Aplagiognathus spinosus ( Newman, 1840 )

Santos-Silva, Antonio & Wappes, James E., 2012, The genus Aplagiognathus Thomson, 1861 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae, Macrotomini), Insecta Mundi 2012 (264), pp. 1-13 : 6-8

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Aplagiognathus spinosus ( Newman, 1840 )


Aplagiognathus spinosus ( Newman, 1840)  

( Fig. 6-10, 12, 17-20, 25-29 View Figures 21-29. 21-24 )

Mallodon spinosum Newman, 1840: 194   ; White 1853: 46.

Mallodon spinosus   ; Gemminger and Harold 1872: 2771 (cat.).

Mallodon (Aplagiognathus) spinosus   ; Thomson 1861: 320.

Aplagiognathus spinosus   ; Thomson 1864: 307; 1867: 90; Bates 1879: 8 (distribution); 1884: 234 (distribution); Lameere 1903: 18; 1913: 10 (cat.); 1919: 26; Linsley 1935: 69 (distribution); Blackwelder 1946: 552 (checklist); Gilmour 1954: 5; Chemsak et al. 1992: 14 (checklist); Terrón 1992: 291, 294, 298 (host plant; distribution); Monné and Giesbert 1994: 5 (checklist); Monné 1995: 5 (cat.); Noguera and Chemsak 1996: 396 (distribution); Monné and Hovore 2005: 13 (checklist); 2006: 12 (checklist); Monné 2006: 45 (cat.).

Redescription. Male ( Fig. 6). Anterior margin of clypeus almost straight ( Fig. 10) or slightly excavated centrally. Labrum proportionately long (longest length greater than 0.3 times the width); lateral membranous areas smaller than central sclerotized area. Hypostomal area punctuate or transversally rugose ( Fig. 9); anterior margin about as wide as central area of prosternal process, gradually to abruptly elevated. Outer margin of mandibles rounded, without a projection near base ( Fig. 10); dorsal carina without an elevated tooth ( Fig. 12). Scape usually dorsally flattened, not attaining posterior edge of the eyes.

Callosities of pronotal disc small ( Fig. 8), not or slightly interconnected to the transverse impunctate, shiny basal area; area between apex of callosities and anterior margin wide; area between each callosity and lateral margin with narrow elongated tubercle. Elytra finely reticulate ( Fig. 7).

Female ( Fig. 17). Lateral margins of mandibles similar to those of males; dorsal carina ( Fig. 19) broadly rounded, not distinctly delineated from surface of mandible ( Fig. 20).

Dimensions in mm (male/female). Total length (including mandibles), 39.9-45.0/45.7-56.0 (neotype is 30.0); prothoracic length, 5.5-6.0/6.0-7.3; prothoracic width at widest point, 12.0-13.7/13.9-16.8 (neotype is 10.0); humeral width 11.6-12.0/13.2-16.8; elytral length, 26.5-28.0/33.0-40.3.

Types. Newman described Mallodon spinosum   based on a male specimen (holotype) from Mexico indicating it was from “Velasco”. There are at least three such cities, all in different States, found in Mexico (Directory of Cities and Towns in the World, 1996-2010). Hence, without other evidence, it is not possible to pinpoint the exact type locality for the holotype.

The title of Newman’s work where M. spinosum   was described (“Descriptions of a few Longicorns, MS [(sic) manuscript] names of which are published in the Sale-Catalogue of Mr. Children’s Insects”) does not affirm that the specimens used to describe the new species only belonged to Children’s Collection. It is only possible to affirm that the names were used in Children’s catalog. The title may well indicate that the “Sale-Catalogue” was already published when Newman actually described the species. However, as there is no evidence indicating that the species described did not belong to Children’s collection we assume they did. Although Newman failed to indicate a type depository for M. spinosum   there are types of some other species, described in his 1840’s work, deposited in the BMNH (e.g. Niraeus tricolor Newman   and Rhachidion obesum Newman   ). Unfortunately, there is no evidence of the Mallodon spinosum   type being deposited in the BMNH, either then or later, nor has it been located elsewhere (personal communication with M. V. L. Barclay, Coleoptera Curator, BMNH   ). Additionally, personal communication with James Hogan, Coleoptera Curator   , at the Hope Entomological Collections, University Museums, Oxford, United Kingdom (OXUM) affirmed that the type is not there either. Information on the ultimate disposition of the “sold material” from Children’s collection is also lacking. Since Mallodon spinosum   is the type species of Aplagiognathus   we believe it is important, and necessary, to designate a neotype for that species. The specimen herein designated as the neotype ( Fig. 25-29 View Figures 21-29. 21-24 ) is a male from Mexico which compares favorably to Newman’s description and is deposited at the BMNH. The neotype for Aplagiognathus spinosus ( Newman, 1840)   bears the following labels:

1. White (printed): Mexico. Salle Coll.

2. White (printed): B. C. A., Col., V. / Aplagiognathus spinosus  

3. White (printed): Ex. Coll. J. Sturm

4. White (handwritten): Mexico / B. / Mallodon   spinicolle / mihi

5. White (handwritten): Aplagiognathus spinosus Newm.  

6. Red (printed) – added by us: NEOTYPE / [male symbol] / Mallodon spinosum   / Newman 1840 / Designated by Santos-Silva & Wappes 2012

According to ICZN (1999: Article 76.3) the type locality for Aplagiognathus spinosus ( Newman, 1840)   now becomes that of the neotype.

Geographical distribution. Mexico ( Newman 1840); Mexico [Parada 1, Misantla 2 ( Bates 1884); Oaxaca, Orizaba 3 ( Lameere 1903); Mexico ( Linsley 1935); Morelos, Michoacán, Guerrero, Jalisco, Hidalgo, Puebla, Durango ( Terrón 1992); Querétaro (new record)], Guatemala (new country record).

1. According to Selander and Vaurie (1962) “LA PARADA, OAXACA, MEXICO. Hacienda and important collecting site on the north slope of the mountains west of Cerro San Felipe , which is just north of the city of Oaxaca   ; 7900 feet; about 17 o 10', 96 o 40'. (See Goldman, 1951, pp. 215-216.) Sclater (1858, p. 295) gives the elevation as “about 10,000 ft. ”

2. According to Selander and Vaurie (1962) “ MISANTLA, VERACRUZ, MEXICO. Large town in the central part of the state 45 km. north-northeast of Jalapa; 1345 feet; 19 o 56', 96 o 50'.”  

3. According to Directory of Cities and Towns in World (1996 -2010) there are four places named Orizaba in Mexico, in the states of Veracruz, Campeche, Chiapas, and Chihuahua.

Material examined (in addition to the neotype). MEXICO, male, female, Fry Coll., 1905-100, 21835, no other data ( BMNH)   ; male, female (no other data), Salle Coll., ex Coll. Sturm, ( BMNH)   ; male (no other data), ( BMNH); male, (no other data), Chevrolat Coll. ( BMNH)   ; male, (no other data) ( BMNH). Veracruz: Orizaba, male (no other data), F. Tippmann ( USNM)   ; male (no other data), Bowr. Chevrolat 65-47( BMNH)   ; Misantla, male, Hoege, (“ Data unreliable”, see Brit. Mus. 1949-314) ( BMNH)   ; Córdova (= Córdoba), male, (no other data), Salle Coll., ( BMNH). Mexico D.F.: (no other data), male, J. R. Inda, col.( USNM)   ; Estación Agricola Central ( Salix babylonica   L.), female, September 12, 1908, “Y. [surname illegible] col. (Série Zoologia) ( USNM)   ; Mexico City, female, V.19.1952, C. M. Riess col. ( MZSP)   ; male, female, [no date and collector indicated] ( MZSP); male, VII.1910, [no collector indicated] ( MZSP)   ; male, 92-90, (no other data), Hoege, ( BMNH); ( Chapultepec )   , female, VIII.1935, L. Ancona col. ( MZSP)   ; Toluca, female, [no date and collector indicated] ( MZSP). Guerrero: Olmiteme (8000 ft.), male, July, H. H. Smith col. ( USNM)   ; 3 males ( BMNH). Hidalgo: San Miguel, male, 1954, W. M. Mann col. ( USNM). Querétaro de Arteaga: Huimilpan (1 km NE La Beata; 20 o 18’47.76” 100 o 14’16.63”), male, Z. Mayoral col. ( ACMT). Jalisco: Concepción de Buenos Aires , 2070 m, female, 26-27.VII.2009, Nogueira col. ( DHPC)   ; Sierra de Talpa (1655 m), male, female, 17-18.VII.2010, G. Nogueira col. ( DHPC). Oaxaca: (no other data), female ( USNM). Sierra de Juarez (1650 m), female, 11.V.1997, G. Nogueira col. ( DHPC)   ; male, 58.13; (no other data) ( BMNH). GUATEMALA, Quiché: Chichicastenango (Chupal), female, 11.V.1978, E. Welling col. ( DHPC). Solola: Xajaxac (2300 m), female, VIII.1979, E. Welling col. ( DHPC)   .

Note. The geographical distribution, based on literature records, of both Aplagiognathus spinosus (Newman)   and A. hybostoma Bates   , must be held suspect until the specimens upon which they are based are re-examined to validate the species record.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo














Aplagiognathus spinosus ( Newman, 1840 )

Santos-Silva, Antonio & Wappes, James E. 2012

Mallodon spinosus

Gemminger, M. & E. Harold 1872: 2771

Aplagiognathus spinosus

Monne, M. A. & F. T. Hovore 2005: 13
Noguera, F. A. & J. A. Chemsak 1996: 396
Monne, M. A. 1995: 5
Monne, M. A. & E. F. Giesbert 1994: 5
Chemsak, J. A. & E. G. Linsley & F. A. Noguera 1992: 14
Terron, R. A. 1992: 291
Gilmour, E. F. 1954: 5
Blackwelder, R. E. 1946: 552
Linsley, E. G. 1935: 69
Lameere, A. A. 1913: 10
Lameere, A. A. 1903: 18
Bates, H. W. 1879: 8
Thomson, J. 1867: 90
Thomson, J. & H. Dessain 1864: 307

Mallodon spinosum

White, A. 1853: 46
Newman, E. 1840: 194