Pseudoneuroterus Kinsey, 1923

Melika, George, Pujade-Villar, Juli, Abe, Yoshihisa, Tang, Chang-Ti, Nicholls, James, Wachi, Nakatada, Ide, Tatsuya, Yang, Man-Miao, Pénzes, Zsolt, Csóka, György & Stone, Graham N., 2010, 2470, Zootaxa 2470, pp. 1-79 : 14

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Pseudoneuroterus Kinsey, 1923


Pseudoneuroterus Kinsey, 1923

Figs 50–55, 56–59, 60–67, 68–72, 73–76.

Type species: Cynips macroptera Hartig , designated by Kinsey (1923).

Taxonomic status. Originally Pseudoneuroterus was decribed as a subgenus of Neuroterus ( Kinsey 1923) , with only one known Western Palaearctic species, N. (P.) macropterus (Hartig) . Melika & Abrahamson (2002) treated it as Neuroterus and synonymized Repentinia Belizin & Maisuradze, 1961 to Neuroterus . Pujade-Villar et al. (2004) raised Pseudoneuroterus to a rank of genus, with simultaneous synonymization of Repentinia Belizin & Maisuradze and R. lencoranica Belizin & Maisuradze, 1961 to P. macropterus . We place four species in this genus: P. macropterus , P. saliens , new comb., P. mazandarani , new species, and P. nichollsi , new species.

Diagnosis. In Pseudoneuroterus , genae are broadened behind the compound eyes, visible in anterior view; the malar sulcus is always absent ( Figs 50, 60, 77, 91); the hind tarsal claw is simple. In male antenna F1 is strongly modified, expanded and flattened distally ( Fig. 67). More diagnostic characters are provided in the key and the redescription below.

Redescription. Body black. Head rounded in anterior view, genae broadened behind eyes, visible in anterior view ( Figs 50, 60, 77, 91); female antenna with 12 flagellomeres, F1 equal or only slightly longer than F2 ( Figs 53, 63, 80, 95); male antenna with 13 flagellomeres, F1 curved and swollen, longer than F2 ( Fig. 67). Height of eye 4.2 (in asexual female, Figs 50, 77, 91 – 92) to 5.3-5.4 (in sexual females and males, Figs 60 – 61, 64 – 65) times as long as length of malar space; transfacial distance nearly equal to height of eye; malar sulcus absent; mesoscutum slightly longer than broad, smooth, shiny, without notauli, with delicately coriaceous stripes along notauli in P. macropterus ( Fig. 54) and with rows of setae indicating notauli in P. mazandarani ( Fig. 83) and P. nichollsi ( Fig. 97); mesoscutellum longer than broad, coriaceous (in asexual Pseudoneuroterus , Figs 57, 83, 97) or only slightly longer than broad, alutaceous in sexual P. saliens ( Fig. 68). Mesoscutum 1.5 – 1.7 times as long as mesoscutellum; mesosoma longer than high in ventral view; metascutellum smooth, narrower or equal to height of metanotal trough; radial cell of the forewing 7.6 (in P.macropterus , Fig. 56) to 5.0 – 6.0 (in P. saliens , Fig. 73) times as long as broad; prominent part of the ventral spine of hypopygium 3.0 (asexual females, Figs 59, 86 – 87, 101) to 4.0-4.5 (in sexual P.saliens , Figs 75 – 76) times as long as broad; 2nd metasomal tergite in females occupying 1/2-2/3 length of metasoma ( Figs 58, 74, 85, 100).

Biology and Distribution. Pseudoneuroterus macropterus , known from the asexual generation only, is a widespread and locally common species extending from central Europe east to Iran and Azerbaijan ( Maisuradze 1961). Pseudoneuroterus saliens is known from alternating sexual and asexual generations ( Barbotin 1972), and is widespread across Central and Southern Europe, from the Iberian Peninsula to Iran (Nieves- Aldrey 2001; Melika 2006a) and North Africa (J. Pujade-Villar, unpublished data). Both species only gall several oaks in the section Cerris. Details on lifecycles, biology, and gall descriptions of P. macropterus and P. saliens are given in Melika (2006a). Descriptions, with data on distribution, biology, and life cycles of the two new species P. mazandarani and P. nichollsi are given below.

Comments. Phylogenetic reconstructions strongly support Pseudoneuroterus as a monophyletic entity ( Rokas et al. 2003; Liljeblad et al. 2008; Stone et al. 2009; Fig.1). Pseudoneuroterus saliens always falls out as a close sister taxon to P. macropterus in DNA sequence phylogenies ( Rokas et al. 2003; Stone et al. 2009) with strong support.