N, 88°37’0”E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♂ (by original designation) with labels: ( Fig. 51 View FIGURE 51 )

Condition of type: good condition, abdominal apex and genitalia slide mounted and pinned together with specimen.

Missing parts: apical right flagellomeres, left flagellomeres.

Comments: The specimen was part of the large McLachlan collection purchased from the nephew of Robert McLachlan in 1938.

Original combination: Thyridosmylus pustulatus Kimmins, 1942: 849  

Current combination: Thyridosmylus pustulatus Kimmins, 1942  

Type locality: [“ Assam, Khasi Hills”], India, Meghalaya (state), Assam (region), Khasi Hills (hills) (25º34’9”N, 92º7’2”E) GoogleMaps   .

Holotype ♂ (by original designation) with labels: ( Fig. 52 View FIGURE 52 )

Condition of type: good condition.

Missing parts: right flagellomeres, medial left femur, medial left tibia, medial left tarsomeres.

Comments: The specimen was part of the large McLachlan collection purchased from the nephew of Robert McLachlan in 1938. The specimens possess a label “Khasis. Nat. Coll.”. The mountain formation of Khasi Hills is present on the Shillong Plateau in Meghalaya state of India ( Chaudhuri & Sarkar 2003).

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Neuroptera

Family

Osmylidae

Loc

Spilosmylinae Krüger, 1913: 51

Martins, Caleb Califre & Price, Benjamin W. 2020
2020
Loc

Heliosmylus fraternus

Banks 1931
1931