Salina MacGillivray, 1894,

Oliveira, Fábio G. L., Cipola, Nikolas G. & Almeida, Eduardo A. B., 2020, Systematics and biogeography of Salina MacGillivray (Collembola: Entomobryoidea), with emphasis on the species groups in the New World, Insect Systematics & Evolution 51, pp. 81-138: 86-95

publication ID 10.1163/1876312X-00002201

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Salina MacGillivray, 1894


Salina MacGillivray, 1894 


Body scales absent, with ciliated mac apically clavate or acuminate, and mic apically branched ( Figures 1AView Fig, D–F, 2A, 6, 9); antennae in adults subequal or larger than body length and with 4 segments ( Figure 9View Fig); 8 eyes per side, with 3 interocular chaetae; tergal chaetotaxy polychaetotic or oligochaetotic; head ‘An’ series with An2a serrated mic and ‘S’ series with 2+2 (S2 and S3) mac in trapezium-shaped ( Figures 2AView Fig, C–D, 9A, F); basolateral labial field with chaetae a5 smooth and thicker ( Figures 3EView Fig, 10MView Fig); Abd II–IV bothriotricha formula 2, 3 and 5 (3 of them as secondary bothriotricha); ms and sens formula of Th II–Abd V as 1, 0| 1, 0, 1, 0, 0 and 1, 1| 0, 0, 1, +, 3, respectively ( Figures 1View Fig H–M, 6–8); Th II with or without central mac; Th III with at least one central mac (p3); Abd IV 2.5 to 4 times the length of Abd III in the midline ( Figure 8View Fig); males with papilate genital plate; females with four smooth chaetae surrounding the genital opening ( Figure 19View Fig A-B); dentes smooth with one distal rounded dorsal appendix; mucro rectangular with 2–3 teeth or square with 3–4 teeth ( Figures 5View Fig C-E, 19); (Adapted from Mitra 1973; Soto-Adames 2010; Zhang et al. 2015; Oliveira & Cipola 2016).

Morphological definition of celebensis  group

Coloration. Variable according to the species, body generally yellowish white with irregular blue pigment on antenna, lateral areas of tergites and legs, or presence of

transverse and/or longitudinal bands of pigments; eyes darkly pigmented frequently on eyepatches ( Figure 9View Fig).

Cuticule. Hexagonal pattern formed by the connection of six primary triangular microgranules which are strongly united in ocellar lenses ( Figures 1BView Fig, 2BView Fig).

Pseudopore. Small, with smooth surface present medially on Th II to Abd IV. They are subtle and difficult to observe with optical microscope ( Figures 1CView Fig, 7View Fig B–E, 8A–B).

Tergal chaetae

Branched mic. Gradually spiral and apically branched, compound by filaments apically rounded, and present on dorsal body ( Figures 1FView Fig, 6View Fig). This chaeta is not used in the diagnosis of Salina  , but this type of sculpture is typical of the genus.

Club mac. Long, densely ciliate, apically clavate (foot-like) present on dorsum of the head thorax and abdomen ( Figures 1DView Fig, 6View Fig).

Ciliate mac or mes. Long, apically acuminate and densely ciliate present on head, thorax and abdomen ( Figures 1EView Fig, 6View Fig).

Bothriotrichum. Basally smooth and strongly ciliate in its full length, moderately long present in the head and very long on Abd II–IV ( Figures 1GView Fig, 7EView Fig, 8View Fig A–B, 14).

S-microchaeta (ms). Very small, slightly striated, apically clavate, present on lateral of Th II, Abd I and III ( Figures 1HView Fig, 6View Fig, 7A, DView Fig, 8AView Fig, 12–13, 14A–C).

Sens type I (al = anterolateral sens). Rather long, smooth and apically pointed present on lateral of Th II–III ( Figures 1IView Fig, 6View Fig, 7View Fig B–C, 12).

Sens type II (as = anterosubmedial sens). Small, smooth and apically rounded finger-like present on Abd III and Abd V ( Figures 1JView Fig, 6View Fig, 8A, CView Fig, 14A–C, 15).

Sens type III (acc.p = accessory sens). Smooth, apically thinner and gently acuminate present on Abd V ( Figures 1KView Fig, 6View Fig, 8CView Fig, 15).

Sens type IV (ps = posterior sens and unnamed sens). Long and smooth, apically rounded finger-like present on postero-median side of Abd IV generally in number of three-four ( Figures 1LView Fig, 6View Fig, 8BView Fig, 14D–I).

Sens type V (bs = bothriotrichal sens). Small and ramification formed by four mediodistal filaments, present between T2 and T4 bothriotricha ( Figures 1MView Fig, 6View Fig, 8BView Fig, 14D–I).

Serrated mic. Small, flexible, and with medio-distal ramifications of about nine filaments apically pointed. They are in antennal series (An2) of dorsal head and on ventral cephalic groove (CG5) ( Figures 2View Fig C–D, 6, 7A, 11).

Head. Antennae 1.2 times or more than body length ( Figure 9View Fig); Ant IV weakly annulated with a simple apical bulb retractile, numerous finger-shaped sens and two types of ciliate chaetae: thin with short cilia and thick with longer cilia ( Figures 2View Fig E–F). Ant III with an apical organ apically rounded, compound by three acuminate guard sensillae (one is not evidenced in the figure), some rods and finger-shaped sens, and many thick chaetae with longer cilia ( Figure 2GView Fig). Ant I dorsally with variable number of mac, about 3–9, and 4–6 basal spiny smooth mic ( Figure 10View Fig A–I). Eyes oval, ocelli G and H smaller, others subequal ( Figures 2AView Fig, 7AView Fig). Oligochaetotic macrochaetotaxy; ‘An’ series with five mac (An1a–1, An2–3) and one serrated mic (An2a); ‘M’ series with two chaetae, M4 mac, M2 mes; ‘S’ series with three chaetae, S2 and S3 mac, S7 mes; ‘Ie’ series with three chaetae, r as mac, p and t as mic; ‘Ps’ series with three mes (Ps2–3, Ps5); ‘Pa’ series with two mac (Pa5, Pa5a) and one bothriotrichum (Pa6); ‘Pm’ series with two mac (Pm1, Pm3); ‘Pp’ series with one mac (Pp3); and ‘Pe’ series with one mac (Pe3) ( Figure 7AView Fig). Four labral papillae, inner papillae square, and outer papillae larger and triangle-shaped ( Figures 3CView Fig, 10JView Fig). Four prelabral ciliate chaetae (except Salina oceanica Yoshii 1989  , with two) ( Figures 3AView Fig, 10JView Fig). Labral formula with 4 (a1–2), 5 (m0–2), 5 (p0–2) smooth chaetae, a1 thicker and finger-shaped apically, posterior row gently larger, others subequal ( Figures 3View Fig A–B, 10J). Basomedian and basolateral labial fields with chaetae M (can be smooth in S. zhangi Bellini & Cipola, 2017  ), E, L1-2 ciliate, a1-5 smooth, a5 thicker, chaetae r absent  ( Figures 3EView Fig, 10MView Fig). Labial palp with five main papillae (A–E) plus one hypostomal papilla (H), with 0, 5, 0, 4, 2, 2 guard appendages (e3 and e6 absent), respectively; lateral process (l.p.) of papillae E finger-shaped and not reaching the papilla basis; labial palp with 5 or 4 (rarely) smooth proximal chaetae (p.c.) ( Figures 3EView Fig, 10LView Fig). Maxillary outer lobe with one apical appendage (a.a.) lightly denticulate, and one thick subapical chaetae (b.c.) more denticulate, both weakly acuminate apically with the same length; sublobal plate with three smooth appendages ( Figures 3A, DView Fig, 10KView Fig). Posterior labial chaetotaxy ( Figure 11View Fig); series ‘CG’ with 6–11 chaetae, CG1–2 and CG7 ciliate, CG4 and CG6 serrated mic or ciliate chaetae, other smooth or ciliate chaetae; series ‘PLM’ with one to three ciliate chaetae (PLM1–2); series ‘PLE’ with one or two ciliate chaetae (PLE1–2).

Thorax dorsal chaetotaxy. Th II ( Figure 7BView Fig); ‘m’ series with 1–2 mac (m1, m7) often present; ‘p’ series with 0–8 mac (p1i–1a, p2–5), 1 S-microchaetae (ms) and 1 sens type I (al). Th III ( Figure 7CView Fig); ‘a’ series with or without mac (a7); series ‘m’ with 1 mac (m7); ‘p’ series with 1–11 mac (p1ip –p1p, p2p –2a, p3–3p, p4–5), p3 always present, and 1 sens type I (al).

Abdomen dorsal chaetotaxy. Abd I ( Figures 7DView Fig, 13A-I); ‘a’ series with 0–3 mac (a1–3); ‘m’ series with 1–3 mac (m2–4), 1 always present (m3 or m4) and 1 S-microchaeta (ms). Abd II ( Figure 7EView Fig); ‘a’ series with 1 bothriotrichum (a5), a6 absent; ‘m’ series with 4 chaetae, m3–3e and m5 as mac, m2 as bothriotrichum; ‘p’ series with 2 chaetae (p6–7), and el chaeta present. Abd III ( Figures 8AView Fig); ‘a’ series with 1–2 chaetae, a7 as mac and a5 as bothriotrichum; series ‘m’ with 4 chaetae, pm6 as mac, am6 mac or mes, and m2 and m5 bothriotricha; series ‘p’ with 2–4 chaetae (p6, p7i and two unnamed chaetae); 1 S-microchaetae (ms) and 1 sens type II (as). Abd IV ( Figures 8BView Fig); ‘A’ series with 2–6 chaetae (A1, A3–6); ‘ Ae’ series with 1 chaetae (Ae1) present or absent; ‘B’ series with 4 chaetae, B3–5 as mac and B6 as bothriotrichum; ‘ Be’ series with 1 mac (Be 1); ‘C’ series with 1 mac (C1); ‘T’ series with 2 bothriotricha ( T2 and T4); ‘E’ series with 4 chaetae (E1–4); ‘F’ series with 4 chaetae (F1–3p); Fe’ series with 4–6 chaetae, Fe 1–3, Fe 6 as mac (or Fe 3 and Fe 6 as mes), Fe 4–5 as bothriotricha; posterior side with 1 sens type III (ps), 2–3 sens type IV, and 1 sens type V (ts) between the bothriotricha T2 and T4. Abd V ( Figures 8CView Fig); series ‘a’ with 2–4 chaetae (a0, a3, a5–6), a5–6 always present; series ‘m’ with 2–5 chaetae (m0, m2–3, m5–5a), m2 and m5 always present; series ‘p’ with 4–8 chaetae (p0, p1–5, ap6 and pp6), p1, p3–4 always present; and 3 sens type II (as, acc.p4 and acc.p5).

Legs. Trochanteral organ with variable number of short smooth spine-like chaetae (between 10 and 20 in Neotropical species) on inner side of trochanter ( Figures 16View Fig A–I). Tibiotarsi inner side with an apical monocondyle socket; tibiotarsus III with one striated inner subapical chaeta larger than unguiculus. Tibiotarsi outer side with one distal tenent hair longer than unguis ( Figures 4View Fig A–B, D, 16J–K). Tenent hair dorsally excavated, apically capitate and strongly ciliate by finger-shaped cilia ( Figures 4View Fig A–B, F–G). Pretarsi posteriorly with one minute smooth chaeta, chaeta absent on anterior side ( Figures 4View Fig C–D, 16J–K). Ungues outer side longitudinally striated and with a pair of basolateral teeth; inner side with 4 teeth, one pair of basal teeth, and two unpaired teeth (median and distal). Unguiculi with truncate inner lamella, outer lamellae acuminate with smooth edge ( Figures 4View Fig A–E, 18J–K).

Collophore. Anterior side generally with 2–4 subapical long ciliate mac and 4–10 proximal smooth mic; posterior side with up to 8 smooth (common) or ciliate chaetae, apical chaetae larger; lateral flap with smooth chaetae with 3 transverse rows (except Salina serrana  sp.n. with 4 rows): superior, median and inferior (generally larger) ( Figures 5AView Fig, 17–18View FigView Fig).

Tenaculum ( Figure 5BView Fig). Basal corpus with one long median striated chaetae, one pair of rami with 4 outer distal teeth, and two inner prehensile projections.

Male genital plate ( Figure 19AView Fig). Papillate and with 7+8 smooth chaetae surrounded by a papilla, 4 superior and 1 inferior pin-like chaetae, 1 superior bulb-like chaetae and 3 lateral robust spine-like chaetae; inner side with 3 small smooth eugenital chaetae per side, near the genital opening. Female genital plate ( Figure 19BView Fig): anterior and posterior lobes separated by genital opening, both with one pair of smooth chaetae.

Furcula. Manubrium with smooth edges and ciliate chaetae; distally with one long lateral chaetae; manubrial plate with 2–3 ciliate chaetae and 1 psp ( Figure 5CView Fig and 19CView Fig). Dentes smooth and with ciliate chaetae, without crenulation and spines; dorsal side with one apical oval appendix associated to an insert excavation, apical appendix smaller than mucro ( Figures 5View Fig C–E, 19C). Mucro square or slightly rectangular with 3 main apical teeth (d1, ap and v1) and one subapical accessory tooth present or absent (v2) on a dorsal excavation; base to apex of mucro striated in ventral and dorsal edges ( Figures 5View Fig D–E, 19D–I).


Salina  may have an additional characteristic useful to be differentiated from Akabosia  . The labial papilla E in Salina  species ( Figures 3EView Fig, 10LView Fig) has two guard appendages (e1 and e2), and this certainly is typical of the genus (Mari Mutt 1987a; Oliveira & Cipola 2016; Bellini & Cipola 2017), since Akabosia  has four guard appendages (e3 and e6 present) (see Kang & Park 2013). The morphology of male genital plate of Salina  ( Figure 19AView Fig) is probably other typical characteristic of the genus, previously observed by Handschin (1925), Yosii (1959), Gruia (1983), Mari Mutt (1987a) and Yoshii & Greenslade (1993). However, in description of Yosii (1959), the genital plate has superior spatulate chaetae, at least in S. celebensis  , but in the Neotropical species, there are pin-like chaetae (Mari Mutt 1987a), except Salina ventricolor Gruia, 1983  which is more similar to S. celebensis  .

The long lateral chaeta present distally in manubrium may be another characteristic of Salina  , since it is present in all species analyzed in this study. Thus, these structures should be investigated in Salina  species, as well as in Akabosia  , to elucidate whether these characters are diagnostic at species or genus level.

Descriptions of new species

The morphological characteristics shared by the new species of Salina  species belonging to the celebensis  group will not be repeated in the following descriptions (see morphological definition of celebensis  group, the figures 1A-M, 2A-G, 3A-E, 4A-G, 5A-E, 6, 7A-E, 10J-M, 19A-B and Table 2).


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium