Noyesencyrtus Singh

Singh, Sudhir, Rema Devi, O. K. & Srinivasa, Y. B., 2014, Description of a new genus and three species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, Zootaxa 3814 (3), pp. 369-384: 370-374

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Noyesencyrtus Singh

gen. nov.

Noyesencyrtus Singh   gen. nov.

( Figs 1–18 View FIGURES 1 – 5 View FIGURES 6 – 13 View FIGURES 14 – 18 )

Type species. Noyesencyrtus brachyoculus Singh   sp. nov.

Etymology. Named in honor of Dr. John S. Noyes ( BMNH) for his outstanding contributions toward world Encyrtidae   ; Noyes + suffix, Encyrtus   .

Diagnosis. FEMALE. Elongate, small, length about 1mm; body completely brown, darker dorsally. Body smooth except faintly reticulate on frontovertex and mesoscutum; sparsely setose with moderately long and strong setae; eyes sparsely setose.

Head, in dorsal view ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 1 – 5 ), with occipital margin sharp; 2.3 × as wide as frontovertex width. Head, in frontal view, distinctly higher than wide ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 5 ), sub-rectangular in outline, with vertex convex and sides almost parallel from middle of eyes ventrally to transversely truncate mouth margin; eye ventrally reaching to half head height; scrobes shallow, meeting dorsally; toruli widely separated and situated near mouth margin. Head, in profile, hypognathous, with anterior margin evenly rounded ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 1 – 5 ); malar space 0.4 × head height, 0.8 × eye height; eyes small, oval, 1.38 × as high as wide. Antennal formula, 1152; scape spindle shaped; pedicel conical, as wide as scape; funicle 5 -segmented, all segments transverse, saucer shaped, F 1 narrowest; club 2 -segmented, as long as scape or combined length of funicle and one-third length of pedicel, and twice as wide as scape, obliquely truncate apically (apical sensilla obliquely placed), the truncated part about half as long as club length. Maxillary and labial palpi 4 - and 3 -segmented, respectively. Mandible tridentate ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ).

Mesosoma ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 1 – 5 ). Pronotum with visible part one-fourth length of mesoscutum; mesoscutum without notaular lines, with posterior margin medially overlapping axillae; axillae slightly separated; scutellum nearly flat with rounded margins. Fore wing ( Figs 8, 9 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ) hyaline, slightly infuscate behind marginal vein and basally; venation reaching to 0.44 × wing length; filum spinosum with 8–10 setae arranged in two rows; basal third bare from base to proximal margin of linea calva, with only 4 or 5 short setae behind middle of submarginal vein; parastigma distinctly swollen; submarginal vein and parastigma together with about 10 long setae; marginal vein 2 × as long as wide; stigmal vein club-shaped and as long as marginal vein, with 4 circular sensilla on stigma; costal cell with a row of 7 or 8 setae in distal two-fifths of dorsal surface; ventral surface of costal cell with two rows of setae in distal half and row of smaller setae in basal half. Legs ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ) short; hind femur and tibia considerably swollen; middle tibial spur longer than middle basitarsus.

Metasoma. Longer than mesosoma; paratergites absent; hypopygium extending beyond apex of last tergite ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 5 ), the latter Y-shaped, narrowly produced apically ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 6 – 13 ); ovipositor longer than middle tibia, with sheath exserted to about one-fifth length of metasoma, and articulated with second valvifer.

MALE. Shorter than females, with similar coloration. Head, in frontal view, broadly square, as high as broad; eye reaching about 0.6 × head height. Antenna completely brown; flagellum with long, strong setae; funicle 5 - segmented; club apically pointed. Fore wing, 2.25 × as long as wide; filum spinosum sometimes consisting of a single row. Metasoma with last tergite normal and pointed apically. Genitalia with aedeagus half as long as middle tibia; each digitus with one denticle; phallobase 0.6 × as long as middle tibia.

Comments. The species here described as a new genus does not run well to any genus or runs to a genus to which it does not belong in the keys to genera given by Tachikawa (1963, Japanese genera), Prinsloo & Annecke (1979,Afrotropical), Noyes (1980, Neotropical), Trjapitzin (1989, Palaearctic), Noyes & Hayat (1984, Indo- Pacific), Noyes et al. (1997, Nearctic), and Hayat (2006, Indian). It runs to Pararhopella Girault   in the key to the genera of Indo-Pacific Encyrtidae   by Noyes & Hayat (1984), and to Zaommoencyrtus Girault   in the key to Nearctic Encyrtidae   by Noyes et al. (1997). However, the species is totally different from species in any of these genera. Noyes observed (pers. com.) that it is an interesting species belonging near Zaommoencyrtus Girault   , stating “ ….I checked Zaommoencyrtus submicans   and there is no filamentous strip between the gonostylus and second valvifer, the head shape is different and so is the venation….”. I (SS) also obtained identified material of Z. submicans Girault   on loan from BNMH and found it a totally different genus with the following important basic differences (characters in brackets are those of Zaommoencyrtus   ): head convex, hypognathos (flattened, prognathos); head clearly longer than wide (slightly wider); occipital margin sharp (rounded); greatest length of eye more than minimum width of frontovertex – 1.31 × (equal or shorter); eye longer than malar space (shorter); funicle 5 - segmented (6 -segmented); club 2 -segmented (3 -segmented); wings bare at basal third (setose); parastigma and stigmal veins greatly swollen (not so); ovipositor with III-valvulae long and with filamentous attachment (IIIvalvulae not so); hypopygium reaching beyond apex of metasoma (reaching two-thirds length of metasoma). Hayat (pers. com.) observed that the species is unique and resembles the genus Acerophagoides Blanchard   , and it runs to that genus in the key to the Costa Rican genera of the subfamily Tetracneminae   by Noyes (2000). Noyes (pers. com.) on placement of Acerophagoides   in Tetracneminae   observed “… I am not entirely convinced that Acerophagoides   is a tetracnemine. Although it superficially looks really close to Coccidoxenoides   [Girault] there are some morphological peculiarities that suggest it may not be closely related and that might place it within the Encyrtinae   .”

The new genus differs from Acerophagoides   in the following characters (characters given in bracket are those of Acerophagoides   ): head, in frontal view, distinctly elongate, 1.3 × as high as wide (head, in frontal view, round or slightly wider than high); clava 2 -segmented (3 -segmented); maxillary and labial palpi 4 - and 3 -segmented, respectively (maxillary and labial palpi 2 -segmented); pronotum dorsally about one-fifth as long as mesoscutum (pronotum dorsally very short); notaular lines absent (notaular lines present, though not reaching half way to posterior margin); fore wing completely bare behind submarginal vein except for three or four small setae just behind middle of submarginal vein (fore wing setose below submarginal vein); filum spinosum composed of two rows of spines (filum spinosum with one row of spines); host is some insect associated with the fruiting body of wood decaying fungus (hosts are Eriococcidae   and Pseudococcidae   ).