Anaspides richardsoni, Ahyong, 2016

Ahyong, Shane T., 2016, The Tasmanian Mountain Shrimps, Anaspides Thomson, 1894 (Crustacea, Syncarida, Anaspididae), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (7), pp. 313-364: 336-346

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.3853/j.2201-4349.68.2016.1669

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CDD45B-7040-1C57-FC7E-9DFD0D6CF9D0

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Anaspides richardsoni
status

sp. nov.

Anaspides richardsoni   sp. nov.

Figs 18–23 View Figure 18 View Figure 19 View Figure 20 View Figure 21 View Figure 22 View Figure 23 , 35D–F View Figure35 , 36 View Figure 36

Anaspides tasmaniae   . — Calman, 1897: 802 [“Lake Field” (= Mt Field) specimens only (OM Iv.1394, below)]. — Smith, 1909a: 64, 70 (Mt Read, Mt Field). — Williams, 1965b: 333–334, fig. 1, 2; 1965a: 106, tab. 6. —Swain & Reid, 1983: 163–171. —Richardson & Swain, 1989: 277, tab. 1, app. 1. —Jarman & Elliot, 2000: fig. 4 (clade E, part), tab. 1 (part, Central Plateau). —Gooderham & Tsyrlin, 2002: 73 (unnumbered colour figure). — Richter et al., 2002: 341, 347, fig. 31–33.

Anaspides spinulae   . — O’Brien, 1990: frontispiece, pl. 1.

Anaspides sp.   (telson ‘normal’ type). — Eberhard et al., 1991: 48 (Mole Creek caves).

Type material. (Mt Field). HOLOTYPE: AM P72839 View Materials , ♂ (33 mm), between Newdegate Pass and Mawson Plateau, coll. J. Kunze, 27 Feb 1974   . PARATYPES: AM P72840 View Materials , 1♀ ( TL 32 mm), between Newdegate Pass and Mawson Plateau, 42°40.2'S 146°33.6'E, coll. J. Kunze, 27 Feb 1974 GoogleMaps   ; AM P72841 View Materials , 4♂♂ (23–27 mm), 5 juv. ♂♂ (17–21 mm), 4♀♀ (24–31 mm), 5 juv. ♀♀ (14–20 mm),between Newdegate Pass and Mawson Plateau, 42°40.2'S 146°33.6'E,coll. J. Kunze, 27 Feb 1974 GoogleMaps   ; ZRC 2016.0491 View Materials , 1♂ (30 mm), 1♀ (31 mm), between Newdegate Pass and Mawson Plateau, 42°40.2'S 146°33.6'E, coll. J. Kunze, 27 Feb 1974 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6174 View Materials , 1♂ (27 mm), 2 juv. ♂♂ (14–16 mm), 1♀ (34 mm), Mt Field ,small tarn above University ski lodge, 42°40.134'S 146°34.152'E, tarn in herbfield with dolerite rocky outcrops, dipnet, 1240 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Mollison , 27Apr 2011   ; TMAG G6363 View Materials , 1♀ (45 mm), midway between Newdegate Pass and Newdegate Tarn, 42°39.6'S 146°33.6'E, in small tarn, 1200 m asl, coll. I. Wilson & J. Ong, 25 Jan 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6419 View Materials , 2♂♂ (25–27 mm), 21 juv. ♂♂ (11–21 mm), 1♀ (22 mm), 37 juv. ♀♀ (11–21 mm), Newdegate Pass , 42°39.6'S 146°33.0'E, sample 2, coll. I. Wilson & J. Ong, 25 Jan 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6445 View Materials , 5♂♂ (20–21 mm), 6 juv. ♂♂ (13–19 mm), 2♀♀ (24–29 mm), 5 juv. ♀♀ (13–15 mm), Newdegate Pass , 42°39.6'S 146°33.0'E,sample 1,coll. I. Wilson & J. Ong, 25 Jan 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6429 View Materials , 11 ♂♂ (22–32 mm), 3 juv. ♂♂ (18–21 mm), 25♀♀ (22–34 mm), 5 juv. ♀♀ (14–21 mm), near Sitzmark Lodge , Mt Field, 42°40.8'S 146°34.8'E, tarn, coll. C.Reid, 15–18 Oct 1974 GoogleMaps   ; USNM 1277685 View Materials , 1♂ (26 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (17 mm), 3♀♀ (25–30 mm), near Sitzmark Lodge , Mt Field, 42°40.8'S 146°34.8'E, tarn, coll. C.Reid, 15–18 Oct 1974 GoogleMaps   .

Other material examined. Gunns Plain to Black Bluff: AM P99296 View Materials , 1 juv. ♂ (12 mm), Great Western Cave ( GP27), Gunns Plains karst area, NW Tasmania, 41°17.8'S 146°00.3'E, from riffle pool 250 m upstream, 1296-24, 109 m asl, coll. A. Clarke, 29 Dec 1996 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :13975, 1♀ (23 mm), Paddy’s Lake,below Black Bluff, near Loongana , Nietta South , 41°27.2'S 145°57.6'E, 1070 m asl,coll GoogleMaps   . T. Hume , 5 May 1972   ; TMAG G6398 View Materials , 14♂♂ (20–24 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (16 mm), 32♀♀ (19–30 mm), 3 juv. ♀♀ (16–17 mm), Paddy’s Lake, Black Bluff , 41°27.2'S 145°57.6'E, 1070 m asl, coll. C. Binks, 25Apr 1979 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6169 View Materials , 1 juv.♂ (13 mm), 6 juv. ♀♀ (10–17 mm), Vale of Belvoir , 41°32.95'S 145°53.54'E, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Mollison , 16 Mar 2010   .

Deloraine: TMAG 14391 View Materials /G135, 2♂♂ (22–24 mm), Deloraine ,coll. C.King, Nov 1937   . Mole Creek (Form 1)   : SAMA C8481 View Materials , 2 immature ♂♂ (16–21 mm), 2♀♀ (30–39 mm), 1 indet juv. (9 mm), about 200 m from cave entrance, Marakoopa Cave , 41°34.9'S 146°17.3'E, 490 m asl, small stream, BS0464,coll. E. Hamilton Smith, 19 Nov 1963 GoogleMaps   ; USNM 1277682 View Materials , 3♂♂ (29–34 mm), 3 juv. ♂♂ (12–16 mm), 3♀♀ (21–30 mm), 2 juv. ♀♀ (16–17 mm), Marakoopa Cave , 0.3 m, stn 87-253, coll   . T. Iliffe , 27 Dec 1987   ; TMAG G646 View Materials , 1♂ (34 mm), 1♀ (45 mm), Long Creek , Marakoopa Cave ( MC120), 4 Dec 1991   ; QVM 10 View Materials :13973, 1♀ (33 mm), Marakoopa Cave II (MC-015), 41°34.9'S 146°17.3'E, coll. K. Crocker, 1 Jul 1981 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6458 View Materials , 2♂♂ (31–32 mm), 2♀♀ (32–33 mm), Lake Passage , Marakoopa Cave II ( MC15-1), 41°34.9'S 146°17.3'E, 490 m asl, coll. A. Goede, 21 Aug 1982 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6459 View Materials , 2♂♂ (26–28 mm), 3♀♀ (21–32 mm), Lake Passage , Marakoopa Cave II ( MC15-1), 41°34.9'S 146°17.3'E, 490 m asl, coll. A. Goede, 21 Aug 1982 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6462 View Materials , 2♀♀ (36–41 mm), Prohibition Cave , 41°35.6'S 146°19.5'E, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Eberhard , 19 Apr 1991   .

Mole Creek (Form 2): AM P73038 View Materials , 1♂ (37 mm), Honeycomb Cave ( MC107), lower pool, dark zone, 41°36.0'S 146°24.4'E, 1096.03,coll. S. Bunton, 27 Oct 1996 GoogleMaps   ; ZSRO 863 a, 1♀ (44 mm), Honeycomb Cave,KS 34, Ana 16 A011, 27 Feb 2013   ; ZSRO 863 b, 1♀ (46 mm), Honeycomb Cave, KS 34, Ana 17 A011, 27 Feb 2013   ; USNM 1277681 View Materials , 1♂ (33 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (22 mm), 7♀♀ (32–55 mm), Honeycomb Cave , 0–0.5 m, stn 87- Pot ( MC207-12), 41°36.6'S 146°22.5'E, 520 m asl GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6464 View Materials , 1♀ (41 mm), Kellys Pot ( MC207-14), 41°36.6'S 146°22.5'E, 520 m asl GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6465 View Materials , 1♂ (29 mm), 2♀♀ (30–37 mm), Kellys Pot ( MC207-13), 41°36.6'S 146°22.5'E, 520 m asl GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6460 View Materials , 1♀ (37 mm), Mole Creek caves, in water pool,coll   . R.A. Rafferty , 28 Apr 1938   ; TMAG G6457 View Materials , 1♂ (36 mm), 2♀♀ (37–46 mm), Herbert’s Pot ( MC202), 41°36.9'S 146°23.3'E, 500 m asl GoogleMaps   , CV40, coll. S. Eberhard, 6 Apr 1985   ; AM P56373 View Materials , 1♂ ( TL 35 mm), 1♀ ( TL 35 mm), Wet Cave near Caveside, 41°36'S 146°25'E, C.92 GoogleMaps   T, moderate flowing stream, disappears before cave entrance, cave with few pools, coll. W. Ponder et al., 18 Jan 1982   .

Mole Creek (Form 3): SAMA C8482 View Materials , 1♀ (24 mm), 2 juv. (7–9 mm), unnamed cave, Sassafras Creek ,about 50 m from entrance, 41°33.7'S 146°21.9'E, 270 m asl,clear pool, mud bottom,BS0457, 18 Nov 1963 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6454 View Materials , 3♂♂ (23–32) mm), 1♀ (23 mm), 5 juv.♀♀ (13–20 mm), Kubla Khan Cave , 41°33.2'S 146°17.6'E,coll. S. Eberhard GoogleMaps   , R. Swain & A.Richardson, 23 Sep 1981   ; TMAG G6455 View Materials , 1♂ (26 mm), 1 juv.♂ (20 mm), 2♀♀ (26–28 mm), 3 juv. ♀♀ (10–21 mm), Kubla Khan Cave , 41°33.2'S 146°17.6'E, coll. S. Eberhard, A. Richardson GoogleMaps   & R. Swain , 25 May 1986   ; TMAG G6456 View Materials , 1♂ (29 mm), 2♀♀ (23–39 mm), Kubla Khan Cave , 41°33.2'S 146°17.6'E, in river, c. 500 m into cave, 320 m asl, coll. S. Eberhard, 12 Nov 1983 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6466 View Materials , 3♂♂ (25–30 mm), 3♀♀ (23–28 mm), Kubla Khan Cave ( MC1-30), 41°33.2'S 146°17.6'E GoogleMaps   ; USNM 1277679 View Materials , 1♂ (25 mm), Kubla Khan Cave , 0–0.5 m, stn 87-250, coll   . T. Iliffe , 26 Dec 1987   ; USNM 1277683 View Materials , 3♂♂ (23–26 mm), 5♀♀ (28–40 mm), Mayberry area , Mole Creek, water cave, from sinkhole near farmhouse, baited traps, 0.2m, stn 87-251, coll   . T. Iliffe , 27 Dec 1987   .

West Coast Range   : TMAG G6411 View Materials , 1♂ (26 mm)   , 3 juv. ♂♂ (16–20 mm)   , 2 juv. ♀♀ (20–21 mm), tarn II, S of Lake Tyndall , 41°57.1'S 145°35.2'E, 980 m asl, coll. C.J. Binks & B. Knott, 16 Jan 1973 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6312 View Materials , 8♂♂ (23–25 mm)   , 3 juv. ♂♂ (16–21 mm)   , 8♀♀ (23–30 mm), 3 juv. ♀♀ (15–18 mm), tarn S of Lake Tyndall , 41°57.1'S 145°35.2, 980 m asl, coll. C.J. Binks & B. Knott, 16 Jan 1973   ; TMAG G6362 View Materials , 1 juv.♂ (18 mm)   , 2 juv. ♀♀ (16–17 mm), Lake Sandra, Mt Murchison , 41°49.9'S 145°35.8'E, 940 m asl, 10 Dec 1973 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6385 View Materials , 1♀ (damaged, c. 26 mm), Lake Sandra, Mt Murchison , 41°49.9'S 145°35.8'E, 940 m asl,coll. W. Fulton, Nov 1983 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6392 View Materials , 1♀ (27 mm), N of Geikie, Tyndall Range , alpine plateau above climbing route and camp, 41°57.4'S 145°35.0'E, 1000 m asl, coll. C.J. Binks & B. Knott, 16 Jan 1973 GoogleMaps   .

Cradle Mountain Lake St Clair National Park: TMAG G6352 View Materials , 1♂ (21 mm), 1♀ (23 mm), Twisted Lake , Cradle Mountain, 41°40.22'S 145°58.09'E, 1116 m asl, coll. D. O’Brien, 8 Mar 1990 GoogleMaps   ; SAMA C6303 View Materials , 1 juv. ♂ (18 mm), top of Cradle Mountain , 41°40.8'S 145°57.0'E,small pool in creek, 4850 ft asl [1455 m],coll. A.Kowanko, Dec 1967 GoogleMaps   ; SAM C6304 View Materials , 2♀♀ (21–32 mm),top of Cradle Mountain , 41°40.8'S 145°57.0'E, small pool in creek, 4850 ft asl [1455 m],coll. A.Kowanko, Dec 1967 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :13835, 1♂ (20 mm), Sutton’s Tarn , Cradle Mountain, 41°41.01'S 145°55.98'E, 1089 m asl, coll. Kingston, 1991 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6350 View Materials , 1♂ (26 mm), 1♀ (24 mm), Sutton’s Tarn , near Kitchen Hut, Cradle Mountain, 41°41.0'S 145°56.0'E, 1089 m asl, coll. D. O’Brien, 8 Mar 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6351 View Materials , 2♀♀ (30–31 mm), Sutton’s Tarn , near Kitchen Hut, Cradle Mountain, 41°41.0'S 145°56.0'E, 1089 m asl, coll. D. O’Brien, 8 Mar 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6381 View Materials , 2♂♂ (27–31 mm), 12♀♀ (21–32 mm), Mt Doris , tarn on S side, 41°52.6'S 146°02.7'E, 1170 m asl, coll. B. Knott, 12 May 1970 GoogleMaps   ; AM P72843 View Materials , 1 juv. ♂ (21 mm), 1♀ (23 mm), Mt Ossa–Mt Doris Ridge , Mt Ossa, 41°52.2'S 146°04.8'E, 1255 m asl, coll. C. Sands GoogleMaps   ; AM P82858 View Materials , 2♂♂ (23–24 mm), 4 juv. ♀♀ (14–21 mm), 8♀♀ (23–30 mm), 5 juv. ♀♀ (13–18 mm), S of Mt Doris,runnel crossing Mt Ossa track, 41°52.2'S 146°01.8'E,deep runnel in grassy lawn in alpine shrubbery,FW18,coll. A.Richardson & P.A. Serov, 28 Jan 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6413 View Materials , 6♂♂ (24–29 mm), 6♀♀ (26–34 mm), 1 juv. ♀ (16 mm), near summit of Cathedral ( NE of summit), 41°53.4'S 146°07.2'E, c. 1350 m asl, tarn, small, clear & with rocky bottom, sample 6, coll. C.J. Binks & B. Knott, 31 Jan 1972 GoogleMaps   ; WAM C11772 View Materials , 1♂ (21 mm), 3♀♀ (21–23 mm), Cradle Mountain district , coll. A. Connell, 1939   ; WAM C58160 View Materials , 1 juv. ♂ (16 mm), 4♀♀ (25–39 mm), Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair, National Park, 16 Oct 1947   .

Walls of Jerusalem National Park (non-“ spinulae   ” form): TMAG G6448 View Materials , 28 juv. ♂♂ (13–18 mm), 49 juv. ♀♀ (12–19 mm), 1 indet juv.(5 mm), Jaffa Vale, at Dixon’s Hut, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°40.77'S 146°06.37'E, 1250 m asl,coll GoogleMaps   .? R. Swain ,1969   ; TMAG G6449 View Materials , 2♂♂ (25–28 mm), 2 juv. ♂♂ (18–19 mm), 4 juv. ♀♀ (15–17 mm), Jaffa Vale, at Dixon’s Hut, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°40.77'S 146°06.37'E, 1250 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   .? R. Swain , 1969   ; TMAG G6319 View Materials , 2♂♂ (23–29 mm), 1♀ (20 mm), 1 juv. ♀ (13 mm), pool 50 m W of Herod’s Gate Pool , 41°48.7'S 146°16.8'E, 1220 m asl,coll. S.Smith, 16 Apr 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6380 View Materials , 6 juv. ♂♂ (13–16 mm), 8 juv. ♀♀ (12–19 mm), Lake Adelaide track between Fish Rock and Herod’s Gate , Walls of Jerusalem , 41°48.7'S 146°16.8'E, runnel, 1200 m asl, coll. B. Knott, 18 Nov 1971 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6368 View Materials , 5♂♂ (24–26 mm), 10 juv. ♂♂ (14–21 mm), 8♀♀ (25–35 mm), 9 juv. ♀♀ (11–20 mm), near Herod’s Gate, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°48.7'S 146°17.4'E, small creek, 1200 m asl, coll. B. Knott, 17 Nov 1971 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6446 View Materials , 2♂♂ (25–27 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (17 mm), 2♀♀ (26–30 mm), 10 juv. ♀♀ (14–18 mm), Zion Gate west, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°48.9'S 146°19.6'E, 1280 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   .? R. Swain , 1969   ; TMAG G6393 View Materials , 1♂ (24 mm), 10 juv. ♂♂ (11–18 mm), 2♀♀ (24–33 mm), 13 juv. ♀♀ (15–18 mm), Saddle through to east wall, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°48.9'S 146°19.2'E, 1230 m asl, coll. J. Bludhorn, 18 Nov 1971 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6418 View Materials , 4♂♂ (29–32 mm), 4 juv.♂♂ (16–23 mm), 2♀♀ (26–29 mm), 2 juv.♀♀ (13–18 mm), E side of Zion Gate, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°49.0'S 146°19.6'E, 1240 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   .? R. Swain , 1969   ; TMAG G6345 View Materials , 3♂♂ (21–22 mm), 1♀ (25 mm), 20 m below Gate of Chain, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°49.12'S 146°18.39'E, pool in pencil pines, 1300 m asl, coll. S. Smith, 16 Apr 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6346 View Materials , 1♂ (21 mm), 3♀♀ (20–22 mm), 1 juv. ♀ (14 mm), Gate of Chain, 50 m below ridge, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°49.13'S 146°18.53'E, 1280 m asl, coll. S. Smith, 16 Apr 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6318 View Materials , 2♂♂ (24–27 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (13 mm), 2♀♀ (26–30 mm), 100 m E of ridge, Gate of Chains, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°49.13'S 146°18.60'E, 1260 m asl, coll. S. Smith, 16 Apr 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6440 View Materials , 1♂ (23 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (16 mm), 1♀ (23 mm), 6 juv. ♀♀ (12–16 mm),near Lake Ball, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°49.23'S 146°17.95'E, 1240 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . V. Thorp , 3 Apr 1972   ; TMAG G6320 View Materials , ♂ (26 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (15 mm), 2♀♀ (25–29 mm), 1 juv. ♀ (16 mm), 200 m below Pool of Bethesda, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°49.34'S 146°17.81'E,runnel,#1, 1260 m asl, coll. S. Smith, 14 Apr 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6348 View Materials , 6♂♂ (25–32 mm), 1♀ (32 mm), 50 m SE of Damascus Gate , 41°49.61'S 146°17.59'E, pool in grassland, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Smith , 1350 m asl, 15 Apr 1990   ; TMAG G6376 View Materials , 3 juv. ♂♂ (15–16 mm), 11 juv. ♀♀ (12–17 mm), Damascus Gate , 41°49.61'S 146°17.95'E, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Swain , 1969   ; TMAG G6422 View Materials , 1♂ (29 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (18 mm), 2♀♀ (26–28 mm), 6 juv. ♀♀ (12–15 mm), Damascus Gate, Walls of Jerusalem, runnel draining into Lake Calvine , 41°49.99'S 146°18.16'E, 1340 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   .? R. Swain , 1969   ; TMAG G6394 View Materials , 9 juv. ♂♂ (15–20 mm), 1♀ (24 mm), 8 juv. ♀♀ (13–18 mm),near Junction Lake immediately under Moraine retaining Lake Meston , Walls of Jerusalem , 41°55.35'S 146°11.52'E, bog drainage pool (chiefly Gleichenia   ), “sample 2”, 950 m asl, coll. C. Binks & B. Knott, 31 Jan 1972 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6397 View Materials , 7 juv. ♂♂ (10–22 mm), 1♀ (29 mm), 5 juv. ♀♀ (17–21 mm), creek draining into Junction Lake, second of four or five drainage systems on broad plain from Lake Meston, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°55.35'S 146°11.52'E,clear pools under Nothofagus   lined creek, “sample 3”, 950 m asl, coll. C. Binks & B. Knott, 31 Jan 1972 GoogleMaps   .

Walls of Jerusalem National Park (mixed “ spinulae   ” and non-“ spinulae   ” forms): TMAG G6396 View Materials , 4♂♂ (21–22 mm), 6 juv. ♂♂ (15–18 mm), 1♀ (24 mm), 2 juv. ♀♀ (17–20 mm), Zion Vale, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°48.64'S 146°18.83'E, pool, 1200 m asl GoogleMaps   , coll. R. Swain , 1969   ; TMAG G6379 View Materials , 1♂ (25 mm), 2 juv. ♂♂ (18–22 mm), 2♀♀ (24–25 mm), Maximal Creek, W of Herod’s Gate, Walls of Jerusalem , 41°48.62'S 146°15.94'E, 1150 m asl, coll. B. Knott, 16 Nov 1971 GoogleMaps   .

Walls of Jerusalem National Park (“ spinulae   ” form): WAM C11771 View Materials , 4 juv. ♂♂ (shrivelled, c. 13–16 mm), 1♀ (shrivelled, c. 19 mm), Jones Tarn , at foot of Western Wall, Walls of Jerusalem, 41°49.02'S 146°18.46'E, approx. 4200 feet [1260 m], 26 Apr 1935 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6347 View Materials , 4 juv. ♂♂ (9–12 mm), 7 juv. ♀♀ (11–15 mm), 100 m E of ridge, Gate of Chain, Walls of Jerusalem, 41°49.13'S 146°18.53'E, 16 Apr 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6391 View Materials , 9 juv. ♂♂ (14–18 mm), 1♀ (27 mm), 11 juv. ♀♀ (13–17 mm),SE end Cloister Lagoon , 41°54.26'S 146°10.66'E,from small drainage pools in predominantly Gleichenia   covered bog, sample 4, 1100 m asl, coll. C.J. Binks & B. Knott, 31 Jan 1972 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6434 View Materials , 7♂♂ (23–30 mm, 5♀♀ (24–31 mm),Pool of Bethesda,Walls of Jerusalem, 41°49.28'S 146°17.95'E, 1270 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Swain ,1969   ; TMAG G6349 View Materials , 2♂♂ (21–23 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (15 mm), 3♀♀ (26–27 mm), E edge Pool of Bethesda , 41°49.28'S 146°17.88'E, 1270 m asl, coll. S. Smith, 16 Apr 1990 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6427 View Materials , 1♂ (24 mm), 19 juv. ♂♂ (12–18 mm), 11 juv. ♀♀ (12–20 mm), 6 indet juv. (6–7 mm), 41°53.01'S 146°09.23'E,from dirty,deep pool system draining through pineapple grass into Lake Chalice , 1020 m asl, “sample 5”, coll. C. Binks & B. Knott, 31 Jan 1972 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6330 View Materials , 3♂♂ (22–23 mm), 1♀ (24 mm), [no label] Lake Chalice , 41°52.84'S 146°08.87'E, coll. W. Fulton, 2 Feb 1988 GoogleMaps   .

Western Lakes—Great Western Tiers: AM P57906 View Materials , 1♀ (21 mm), Western Bluff , 41°37'S 146°17'E, 26 Jan 1964 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :13977, 1♀ (36 mm), 1 juv. ♀ (18 mm), Jacks Lagoon , 5 km SW of Lake Mackenzie, 41°42.1'S 146°20.6'E,“abundant”,“no fish”, 1260 m asl, coll. E GoogleMaps   . V. Terry , 7 Apr 1989   ; WAM C58161 View Materials , 3♂♂ (26–29 mm), 2♀♀ (25–26 mm), Ironstone Mountain , Northwestern Tiers, 41°42.8'S 146°28.5'E, from temporary creek, 100 m asl, coll. I. Gooch, 1946 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :13978, 1♂ (23 mm), 2♀♀ (23–31 mm), Meander Falls , 41°44.1'S 146°30.3'E,coll. S. Merry, 1957 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :49162 (“spinulae” form), 1♂ (23 mm), 5♀♀ (23–28 mm), Lake Johnny , 41°43.6'S 146°25.2'E, 1210 m asl,coll. W. Fulton, 9 Dec 1987 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :49163 (“spinulae” form), 2♂♂ (18–20 mm), 5♀♀ (23–26 mm), Lake Halkyard , 41°44.2'S 146°18.9'E, 1210 m asl, coll. W. Fulton, 9 Dec 1987 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :49164 (“spinulae” form), 2♂♂ (22–23 mm), 5♀♀ (20–30 mm), Lake Fox , 41°43.9'S 146°24.8'E, 1230 m asl, coll. W. Fulton, 9 Dec 1987 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :49165, 3♂♂ (28–31 mm), 8♀♀ (24–29 mm), 3 juv. ♂♂ (20–21 mm), 15 juv. ♀♀ (11–19 mm), 300 m W of Lake Fox , 41°43.9'S 146°24.00'E, pool, 1210 m asl, coll. W. Fulton, 9 Nov 1987 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :13980, 2 juv. ♂♂ (17–18 mm), 1 juv. ♀ (19 mm), stream on top of Western Tier near Lake Lucy Long, 41°42.2'S 146°26.0'E, 1190 m asl, coll. J. Simmons, 3 Mar 1963 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6438 View Materials , 3♂♂ (25–29 mm), 4 juv. ♂♂ (17–22 mm), 1♀ (28 mm), 7 juv. ♀♀ (14–21 mm), edge of Great Western Tiers near Pine Lake, 41°44.7'S 146°43.0'E, runnel draining opposite way, 1220 m asl, coll. B. Knott, 1970 GoogleMaps   ; WAM C58166 View Materials , 1♀ (31 mm),creek north of Pine Lake ,coll. G.E.Nicholls, 27 Jan 1947   ; WAM C58165 View Materials , 7♂♂ (19–23 mm), 4 juv. ♂♂ (17– 17 mm), 7♀♀ (19–27 mm), 4 juv. ♀♀ (16–18 mm), N end of Pine Lake , 41°44.2'S 146°42.2'E, from linked puddle, coll. G.E.Nicholls, 27 Jan 1947 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6443 View Materials , 1♂ (21 mm), 16 juv.♂♂ (16–20 mm), 8♀♀ (19–26 mm), 10 juv. ♀♀ (14–19 mm), Pine Lake , 41°44.6'S 146°42.0'E, 1190 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Swain , 22 Nov 1969   ; TMAG G6420 View Materials , 19♂♂ (20–24 mm), 9 juv.♂♂ (9–18 mm), 19♀♀ (18–22 mm), 6 juv. ♀♀ (14–19 mm), creeks entering Pine Lake , 41°44.6'S 146°42.0'E, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Swain , 3 Feb 1969   ; AM P97845 View Materials , 3 juv. ♂♂ (7–12 mm), 15 juv.♀♀ (6–11 mm), Halfmoon Creek , roadcrossing below Pine Lake, 41°45.01'S 146°42.75'E, from rocky pools,hand sieves, 1159 m asl,TAS-516,coll. G.D.F.Wilson & S.J.Keable, 9 Mar 2001 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG 14371 View Materials /G115, 1♀ (29 mm), stream, 1 mile N of Rainbow Chalet, Great Lake , 41°46.0'S 146°33.7'E, 3000 ft asl [914m],coll. J. Pearson, Apr 1939 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G1309 View Materials , numerous juv, Breona , 41°47'S 146°42'E, 1060 m, from well,coll. G.E.Nicholls, 6 Feb 1945 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G1310 View Materials , 8 View Materials mature ♂♂ (18–24 mm), 6♀♀ (21–35 mm), Breona , from well, coll. G.E. Nicholls, 6 Feb 1945   ; TMAG G1314 View Materials , 1♂ (28 mm), 3 juv. ♂♂ (12–17 mm), 1♀ (26 mm), 2 juv. ♀♀ (11–15 mm), Breona , Great Lake, north-east, in creek supply hotel, coll. G.E.Nicholls, 23 Dec 1943   ; TMAG G1311 View Materials , 1♀ (19 mm) and numerous juv, Breona , from well behind Stewart’s house, coll. G.E. Nicholls, 6 Feb 1945   ; TMAG G1312 View Materials , 1♂ (20 mm) and numerous juv, Breona , from waterhole draining creek,coll. G.E.Nicholls, 6 Feb 1945   ; WAM C11773 View Materials , 1♂ (c. 18 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (c.mm), 1♀ (22 mm), 3 juv.♀♀ (c. 10–16mm), Stewarts Water Hole , Breona, coll. G.E.Nicholls, 8 Jan 1946   ; WAM C58164 View Materials , 1♂ (18 mm), 3 juv. ♂♂ (12–14 mm), 1♀ (21 mm), 7 juv. ♀♀ (6–15 mm), Breona , log behind (north) Stewart’s Cottage, 30 Jan 1947   ; WAM C11769 View Materials , 2♂♂ (18–22 mm), 2 juv.♂♂ (13–16 mm), 1♀ (21 mm), 5 juv.♀♀ (7–20 mm), creeks at Breona , Great Lake, 41°47'S 146°42'E, coll. Mr Stewart et al., 25 Jan 1947 GoogleMaps   ; WAM C11774 View Materials , 2♂♂ (21–23 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (17 mm), 1♀ (18 mm), 2 juv. ♀♀ (9–10 mm), Breona , wells,coll. G.E.Nicholls, 6 Feb1945   ; WAM C58158 View Materials , 27 juv.♂♂ (11–18 mm), 43 juv. ♀♀ (8–17 mm), indet juv. (6–7 mm), Breona , Great Lake, puddles near haulage, coll. G.E. Nicholls, 28 Jan 1947   ; WAM C11770 View Materials , 8♂♂ (24–31 mm), 8♀♀ (27–42 mm), Brandons [=Brandum], Great Lake, 41°49.6'S 146°40.5'E, 1034 m asl, Easter 1946 GoogleMaps   ; WAM C11775 View Materials , 1 juv.♂ (16 mm, 1 juv.♀ (16 mm), Reynolds Neck , Great Lake, 41°51.1'S 146°41.4'E, 1034 m asl,coll. A.Pike,1935 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G1630 View Materials , 4♂♂ (22–23 mm), 1♀ (23 mm), near Shannon Lagoon , 41°59.6'S 146°44.1'E, pool in swamp, 1040 m asl, coll. J.W. Evans, 13 Dec 1936 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G131 View Materials , 2 juv. ♀♀ (15–21 mm), mouth of creek, Great Lake , coll. A.W.G.Powell, 29 Mar 1937   ; NMV J42435 View Materials , 2♀♀ (25.0–36.0 mm), Great Lake , coll. F.E. Burbury, 1942   ; NMV J42443 View Materials , 1♀ (24.0 mm), Great Lake , coll. F.F.Wilson, Jan 1933   ; AM P99298 View Materials , 2 juv.♂♂ (10–11 mm), 12 juv.♀♀ (8–14 mm), Sandbanks Tier , 41°50'28.69"S 146°51'10.95"E, 1150 m asl, stream from under boulderfield, coll. S. Jarman GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :22606, 1♀ (34 mm), Lake River Valley , coll. C. Spencer, 1997   ; WAM C58156 View Materials , 33♂♂ (18–31 mm), 48 juv. ♂♂ (12–18 mm), 23♀♀ (19–34 mm), 174 juv. ♀♀ (9–18 mm), 5 miles N of Breona , 41°42.2'S 146°43.4'E, creek,coll. G.E.Nicholls, 7 Feb 1945 GoogleMaps   ; NMV J42444 View Materials , 4 juv. ♀♀ (12.0–16.0 mm), Ouse River , 5 miles W of Miena, coll. A. Neboiss, 28 Feb 1967   ; USNM 1277684 View Materials , 1 juv. ♂ (15 mm), Ouse River , 5 miles W of Miena,coll. A.Neboiss, 28 Feb 1967   ; TMAG G6369 View Materials (“spinulae” and non-“spinulae” forms), 8♂♂ (19–22 mm), 4 juv. ♂♂ (15–17 mm), 10 ♀♀ (18–27 mm), 1 juv.♀ (15 mm), Ouse River ,semi creek, 22 Nov 1969   ; AM P11873 View Materials , 1♀ (24 mm), 4–4½ miles S of Miena, in spring off road between Miena and Bothwell, about 20 yards to left of road near old notice on tree, marked “water”, 41°59.8'S 146°47.2'E, coll. J. Waterhouse, c. 1930 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6428 View Materials , 16♂♂ (23–33 mm), 7♀♀ (32–35 mm), small stream running into Ouse River on Lake Auga Road , 41°52.61'S 146°36.28'E, drift sample, 1150 m asl, coll. P. Davies, Nov, 1985 GoogleMaps   ; AM P14158 View Materials , 6 juv. (slide preparations),near Little Pine Lagoon , 42°00.0'S 146°35.7'E, 1000 m asl, stream, coll. W.D. Williams, 5 Feb 1963 GoogleMaps   ; QVM 10 View Materials :13981, 17♂♂ (19–25 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (18 mm), 7♀♀ (22–26 mm), 5 juv. ♀♀ (10–18 mm), about 10 miles from Great Lake on Missing Link Road , between Great Lake and Bronte Park, from little stream on S side of McKenzies Tier leading into Little Pine River, 42°02.2'S 146°33.0'E, coll. Sgt. McIntyre, 1958 viaArthur Fleming GoogleMaps   ; SAMA C8446 View Materials , 4 juv.♂♂ (13–18 mm), 2♀♀ (36–41 mm), 9 juv. ♀♀ (9–21 mm), about 10 km N of Bronte Park , 42°04'S 146°29'E, from small stream above Pine Tier Dam, coll. W. Zeidler, 16 Jul 2001 GoogleMaps   ; AM P99297 View Materials , 1♂ (21 mm), Pine Tier Lagoon , near shore, 42°04.38'S 146°29.30'E, coll. S. Richter & C. Wirkner, 28 Feb 2006 GoogleMaps   ; ZSRO 372, 1 juv. ♂ (11 mm), 7 juv. ♀♀ (6–12 mm), Pine Tier Lagoon , near shore, 42°04.38'S 146°29.30'E, coll. S. Richter & C. Wirkner, 28 Feb 2006 GoogleMaps   ; ZSRO, 1♀ (38 mm), tributary of Travellers Rest River , coll. A. Richardson, 4 Aug 2016   ; TMAG G6321 View Materials , 2♀♀ (21–28 mm), Clarence Lagoon , 40–50 m from outflow, 42°05.12'S 146°18.87'E, 980 m asl, coll. D. O’Brien GoogleMaps   & R. Kirkwood , 30 Mar 1990   ; TMAG G6439 View Materials , 2♂♂ (24–29 mm), 5♀♀ (21–36 mm), 6 juv.♀♀ (11–12 mm), Clarence Lagoon , 42°05.2'S 146°19.2'E, on scuba, 980 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Mawbey 11 Jan 1984   ; TMAG G6442 View Materials , 3♂♂ (21–23 mm), 2♀♀ (26–29 mm), Clarence Lagoon , 42°05.12'S 146°18.87'E, stomach of brook trout, 980 m asl, coll. P.A. Tyler, 5 Aug 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6355 View Materials , 1♀ (32 mm), Clarence Lagoon , 42°05.2'S 146°19.2'E, outflow creek, 980 m asl, in FBA net, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Mawbey , 13 May 1985   ; TMAG G6359 View Materials , 3♂♂ (22–24 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (12 mm), 1♀ (30 mm; non-“spinulae” form), 1 juv.♀ (13 mm), Clarence Lagoon , near start of Clarence River, 42°05.1'S 146°18.9'E, rocky shoreline, 980 m asl, coll. W. Fulton, 22 May 1976 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6367 View Materials (non-“spinulae” form), 4♂♂ (22–26 mm), 6 juv. ♂♂ (18–21 mm), 2♀♀ (23–24 mm), 4 juv. ♀♀ (10–21 mm), 2 indet juv. (7 mm), moorland pools draining into Clarence Lagoon , 42°04.42'S 146°18.80'E, 980 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Swain , 21 Dec 1982   ; TMAG G6353 View Materials , 15 juv.♂♂ (12–15 mm), 13 juv.♀♀ (11–14 mm), Silver Plains Creek , Alma Tier, 42°07.19'S 147°04.57'E, 920 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . R. Mawbey , 11 Mar 1979   ; TMAG G6360 View Materials , 1♂ (30 mm), 1♀ (36 mm), “The Groves”, Oatlands, 2 Mar 1969   ; AM P14160 View Materials , 1♂ (slide preparation), 1♀ (slide preparation),near Tarraleah , 42°17.2'S 146°26.3'E, 470 m, stream, coll. W.D. Williams, 7 Feb 1963 GoogleMaps   .

Mt Field National Park: OM Iv. 1394, 4♂♂ (21–30 mm), 3♀♀ (21–32 mm), Mt Field, 4000 ft asl [1200 m]   ; AM P97846 View Materials , 1♀ (38 mm), 1 juv.♀ (16 mm), Tarn Shelf , Rodway Range, coll. M.S.Moulds, 3 Feb 1992   ; AM P14159 View Materials , 4 specimens (slide preparations c. 16–18 mm),near Lake Dobson , 42°41'S 146°36'E, stream, coll. W.D. Williams, 28 Jan 1963 GoogleMaps   ; AM P73058 View Materials , 1♂ (28 mm), Wombat Moor , Mt Field, spring head of small spring fed sphagnum swamp on hillside, 42°40.98'S 146°36.48'E,TAS-484,coll. G.Wilson & S. Keable, 4 Mar 2001 GoogleMaps   ; AM P73059 View Materials , 1♂ (25 mm), 3♀♀ (19–25 mm), Wombat Moor , Mt Field, spring head of small spring fed sphagnum swamp on hillside, 42°40.98'S 146°36.48'E,TAS-484,coll. G.Wilson & S. Keable, 4 Mar 2001 GoogleMaps   ; AM P97844 View Materials , 1 juv.♂ (15 mm), 9 juv. ♀♀ (6–15 mm), spring flowing out of hillside near ski lodge at bottom of walking track skirting Lake Dobson and continuing to Mt Field West, 42°41.11'S 146°35.44'E,pool among water mosses, with phreatoicidean isopods,hand sieves, 1037 m asl,TAS-483,coll. G.D.F.Wilson & S.J.Keable, 4 Mar 2001 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6405 View Materials , 10 ♂♂ (25–33 mm), 5♀♀ (28–38 mm), Mawson Plateau , Mt Field, 42°41.4'S 146°35.1'E, 1270 m asl, coll. D. Hamilton, Apr 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6371 View Materials , 1 juv. ♂ (18 mm), Mt Field West , 42°39.5'S 146°30.7'E, 1400 m asl, coll. M. Fenton, 20 Jan 1971 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6401 View Materials , 2♂♂ (27–29 mm), 5♀♀ (26–38 mm), Newdegate Pass , Mt Field, 42°39.5'S 146°33.3'E,coll. C. Reid, 23 May 1974 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6441 View Materials , 6♂♂ (24–29 mm), 2 juv. ♂♂ (9–10 mm), 6♀♀ (24–33 mm), between Mackenzie tarn and James Tarn, 42°40.2'S 146°33.7'E, small tarn, 1180 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . T. Walker , Mar 1972   ; TMAG G133 View Materials , 1♀ (29 mm), Lake Fenton , 42°40.4'S 146°36.9'E, 1006 m asl, coll. Pott, Apr 1936 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6375 View Materials , 3♂♂ (29–31 mm), 2 juv. ♂♂ (15–25 mm), 1♀ (33 mm), Mt Mawson , 42°41.7'S 146°35.8'E, 1280 m asl, coll. D. Hamilton, Apr 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6444 View Materials , 5♂♂ (25–29 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (19 mm), 5♀♀ (26–42 mm), 5 juv.♀♀ (8–22 mm), Mawson Plateau , 42°41.4'S 146°35.1'E, pool with mud bottom, 1267 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . T. Walker , Mar 1972   ; TMAG G6415 View Materials , 2 juv. ♀♀ (13 mm), Mawson Plateau , 42°41.4'S 146°35.0'E, pool with rocky bottom, coll GoogleMaps   . T. Walker , Mar 1972   ; TMAG G6384 View Materials , 4♂♂ (25–30 mm), 7♀♀ (26–36 mm), 8 juv. ♀♀ (12–20 mm), Mawson Plateau , 42°41.4'S 146°35.0'E, pool with rocky bottom, coll GoogleMaps   . T. Walker , Mar 1972   ; TMAG G6432 View Materials , 1♂ (25 mm), 1 juv. ♂ (20 mm), 1♀ (31 mm), 6 juv. ♀♀ (8–23 mm), 1 indet juv. (7 mm),W side of Rodway Range , 42°40.2'S 146°32.4'E, pool with muddy bottom, coll GoogleMaps   . T. Walker , Mar 1972   ; TMAG G6373 View Materials , 3 View Materials indet juv. (7 mm), W side of Rodway Range , 42°40.2'S 146°32.4'E, pool with muddy bottom, coll GoogleMaps   . T. Walker , Mar 1972   ; QVM 10 View Materials :43547, 28♂♂ (20–32 mm), 18♀♀ (20–41 mm), 1 juv. ♀ (13mm), Mawson Plateau , Mt Field, 42°41.4'S 146°35.1'E, 1270 m asl,coll. C.Reid, 1975 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6314 View Materials , 7♀♀ (25–36 mm), Robert Tarn , Tarn Shelf, Mt Field, 42°40.7'S 146°34.2'E, 1200 m asl,coll GoogleMaps   . T. Walker , Mar 1972   ; TMAG G6372 View Materials , 10 ♂♂ (25–32 mm), 8 juv. ♂♂ (16–21 mm), 9♀♀ (20–32 mm), 11 juv. ♀♀ (10–22 mm), Robert Tarn , Tarn Shelf, Mt Field, 42°40.7'S 146°34.2'E, 1200 m asl, sample 1, tube 1(2), coll. I. Wilson & J. Ong, 25 Jan 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6408 View Materials , 1♂ (31 mm), 1♀ (38 mm), Mt Field , midway between Newdegate Pass and Newdegate Tarn, 42°39.6'S 146°33.6'E, in small tarn, 1200 m asl, coll. I. Wilson & J. Ong, 25 Jan 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6423 View Materials , 1♂ (27 mm), Tarn Shelf , Mt Field, pool on lodge side, 42°40.1'S 146°33.6'E, 1260 m asl, coll GoogleMaps   . T. Walker , Mar 1972   ; TMAG G6386 View Materials , 3 juv.♂♂ (15–18 mm), 2♀♀ (20–26 mm), 6 juv. ♀♀ (9–17 mm), Lake Dobson Road , 3 miles before Lake, 42°40.8'S 146°37.7'E, 1000 m asl,coll GoogleMaps   . R. Swain , 18 Dec 1969   ; TMAG G6410 View Materials , 4♂♂ (20–29 mm), 6 juv. ♂♂ (10–17 mm), 12♀♀ (19–28 mm), 10 juv. ♀♀ (11–14 mm), Tarn Shelf , near James Tarn, 42°40.3'S 146°33.8'E, small tarn with stream, sample 4, coll. I. Wilson & J. Ong, 25 Jan 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6421 View Materials , 5♂♂ (22–26 mm), 4 juv. ♂♂ (13–17 mm), 3♀♀ (24–30 mm), 5 juv. ♀♀ (12–18 mm), Tarn Shelf , near Backhouse Tarn, 42°40.1'S 146°33.6'E, small tarn, sample 5, coll. I. Wilson & J. Ong, 25 Jan 1970 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6445 View Materials , 5♂♂ (20–21 mm), 6 juv. ♂♂ (13–19 mm), 2♀♀ (24–29 mm), 5 juv. ♀♀ (13–15 mm), Newdegate Pass , 42°39.6'S 146°33.0'E, sample 1, coll. I. Wilson & J. Ong, 25 Jan 1970 GoogleMaps   .

Junee-Florentine Karst: QVM 10 View Materials :12158, 1 juv. ♀ (20 mm), Rift Cave ( JF34-5), Junee, Florentine Valley, 42°44.3'S 146°35.6'E, 680 m asl, coll. S.M. Eberhard, 4 Jan 1985 GoogleMaps   ; TMAG G6481 View Materials , 1 juv.♂ (12 mm), Growling Swallet Cave , Florentine Valley, 42°41.4'S 146°30.0'E, JF 36-39, 570 m asl GoogleMaps   , CV10, coll. S. Eberhard, 2 Jun 1985   ; TMAG G6473 View Materials , 1♀ (41 mm), Growling Swallet Cave ( JF36), Florentine Valley, 42°41.4'S 146°30.0'E, 550 m asl GoogleMaps   , CV41, coll. S. Eberhard, 14 Apr 1985   .

No data: AM P   11897, 2♀♀ (31–39 mm), Tasmania,coll. B. Plomley via J.Waterhouse, pre 1949; QVM 10:13484, 1♂ (24 mm), 2♀♀ (21–24 mm),unidentified cave, coll.S. Eberhard,?1993; QVM 10:13976, 1♀ (31 mm), coll.E.O.G. Scott;USNM 1277686, 1♀ (31 mm), from G.M. Thomson, no data   .

Description. Eyes with well-developed cornea, pigmented, wider than stalk (epigean forms) to narrower than stalk in some subterranean forms, longer than half length of stalk; stalk with subparallel margins (except in some “spinose” specimens). Rostrum narrow in adults, apex blunt.

Pleonites with sparsely setose pleural margins, rounded; posterior margin of tergites 5–6 setose. Pleuron 1 unarmed. Pleonites 2–6 usually with posterior margin of tergite 5 unarmed and pleura 2–5 unarmed or with 1 or 2 small spines on pleuron 5; pleonite 6 posterior margin unarmed or minutely spinose, posterolateral margin rounded, with or without minute denticle. Pleonites 2–6 of “spinose” specimens with pleura 3–5 (sometimes also pleuron 2) strongly spinose; posterior margin of tergites 5–6 strongly spinose; posterolateral margin produced to distinct spine. Pleonal sternites 3–5 with low, median processes between pleopod bases, distinctly bilobed and widest on sternite 3, bilobed on sternite 4, weakly bilobed and narrowest on sternite 5.

Telson slightly wider than long to longer than wide (usually slightly longer than wide), pentagonal (usually) to sub-linguiform, widest proximally; lateral margins sinuous in dorsal outline, distally subparallel to convergent; transition from lateral to posterior margin obtusely angular; posterior margin angular to rounded, blunt medially; posterior spine row with 19–50 slender, closely spaced spines, (usually) short, evenly graded to distinctly uneven in some “spinose” specimens.

Antennule inner flagellum about 0.2 × body length (21 articles in holotype); article 7 inner margin obtusely angled in adult males, with 1 long, slender clasping spine at proximal corner; outer flagellum 0.4–0.6 × body length (83 articles in holotype) in epigean specimens, 0.4–0.9 × body length in subterranean specimens.Antennal flagellum 0.4–0.6 × body length (62–65 articles in holotype), 0.5–0.9 in subterranean specimens; scaphocerite elongate, ovate, lateral spine slightly distal to midlength; apex reaching almost to midlength of distal peduncular article.

Right mandibular incisor process with proximal tooth distally undivided to trifurcate, usually bifid.

Pleopods 1–5 (rarely 1–4) with endopod in adults. Adult male pleopod 1 distally widened, scoop-like, lateral margins weakly expanded, not obscuring retinacular lobe in lateral view.

Uropodal protopod dorsally unarmed or with 1–3 spines; exopod with 2–4 (usually 3) movable spines on outer margin near position of partial diaeresis; exopod length about 2.5–3.5 times width, as wide as endopod, apex rounded, narrow to relatively broad.

Etymology. Named in honour of Alastair Richardson, for his many contributions to Tasmanian carcinology and limnology.

Measurements. Male (n = 756) 7–37, female (n = 1151) 6–55 mm, indet (n = 16) 5–7 mm.

Remarks. Anaspides richardsoni   sp. nov. is characterized by the combination of a single antennular clasping spine in adult males ( Fig. 19D View Figure 19 ), the telson posterior margin with a close-set spine row ( Fig. 19B View Figure 19 ) and the male pleopod 1 endopod having the retinacular lobe visible in lateral view ( Fig. 20I View Figure 20 ). Additionally, the pleopod 5 endopod is present in adults (except in some cave specimens from parts of the Mole Creek and Junee-Florentine systems; see below). Anaspides richardsoni   is widespread across central Tasmania ( Fig. 36 View Figure 36 ) in a wide arc stretching from the West Coast Range in the northwest, eastwards to Cradle Mountain and as far north as Gunns Plains and Mole Creek, across the Central Plateau, and south to Mt Field. It is primarily an epigean species occurring in springs, creeks and lakes, but also caves.

As presently understood, Anaspides richardsoni   is the most morphologically variable species of the genus. Through the central-eastern (Mt Field east to Oatlands and north to Deloraine) and north-western part of its distributions (West Coast Range to Cradle Mountain and Mt Ossa to Gunns Plains), however, A. richardsoni   is relatively uniform morphologically. The pleonites are almost always unarmed (or with few spinules on the posterior margin of pleonite 6), and in specimens from Mount Field to the Great Lake-Deloraine area, the telson is about as long as or little longer than wide, with the posterior margin distinctly angular, approximately right-angled ( Fig. 21 View Figure 21 ). The telson in specimens from the far north (Gunns Plains, Loongana, Vale of Belvoir, Mole Creek) and western Central Plateau (Walls of Jerusalem area, Western Lakes) tend to be more elongate and often more acutely angular posteriorly ( Figs 21B, F View Figure 21 ; 22 View Figure 22 ). Specimens from the Mt Field area at the southern extremity of its range generally have more slender uropods than those from the northeast (most evident in large adults), and a usually bifid proximal tooth on the right mandibular incisor process ( Fig. 19H View Figure 19 ) compared to the typically trifid condition found in other areas. Populations of A. richardsoni   from the peripheries of the main distribution, however, show additional notable variations, particularly those from the far north, the western Central Plateau and the Mole Creek Caves.

Specimens from parts of Cradle Mountain and further north (Black Bluff, Vale of Belvoir, Gunns Plains) have a less angular telson than usual, sometimes being almost rounded. At a relatively small size (18 mm) some Cradle Mountain specimens already have a noticeably shortened telson (slightly wider than long; Fig. 21E View Figure 21 ), broad uropods and broad scaphocerite compared to size-matched specimens from elsewhere.

Few specimens are known from the West Coast Range (Mt Murchison), and are the most westerly specimens examined ( Fig. 21A View Figure 21 ). All have minimal pleonal spination (at most with few small spines on the posterior margin of pleonite 6). Most known males are juveniles with a single antennular clasping spine, although the largest male has (TMAG G6411) has one antennular clasping spine on the left and two on the right. The right antennule (peduncle and flagellum), however, is shortened overall and appears abnormal, possibly as a result of developmental irregularities. Smith’s (1909a) report of A. tasmaniae   from Mt Read (near Mt Murchison, West Coast Range) is probably referable to A. richardsoni   .

A number of specimens of A. richardsoni   from the northwestern Central Plateau encompassing the Walls of Jerusalem and Clarence Lagoon east to the Ouse River have strongly spinose pereonites as in A. spinulae   from Lake St Clair —the A. “ spinulae   ” of O’Brien (1990) ( Fig. 22 View Figure 22 ). In these specimens, pleonite 4–5 pleura (usually also pleonite 3) and the posterodorsal margins of pleonites 5 and 6 (5 less often so) are prominently spinose and the posterolateral margin of pleonite 6 is usually produced to a prominent spine. The proximal tooth on the right mandibular incisor process is usually trifid. In addition, the telson is often more elongate than usual, with a sometimes somewhat rounded margin on which the posterior spines vary from evenly graded to distinctly uneven in length. Telson spination differs slightly between sampled lakes and the Walls of Jerusalem. Specimens from Lakes Fox and Johnny ( Fig. 22N–S View Figure 22 ) have relatively uneven telson spination compared to those from Clarence Lagoon ( Fig. 22A–I View Figure 22 ), Lake Halkyard ( Fig. 22T,U View Figure 22 ), Jacks Lagoon and most specimens from the Walls of Jerusalem ( Fig. 22J–M View Figure 22 ), which have more evenly graded telson spines like those of typical epigean forms. It should be noted, however, that most specimens found throughout this area are non-spiny or less-spiny than “ spinulae   ” (in which only pleura 4–5 and the dorsal margin of pleonite 6 may be spinose, e.g., Jacks Lagoon, QVM 10:13977). Both spiny and non-spiny forms were found together in tarns and runnels in the Walls of Jerusalem (TMAG G6396, TMAG G6379), the vicinity of Lake Fox ( Fig. 21F View Figure 21 ), the Ouse River (TMAG G6359) and Clarence Lagoon (TMAG G6359) ( Fig. 22A–I View Figure 22 ). The strong similarity in pleonal spination of the most spinose specimens of A. richardsoni   to A. spinulae   is remarkable, suggesting similar underlying developmental processes. O’Brien (1990), noting a correlation between spininess and lake habitats, suggested that A. spinulae   might be a separate lacustrine species or lacustrine ecomorph, given that non-spiny specimens seemed to be from creeks, runnels and tarns. If so, however, it would remain to be explained why A. richardsoni   from other lakes, such as Pine Tier Lagoon and Pine Lake are non-spiny, and why spiny forms can also be found together with non-spiny forms in tarns, small creeks, and pools. Both non-spiny and spiny forms are recorded from Clarence Lagoon ( Fig. 22A–I View Figure 22 ). Additionally, the “ spinulae   ” form of A. richardsoni   occurs only on the Central Plateau to the east and northeast of the similarly spinose A. spinulae   from Lake St Clair, but not in other lake populations of A. richardsoni   (e.g., lakes at Mt Field and the West Coast Range such as Lakes Tyndall and Sandra), let alone lake populations of other species of Anaspides   such as A. jarmani   and A. swaini   . The presence of predatory fish, such as trout and Galaxias   might be posited to induce a spiny “defensive” phenotype in Anaspides   as has been observed in Daphnia (Adler & Harvell, 1990)   . Trout are certainly present in Lake St Clair ( A. spinulae   sensu stricto), Clarence Lagoon, Lakes Fox, Halkyard and Johnny, but they are also present in more easterly water bodies such as Pine Tier Lagoon, Little Pine Lagoon and Pine Lake in which A. richardsoni   shows no such defensive spination. Instead, the distribution of the “ spinulae   ” form of A. richardsoni   correlates more strongly with geography than ecology, and might reflect phylogeographic genotypic variation. In particular, the relationship between these spinose A. richardsoni   and A. spinulae   from Lake St Clair warrants further investigation, with A. spinulae   differing most fundamentally in having two rather than one antennular clasping spines. Curiously, specimens to the immediate south and west of Lake St Clair, all referrable to A. swaini   , do not have the spinose pleon of A. spinulae   . Specimens to the immediate east of Lake St Clair from the eastern side of the Traveller Range are non- or minimally spinose as in typical specimens of A. richardsoni   . In addition, the telsons of both spiny and non-spiny specimens from the Walls of Jerusalem to the northern tiers (as well as Mole Creek) tend to be more elongated than specimens from elsewhere. More detailed population level studies, currently underway in collaboration with S. Richter and colleagues, are required to further understand these morphological patterns.

Anaspides richardsoni   has entered subterranean habitats in at least three parts of the periphery of its range ( Fig. 23 View Figure 23 ): Mole Creek karsts and Great Western Cave (Gunns Plain) in the north, and the Junee-Florentine system in the south. The single known specimen from Great Western Cave (AM P99296 View Materials ; Fig. 23J View Figure 23 ) is a juvenile male that agrees well with epigean juveniles (e.g., TMAG G6169); it also represents the northernmost record of Anaspides   . Aside from loss of body pigmentation, the specimen exhibits no obvious troglobitic adaptations and has well-developed, pigmented eyes. At Mole Creek, three subterranean forms occur, differing between cave systems.

• Form 1 occurs in the Sassafras (Prohibition Cave) and Marakoopa systems (Marakoopa I and Marakoopa II caves) ( Figs 23A–C View Figure 23 , 35F View Figure35 ). Apart from reduced body pigmentation, it closely resembles epigean specimens, having well-developed eyes, the outer antennular flagellum 0.4–0.6 (usually 0.5–0.6) body length, unarmed pleonites except for scattered denticles along the upper posterior margin of pleonite 6, and in having a finelygraded spine row on the posterior margin of the telson.

• Form 2 is found in caves in the Mole-Lobster system (Honeycomb Cave, Wet Cave, Herberts Pot and Kellys Pot) ( Figs 23D View Figure 23 , 35E View Figure35 ). It resembles Form 1 in telson structure, but has reduced eyes, outer antennular flagella 0.5–0.8 (usually 0.6) body length, and more extensive pleonal spination, with denticles on the pleura of pleonites 4–5 as well as the dorsal posterior margin of pleonite 6. Form 2, reaches the greatest size of the three forms (> 50 mm), the largest being from Honeycomb Cave.

• Form 3 occurs in the Kubla Khan system (Kubla Khan Cave) and an unnamed cave in the Sassafras system ( Fig. 23E,F View Figure 23 ). It resembles Form 1 in eye development and minimal pleonal spination, but differs from both Forms 1 and 2 in consistently having much more elongate antennular flagella (0.7–0.9, usually 0.8) and a more slender telson with longer, more robust spines, somewhat approaching that of A. richardsoni   from the Walls of Jerusalem and localities close to Mole Creek such as Western Bluff, and Ironstone Mountain. Additionally, the pleopod 5 endopod is frequently absent in specimens from the Kubla Khan system. One series corresponding to Form 3 (USNM 1277683; Fig. 23F View Figure 23 ) was collected from a deep, water filled sink hole in the Mayberry area (near Mole creek), believed to be hydrologically connected to the Kubla Khan system ( Iliffe, 1988); the specimens differ from the Kubla Khan specimens only in having more extensive body pigmentation typical of epigean forms, and a slightly wider cornea.

Although most common on the surface around Mt Field, A. richardsoni   is recorded from the Junee-Florentine system (Rift Cave and Growling Swallet; Fig. 23G–I View Figure 23 ) on the basis of two juveniles and an adult female. These specimens agree well with epigean A. richardsoni   , including pigmentation (albeit seemingly somewhat reduced) and well-developed eyes, but differ in lacking the pleopod 5 endopod. The right eye of the Rift Cave specimen is deformed, seemingly having been damaged ( Fig. 23I View Figure 23 ). Two other species of Anaspides   occur in caves in the Mt Field area: A. eberhardi   (Junee-Florentine karsts including Growling Swallet), which is closely related to A. richardsoni   , and A. swaini   (Junee- Florentine and Risby’s Basin karsts), which also sometimes occurs on the surface at Mt Field, but is the dominant epigean species to the south and west of the area.

Anaspides richardsoni   features well-developed secondary sexual characteristics by 18–25 mm (usually 20–22 mm). The pleopod 5 endopod is the last of the endopods to develop, appearing in juveniles as small as 11 mm to as large as 22 mm, but usually by 15–18 mm. The presence of a single male antennular clasping spine is highly consistent, with, in rare cases, a second spine developing on one side, often associated with possible regeneration after damage. The male from Wet Cave, however, is highly aberrant in having two clasping spines on one side, three on the other. In both cases, the normal single clasping spine is present on the proximomedial corner of flagellar article 7, but the additional abnormally and asymmetrically developed spines arise on the anteromedial corner. The abnormal positions and asymmetrical development of the clasping spines in the Wet Cave male indicate that it is aberrant.

Anaspides richardsoni   is the most taxonomically challenging species of the genus given the range of forms encountered, especially those from the peripheries of its range with distinctive morphologies. These may carry the signature of populations from areas untouched by the Pleistocene glaciations, which otherwise dominated the Central Plateau at the time, or may indicate ongoing differentiation ( Andrew, 2005). Further sampling is required to better understand these peripheral populations, especially since some localities, such as Gunns Plain, the West Coast Range and Sandbanks Tier are represented by juveniles or only few specimens. Further sampling is also required in the eastern Great Western Tiers in the vicinity of Deloraine, Great Lake, and Lake Sorell down to the Oatlands area to determine the current extent of occurrence. The specimens from the Oatlands area ( Fig. 21H View Figure 21 ) are the easternmost records of the genus, although O’Brien (1990) speculated their provenance to be from surrounding hills slightly to the west. Likewise, specimens from Deloraine were speculated to originate from hills slightly to the south ( O’Brien, 1990). The known distribution A. richardsoni   is discontinuous between the West Coast Range and Cradle Mountain area, and between the Western Lakes and Mt Field. Whether these “gaps” are real or owe to lack of sampling remains to be determined. Despite the wide morphological diversity, A. richardsoni   is readily diagnosed by the combination of the single antennular clasping spine in adult males and the close-set spine row on the posterior margin of the telson.

Distribution. Wide ranging in central Tasmania, from the West Coast Range and Cradle Mountain in the west to the Central Plateau from Mt Ossa and localities east of Lake St Clair, to Mole Creek and the vicinity of Great Lake, south to Mt Field and as far east as the Oatlands area; 470–1455 m asl (epigean), 109–520 m asl (subterranean).

AM

Australian Museum

TL

Université Paul Sabatier

TMAG

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

SAMA

South Australia Museum

SAM

South African Museum

NE

University of New England

WAM

Western Australian Museum

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

NMV

Museum Victoria

OM

Otago Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Malacostraca

Order

Anaspidacea

Family

Anaspididae

Genus

Anaspides

Loc

Anaspides richardsoni

Ahyong, Shane T. 2016
2016
Loc

Anaspides sp.

Eberhard, S 1991: 48
1991