Tmolus, Hubner, 1819

Cock, Matthew J. W. & Robbins, Robert K., 2016, Annotated checklist and biogeographic composition of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of Trinidad, West Indies, Insecta Mundi 2016 (506), pp. 1-33: 15-19

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5353382

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:37A7668A-0D83-4DB0-BD28-C36302F18398

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DB5B67-4160-FFCF-86AC-F8CA8AA40365

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Tmolus
status

 

Tmolus   section

Tmolus echion (Linnaeus, 1767)   complex Thecla echion (Linnaeus)   : Crowfoot (1893, no. 140)

Thecla labes H.H. Druce   : Druce (1907) TL, Draudt (1919 –1921), D’Abrera (1995, p. 1198 –1199) [synonym]

Tmolus crolus (Stoll)   : Kaye (1904, no. 148), Kaye (1921, no. 214) [synonym]

Thecla crolus (Stoll)   : Comstock (1914) [synonym]

Tmolus echion (Linnaeus)   : Kaye (1904, no. 141, quoting Crowfoot (1893)), Barcant (1970, no. 300), Sookdeo (2013), Geerah and Rutherford (2015)

Tmolus labes (H.H. Druce)   : Kaye (1914)

‘Thecla’ echion (Linnaeus)   : Cock (1981a)

The records of Kaye (1921) and Harris (1927) are treated under S. megarus   above.

Current usage of this name applies to a species complex in which the wing markings, androconia and eye colour are highly variable. There is also seasonal and geographic wing pattern variation. The first step will be to determine biological species. The second will be to apply available names from throughout the Neotropics to the biological species. We have evidence that at least two different biological species occur on Trinidad, but it is premature to apply names to these taxa.

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce, 1907)  

Tmolus azuba (Hewitson)   : Barcant (1970, no. 302) [misidentification]

There is a pair of specimens in Barcant’s collection (ABCT) as T. azuba   . The male (Maupertuis, Aug 1937) is T. venustus   , a species not previously recorded from Trinidad. The female is Nicolaea fabulla   and treated under the checklist entry for that species.

Amazonian Region

Tmolus cydrara (Hewitson, 1868)  

Tmolus cydrara (Hewitson)   : Kaye (1921, no.212), Barcant (1970, no. 297)

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Tmolus mutina (Hewitson, 1867)  

Thecla mecrida Hewitson   : Barcant (1970, no. 374) [misidentification, part]

Calycopis pion (Godman and Salvin)   : Barcant (1970, no. 324) [misidentification]

Barcant’s collection includes one specimen curated as Calycopis pion   , which is a male T. mutina   , and two specimens curated as Thecla mecrida   , which are a female Tmolus mutina   and a male Celmia conoveria   . There are several subsequent records of T. mutina (F.C. Urich, S. Alston-Smith)   .

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Nicolaea besidia (Hewitson, 1868)  

Nicolaea besidia (Hewitson)   : Alston-Smith and Cock (2011)

Amazonian Region

Nicolaea fabulla (Hewitson, 1868)  

There is a female in Barcant’s collection (ABCT) as Tmolus azuba   (Sans Souci, Sange Grande, 2 Dec 1961). This is a new island record, since collected by S. Alston-Smith (Guapo, ♂ Jun 1981, ♂ Sep 1981).

Amazonian Region

Nicolaea ophia (Hewitson, 1868)  

A new island record collected by S. Alston-Smith (♂, Hololo Mountain Road , May 1980; ♀, Mora Trace, Cumana, Mar 1993)   .

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Nicolaea heraldica (Dyar, 1914)  

New island record collected by M.J.W. Cock (♂, no locality) and S. Alston-Smith (♂, North Post ridge, Apr 2006).

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Nicolaea lemuria (Hewitson, 1868)  

Thecla collustra H.H. Druce   : Druce (1907), Draudt (1919 –1921) TL [synonym]

Calycopis collustra (H.H. Druce)   : Kaye (1914), Kaye (1921, no.220), Barcant (1970, no. 307) [synonym]

For many years, the only Trinidad record was the type of T. collustra   , collected by F. Birch at Caparo in Jul 1904, but S. Alston-Smith captured a female in the Arima Valley, Aug 2015   .

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Ministrymon zilda (Hewitson, 1873)  

New island record collected by F.C. Urich (no locality) and M.J.W. Cock (♀, Cat’s Hill, Sep 1982)

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Ministrymon phrutus (Geyer, 1832)  

Tmolus phrutus (Geyer)   : Kaye (1914)

Calycopis phrutus (Geyer)   : Kaye (1921, no. 223), Barcant (1970, no. 310), Lewis (1974, plate 67.15)

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Ministrymon azia (Hewitson, 1873)  

Tmolus azia (Hewitson)   : Kaye (1914)

Thecla azia (Hewitson)   : Comstock (1914)

Calycopis azia (Hewitson)   : Kaye (1921, no. 222), Barcant (1970, no. 309)

‘Thecla’ azia Hewitson   : Cock (1985)

Ministrymon azia (Hewitson)   : Robbins and Glassberg (2013), Geerah and Rutherford (2015)

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Ministrymon albimimicus (K. Johnson, 1986)  

A new island record collected by S. Alston-Smith on Chacachacare Island (♂, Jan 2001; ♂, Feb 2002)   .

Transandean Region

Ministrymon megacles (Stoll, 1780)  

New island record collected S. Alston-Smith (Chacachacare Island, ♂ Jul 1981, ♀ Jan 1997).

Amazonian Region

Gargina gargophia (Hewitson, 1877)  

Siderus gargophia (Hewitson)   : Kaye (1940, no. 240a)

As shown by examination of his collection, Barcant (1970, plate 28.26) misidentified Ostrinotes silva   as this species. Nevertheless it is a Trinidad species with records from Brasso, Guapo, Waller Field etc. (M.J.W. Cock, S. Alston-Smith, F.C. Urich). There is also an historical specimen from the Kaye collection in MGCL: St. Ann’s, Jan 1922, F.W. J[ackson] (C.V. Covell Jr., pers. comm. 2016), so this species may appear in Kaye’s work under another name.

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Gargina gnosia (Hewitson, 1868)  

Siderus caninius (H.H. Druce)   : Beccaloni et al. (2008) [misidentification]

New island record collected by S. Alston-Smith (♂, Hololo Mountain Road , May 1980; ♀, Point Gourde, Jan 1984). S. Alston-Smith’s rearing data are reported by Beccaloni et al. (2008) using an earlier misidentification   .

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Gargina emessa (Hewitson, 1867)  

Thecla trinitatis Lathy   : Lathy (1936) TL, Johnson (1991b) [synonym]

Widespread in the Northern Range, but also present in the south.

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Gargina thoria (Hewitson, 1869)  

New island record collected by S. Alston-Smith (♀, Caltoo Trace, Mar 2001; ♂, Tucker Valley, Apr 2001)   .

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Siderus parvinotus Kaye, 1904  

Siderus parvinotus Kaye   : Kaye (1904, no. 158) TL, Warren et al. (2015)

Siderus leucophaeus (Hübner)   : Kaye (1921, no. 237), Barcant (1970, no. 338), Lewis (1974, plate 67.32 text) [incorrect synonymy]

Thecla leucophaeus (Hübner)   : Draudt (1919 –1921, with S. parvinotus   as synonym) [incorrect synonymy]

This species has been treated as S. leucophaeus Hübner   in Trinidad, but the two species are distinct and only parvinotus Kaye   has been confirmed from Trinidad.

Simmonds (1930, 1933) reports Siderus leucophaeus   (misspelt S. leucophagus   in the earlier paper) feeding on berries of Clidemia hirta   in Trinidad, but this is most probably an error for Ostrinotes tympania (Hewitson)   , which is commonly reared from flowers and berries of this plant.

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Siderus   n. sp. 8 MS ( Robbins 2004)

This is species no. 773 in Robbins (2004). A new island record, it has been collected by J. Morrall (♀, Moreau, Nr Moruga, Sep 2011) and by S. Alston-Smith (♂, Forest Reserve , May 2000; Lalaja Ridge, ♀ Oct 1990, ♀ Jul 1999)   .

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Siderus athymbra (Hewitson, 1867)  

New island record collected by J. and F. Preston, M.J.W. Cock (♀, Morne Catherine, Mar 1982) and S. Alston-Smith (♂, Guanapo Valley, Dec 1998).

Amazonian Region

Siderus philinna (Hewitson, 1868)  

Tmolus unilinea Kaye   : Kaye (1904, no. 143) TL [synonym]

Tmolus philinna (Hewitson)   : Kaye (1914, with T. unilinea   as synonym), Kaye (1921, no. 217), Barcant (1970, no. 303), Lewis (1974, plate 69.52 text)

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Theclopsis gargara (Hewitson, 1868)  

Siderus camissa (Hewitson)   : Kaye (1940, no. 236a), Barcant (1970, no. 341) [misidentification]

Kaye (1940) lists specimens of S. camissa   from Siparia, 20 Nov 1920 (W.J. Kaye), and St. Ann’s, 1300 ft. (R. Dick). The later should be in Barcant’s collection. It isn’t, but based on his collection, Barcant (1970) applied this name to Theclopsis gargara   . The former should be in Kaye’s collection in MGCL, and there is a specimen of T. gargara   in MGCL with same data as the first specimen Kaye listed (C.V. Covell Jr., pers. comm. 2015). Accordingly, we conclude that Kaye misidentified T. gargara   as S. camissa   . This is an uncommon species, with more recent records from lowland areas (♂, Guapo, Sep 1981, S.Alston-Smith; ♂, Parrylands, Jan 1988, M.J.W. Cock).

Amazonian Region

Ostrinotes tympania (Hewitson, 1869)  

Thecla tympania Hewitson   : Kirkpatrick (1954)

Bithys syedra (Hewitson)   : Kaye (1940, no. 242a) [misidentification]; Barcant (1970, no. 346) [misidentification (part)]

Ostrinotes tympania (Hewitson)   : Beccaloni et al. (2008)

Simmonds (1930, 1933) reports Siderus leucophaeus   feeding on berries of Clidemia hirta   in Trinidad, but this is most probably an error for O. tympania   , which commonly feeds on this plant in Trinidad.

Kaye (1940) records B. syedra   from Trinidad based on specimens from Siparia (18 Nov 1920, W.J. Kaye), Hololo (W.J. Kaye) and Guaico (29 Jan 1922, F.W. Jackson). We have yet to locate these specimens; they are not in BMNH (main sequence) or OMNH and could not be located in MGCL (C.V. Covell, pers. comm. 2016). However, there is a female of O. tympania   in OMNH from Maraval waterworks (31 Jan 1912, G.B. Longstaff), which Kaye had identified as B. syedra   . In Lamont’s collection in RSME and Barcant’s collection (ABCT), O. tympania   was treated as B. syedra   . On this basis, we believe Kaye misidentified O. tympania   as B. syedra   .

Amazonian Region

Ostrinotes silva Faynel and Robbins, 2015  

Siderus gargophia (Hewitson)   : Barcant (1970) [misidentification]

The single specimen in Barcant’s collection listed as S. gargophia   is the recently described O. silva   . It is an uncommon species also collected by F.D. Bennett (♂, Curepe, Mar 1982, at light).

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Strephonota tephraeus (Geyer, 1837)  

Thecla tephraeus (Geyer)   : Crowfoot (1893, no. 141)

Tmolus tephraeus (Geyer)   : Kaye (1904, no. 146, citing Crowfoot (1893))

Bithys tephraeus Geyer   : Kaye (1921, no. 242), Barcant (1970, no. 349)

Calycopis spurina (Hewitson)   : Barcant (1970, no. 323) [misidentification]

In his collection, Barcant treats males with red-brown androconia as C. spurina   and males with dark androconia as S. tephraeus   ; they are all S. tephraeus   .

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Strephonota sphinx (Fabricius, 1775)  

Callipsyche dindymus (Cramer)   : Kaye (1904, no. 157), Kaye (1921, no. 236), Barcant (1970, no. 328), Lewis (1974, plate 67.11) [synonym]

Transandean and Amazonian Region

Strephonota cyllarissus (Herbst, 1800)  

Thecla cyllarus (Cramer)   : Barcant (1970, no. 375e) [synonym, unavailable homonym] Transandean and Amazonian Region

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Lycaenidae

Loc

Tmolus

Cock, Matthew J. W. & Robbins, Robert K. 2016
2016
Loc

Thecla labes H.H. Druce

D'Abrera, B. 1995: 1198
1995