Dryocosmus jungalii Melika & Stone, 2010

Melika, George, Pujade-Villar, Juli, Abe, Yoshihisa, Tang, Chang-Ti, Nicholls, James, Wachi, Nakatada, Ide, Tatsuya, Yang, Man-Miao, Pénzes, Zsolt, Csóka, György & Stone, Graham N., 2010, 2470, Zootaxa 2470, pp. 1-79 : 32-34

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Dryocosmus jungalii Melika & Stone

new species

Dryocosmus jungalii Melika & Stone , new species

Figs 214–220, 221–228, 229–233.

Type material. HOLOTYPE female: IRAN, Kohkiloye & Boyer Ahmad, Yasuj, Jungali Park, ex Q. brantii ; Lor 446, coll. G. Melika, 2007.V.15. PARATYPES: 24 females and 21 males. Twenty two females and 17 males with the same labels as the holotype; 2 females and 2 males: IRAN, Lorestan, Dorod, ex Q. brantii ; Lor 459. coll. M. Tavakoli, Spring 2008. The holotype and 19 female and 16 male paratypes are deposited in PDL, 5 female and 5 female paratypes in USNM .

Etymology. The species is named after the name of locality where it was collected, Jungali Park.

Diagnosis. Belongs to the group of species with the mesoscutellum entirely and uniformly coriaceous or rugose. Most closely resembles D. mikoi Melika, Tavakoli, Stone & Azizkhani in that both species are light brown to yellowish. In female D. jungalii , the compound eye is small, black, the transfacial distance longer than the height of the eye; the head and mesosoma are reddish brown, with darker metasoma, while in D. mikoi the compound eye is large, silvery, the transfacial distance nearly equal to the height of the eye, the body uniformly light brown to yellowish. In male D. jungalii , the mesoscutellum is smooth, shiny, without sculpture and the head is black, while in D. mikoi the mesoscutellum is uniformly coriaceous and the head is brown, never black. The galls of this species can be confused with those induced by Andricus crispator Tschek and/or Andricus istvani Melika , both of which occur in Iran and also develop only on Cerris section oaks ( Q. brantii and Q. libani ) ( Tavakoli et al. 2008). However, galls of Andricus crispator usually occur in large numbers and the main axis of the gall is perpendicular to the leaf blade, thus the gall is higher than its diameter, while in Dryocosmus jungalii the galls are flat, longer along the leaf axis and project only from both sides of the leaf. Andricus istvani galls are multilocular and noticeably larger, 10 – 20 mm long, and remain soft as they mature.

Description. SEXUAL FEMALE (holotype). Mesosoma, antennae, legs uniformly reddish brown; head brown, with much darker lower face, interocellar area and posterior part. Metasoma dark browm, especially dorsally; the anterior half of 2nd metasomal tergite laterally and ventral spine of hypopygium light brown.

Head massive, rounded in anterior view, delicately coriaceous, with few white setae, 1.9 times as broad as long from above; 1.3 times as broad as high in anterior view, broader than mesosoma. Gena delicately coriaceous, not broadened behind eye, its width nearly 2.0 times less than cross diameter of eye, invisible in anterior view. Malar space delicately coriaceous, without setae, 0.5 times as long as height of eye, without striae and malar sulcus. POL nearly equal OOL; OOL 4.6 times as long as diameter of lateral ocellus, 1.5 times as long as LOL; ocelli slightly elongate. Transfacial distance 1.4 times as long as height of eye and 1.6 times as long as height of lower face (distance between antennal rim and ventral margin of clypeus); diameter of Antennal socket nearly 2.0 times as large as distance between sockets, and nearly equal to distance between eye margin and socket. Lower face delicately uniformly coriaceous, with strongly elevated median area and very few setae. Clypeus trapezoid, with ventral side broader, with slightly elevated central part, coriaceous, with very indistinct anterior tentorial pits, distinct epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line; ventrally emarginate and slightly incised medially. Frons coriaceous, with rounded impressed area below median ocellus, with Y-like elevated area, extending down from two alteral ocelli and passing between antennal sockets; area above antennal socket aside of Y-like elevated part also impressed; vertex and occiput very delicately coriaceous to nearly smooth; interocellar area elevated, with stronger sculpture than vertex. Postocciput around occipital foramen impressed; posterior tentorial pits large, deep, elongate; hypostomal bridge 1.5 times as high as broad, lower part where gular sulci merged very short; occipital foramen slightly shorter than height of hypostomal bridge, around 1.3 times shorter than height of oral foramen. Antenna with 12 flagellomeres (or 13, indistinct suture between F13 and F12 visible in some paratypes), as long or longer than body; pedicel longer than broad, F1 4.1 times as long as pedicel, 1.3 times as long as F2, F2 slightly longer than F3, F4 slightly shorter than F3, F6 – F7 shorter than F5 and nearly equal in length; F8 – F11 subsequently shorter, F12 darker than all other flagellomeres (if fused) than 1.7 times as long as F11; all flagellomeres with short whitish dense setae; placodeal sensilla on F3–F12, in numerous rows, absent on F1–F2.

Mesosoma longer than high in lateral view, with very few setae. Pronotum coriaceous; with irregular wrinkles, emarginate along lateral edge. Mesoscutum smooth or very delicately alutaceous, shiny; longer than broad (width measured across basis of tegulae); notauli complete, deep; parascutal and anteroadmedian signa, median mesoscutal line absent; posterolaterally, above dosoaxillar area only slightly elevated. Transscutal articulation distinct, complete, not straight but semilunar. Mesoscutellum longer than broad, 1.5 times shorter than length of mesoscutum, overhanging metanotum, emarginate laterally and posteriorly; disk nearly as long as broad, uniformly dull rugose, with irergular wrinkles; scutellar foveae absent, instead indicated by deep transverse area, with smooth or very delicately coriaceous bottom. Mesopleuron, including speculum, uniformly coriaceous; mesopleural triangle rugose, with strong irregular wrinkles. Metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron at half height; preaxilla smooth, shiny; lateral axillar area with parallel wrinkles, without setae; axillar carina narrow, without longitudinal striae; axillula slightly ovate, uniformy punctate, without setae; subaxillular bar narrow, very indistinct and coriaceous. Metascutellum uniformly delicately punctate, slightly higher than height of smooth, shiny ventral impressed area; metanotal trough smooth, shiny, without setae. Lateral propodeal carinae complete, strongly curved outwards, delimiting a large smooth and shiny central propodeal area with numerous irregular wrinkles; lateral propodeal area uniformly delicately coriaceous, without setae; nucha very short, with few delicate longitudinal sulci. Forewing longer than body, with distinct brown veins, margin without cilia; radial cell 5.5 times as long as broad, R1 on a short distance running along wing margin, Rs nearly reaching wing margin; areolet small, triangular, well-delimited by distinct veins; Rs+M inconspicuous, its projection reaching basalis in lowest part. Tarsal claws simple, without basal lobe.

Metasoma nearly as long as head+mesosoma, higher than long in lateral view, smooth, shiny, with very few short setae laterally on 2nd metasomal tergite which extending to half length of metasoma; prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium extremely short, as long as broad ventrally, with few white subapical setae, extends beyond apex of spine.

Body length 1.9 – 2.2 mm (n=4). MALE. Similar to female but differs in the following characters: head black, while entire body yellow. Compound eye large, malar space very short, 0.1 times as long as height of eye; transfacial distance 0.7 times as long as height of eye; diameter of socket nearly equal to distance between sockets; distance between socket and inner margin of eye slightly less than diameter of socket; ocelli large. Antenna with 13 flagellomeres, F1 strongly incised and swollen anteriorly. Transscutal articulation hardly traceable, indistinct in middle part. Mesoscutellum smooth shiny, elongate, disk distinctly longer than broad; mesopleuron smooth or alutaceous. Body length 1.8 – 2.1 mm (n=3).

Gall ( Figs 229 – 233). A leaf gall that develops on both sides of the leaf, on all areas of the leaf, but particularly the venation. Galls may be found singly or in groups of two-three along the midrib or main vein of the leaf; rarely the gall can be located at the edge of the leaf blade on the end of a lateral vein. Sometimes galls develop from the both sides of the midrib. This gall usually occurs gregariously, with 2 – 3 galls growing together such that it is impossible to separate them, resulting in noticeable deformation of the leaf. Each individual gall when mature is 1.5 – 2.0 mm long, oval and flattened or rarely rounded in shape, and projects onto both sides of the leaf. The gall is covered with short whitish hairs. Young galls are fleshy and yellowish green, and become pale brown or brown, woody as they mature. There is a single larval chamber.

Biology. Only the sexual generation is known, inducing galls only on Q. brantii . The galls develop through the spring and mature by the end of May when adults emerge.

Distribution. Currently known from Iran (Kohkiloye & Boyer Ahmad province, Yasuj, Jungali Park and Baré-Af Tab & Sisakht, 2250 m a.s.l.; Lorestan, Dorod).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History