Cynipini

Melika, George, Pujade-Villar, Juli, Abe, Yoshihisa, Tang, Chang-Ti, Nicholls, James, Wachi, Nakatada, Ide, Tatsuya, Yang, Man-Miao, Pénzes, Zsolt, Csóka, György & Stone, Graham N., 2010, 2470, Zootaxa 2470, pp. 1-79 : 7-9

publication ID

1175­5334

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DC095C-FFDC-330A-CAD8-E7A68282FAC0

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Cynipini
status

 

Key to the Palaearctic Genera of Cynipini

(in bold are genera involved into the analysis)

1 Transscutal articulation medially indistinct or absent, mesoscutum emarginate and elevated posterolaterally above dorsoaxillar area, fused with mesoscutellum; mesoscutellum without foveae, with anterior scutellar depression ( Figs 5, 36, 55, 68, 130); propodeum without or with weak, fragmented, indistinct lateral propodeal carinae ( Figs 26, 38, 55, 72, 132); prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium always short, pointed to the apex, never more than 2.0 – 4.0 times as long as broad, with some long subapical setae, which never form a tuft ( Fig. 42, 59, 75 – 76, 136 – 137, 150); metasoma strongly compressed laterally ( Fig. 58, 74, 135, 149) ..................................................................... 2

- Transscutal articulation present, straight, usually complete; mesoscutum never emarginate posterolaterally, not fused with mesoscutellum; scutellar foveae usually present, separated or not by a median carina ( Figs 2 – 4); lateral propodeal carinae almost always present, distinct and delimiting shiny central (median) propodeal area, usually without surface sculpture; lateral propodeal areas usually sculptured ( Figs 9 – 10); prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium usually longer, needle-like, pointed or not to the apex; metasoma not or less compressed laterally ( Figs 11 – 14) ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 13

2 Head and mesosoma with dense white setae ( Figs 24, 31 – 33, 50, 77) ........................................................................ 3

- Head and mesosoma with sparse setae, if they are dense then only on lower face and head posteriorly ( Figs 127 – 128, 138 – 139, 152-153, 169 – 171) ....................................................................................................................................... 4

3 Mesoscutum and mesoscutellum delicately coriaceous; notaulus superficial, complete or incomplete in anterior 1/3 ( Fig. 36); forewing with or without dark spots ( Figs 28, 35), body predominantly reddish brown .............................. ....................................................................................................................................... Trichagalma , asexual females

- Mesoscutum smooth or alutaceous, shiny, with two alutaceous (or delicately coriaceous) stripes or only rows of setae, indicating notauli; mesoscutellum coriaceous ( Figs 57, 83, 97); forewing always without dark spots; mesosoma black or dark brown, metasoma black or brown ....................................... Pseudoneuroterus , asexual females

4 Notaulus deep, usually complete, reaching pronotum, mesoscutum and mesoscutellum always smooth, shiny, without surface sculpture; mesoscutellum laterally and posteriorly emarginate ( Figs 161 – 162, 173) ................................. ................................................................................................................................. Cerroneuroterus , asexual females

- Notaulus absent or incomplete, extending to half length of mesoscutum, if traceable in the anterior half than mesoscutum and/or mesoscutellum entirely or at least partially alutaceous or delicately coriaceous ( Figs 130, 144) (only sexual forms) ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Malar sulcus always absent; hind tarsal claw simple, without basal lobe; in male antenna F1 strongly modified, expanded and flattened distally .................................................................................................................................... 6

- Malar sulcus usually present or at least traceable ( Figs 127, 138, 141); hind tarsal claw usually with basal lobe; in male antenna F1 slightly or not modified, never expanded and flattened, sometimes only curved or similar in shape to F2 ( Fig. 143) (both generations) ............................................................................................................ Neuroterus

6 Females ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

- Males .......................................................................................................................................................................... 10

7 Prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium with two subapical lateral lumps, spine tri-forked, each lump with 5- 8 long setae, extending far beyond apex ( Fig. 125) ...................................................................................... Latuspina

- Prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium always straight, pointed to the apex, without two subapical lateral lumps ( Figs 75 – 76) ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Gena broadened behind eye, visible in anterior view ( Fig. 60) ........................................................ Pseudoneuroterus

- Gena not broadened behind eye, not visible in anterior view ..................................................................................... 9

9 Mesoscutellum uniformly alutaceous or smooth, without sculpture ...................... Cerroneuroterus , sexual females

- Mesoscutellum around its limits reticulate rugose, smooth and shiny in the central part ................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... Trichagalma , sexual females

10 Pedicel as long as scape, both strongly flattened and broad, at least twice broader than flagellomeres ( Figs 113 – 114) ....................................................................................................................................................................... Latuspina

- Pedicel always shorter than scape, both less flattened and broad, less than twice broader than flagellomeres ( Fig. 67) ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

11 Mesoscutum longer than broad, mesoscutellum uniformly alutaceous, propodeum with fragmented lateral propodeal carinae ( Figs 68 – 69, 72)................................................................................................................... Pseudoneuroterus

- Mesoscutum subequal, nearly as long as broad, mesoscutellum smooth, shiny or only partially in center alutaceous, propodeum without lateral propodeal carinae............................................................................................................ 12

12 Mesoscutellum smooth, shiny, only central part (disk) alutaceous ................................................... Cerroneuroterus

- Mesoscutellum around its limits reticulate rugose, smooth and shiny in the central part ........................ Trichagalma

13 Fully winged .............................................................................................................................................................. 14

- Apterous or brachypterous ......................................................................................................................................... 27

14 Mesoscutum transversely rugose, at least in anterior half, never with dense setae ( Figs 3, 6, 236) .......................... 15

- Mesoscutum smooth, reticulate, punctate, or coarsely rugose, but never transversely sculptured, often with dense setae ( Fig. 2) ............................................................................................................................................................... 16

15 Malar sulcus present, lower face with numerous striae radiating from clypeus ( Fig. 7); mesoscutum subquadrate or only slightly longer than broad ( Fig. 3); central propodeal area narrow, delimited by straight or slightly outwards curved lateral propodeal carinae; median longitudinal carina absent or very weak, hardly traceable ( Fig. 9); forewing margin always without cilia in the asexual, ciliate in sexual forms ............................................................. Callirhytis

- Malar sulcus absent, lower face with few striae radiating from clypeus ( Figs 8, 234); mesoscutum variable, sometimes 1.3-2.0 times as long as broad ( Fig. 6, 236); central propodeal area broad, delimited by strongly outwards curved lateral propodeal carinae; median longitudinal carina present ( Fig. 10); forewing margin always with long cilia ................................................................................................................................. Plagiotrochus , asexual (part)

16 Females ...................................................................................................................................................................... 17

- Males .......................................................................................................................................................................... 20

17 Ventral spine of hypopygium short, broadest just before apex; subapical setae forming a broad dense tuft ( Fig. 11) .. ................................................................................................................................................................ Cynips , asexual

- Ventral spine of hypopygium slender or short, needle-like or rounded apically; with or without a dense truncate tuft ( Figs 12 – 14) ............................................................................................................................................................... 18

18 Ventral spine of hypopygium long, needle-like, prominent part more than 4.0 times as long as broad ( Figs 12 – 13, 188) ............................................................................................................................................................................. 19

- Ventral spine of hypopygium shorter, tapering to a point or rounded apically, prominent part less than 3.5 times as long as broad ( Fig. 14) ................................................................................................................................................ 20

19 Tarsal claws simple; antenna 2.0 times as long as head+mesosoma; lateral propodeal carina fragmented or absent, instead the smooth, shiny strongly curved outwards central propodeal area delimited by very dense white setae both sides of the central area ( Fig. 15, 187)......................................................................................................... Aphelonyx

- Tarsal claws with basal lobe; antenna less than 2.0 times as long as head+mesosoma; lateral propodeal carinae always present, parallel, subparallel or slightly curved .......................................................... Andricus , asexual (part)

20 Lower face with striae radiating from clypeus to inner margin of eye, sometimes indistinct because of short malar space; malar sulcus always absent ............................................................................................................................. 21

- Lower face without striae, reticulate or coriaceous; malar sulcus present, except in Cynips , but then clypeus with lamella projected over mandibles. ............................................................................................................................. 24

21 Lateral propodeal carinae curved outwards, sometimes median longitudinal carina present; central propodeal area sometimes rugose; metasoma strongly compressed laterally .................................................................................... 22

- Lateral propodeal carinae parallel or subparallel or slightly curved outwards, without median carina; central propodeal area never rugose ( Fig. 16); metasoma more rounded, less compressed laterally ................................. Andricus

22 Mesoscutum coriaceous, rugose, or reticulate; mesopleuron coriaceus, alutaceous or weakly reticulate, usually forming a transverse band ( Fig. 221); central propodeal area with median longitudinal carina ( Fig. 223); ventral spine of hypopygium with sparse setae not forming a truncate apical tuft .......................................................... Plagiotrochus

- Mesoscutum smooth or very delicately alutaceous ( Fig. 203); mesopleuron smooth or uniformly very delicately sculptured ( Fig. 204); central propodeal area without or rarely with median longitudinal carina ( Fig. 205); ventral spine of hypopygium with sparse setae forming a truncate apical tuft ( Fig. 206) ..................................................... 23

23 Striae radiating from clypeus extending to inner margin of eye, to half height of lower face or extending to antennal sockets or further into area between eye and antennal socket; vertex and occiput sculptured, sometimes dull coriaceous or rugose; scutellar foveae separated or not by weak median carina; ventral spine of hypopygium with short and sparse tuft of setae .............................................................................................................................. Dryocosmus

- Indistinct and weak striae radiating from clypeus and extend into malar space and lower half of lower face only; vertex and occiput smooth or very delicately coriaceous ( Figs 200 – 201); mesoscutellum usually uniformly smooth or weakly sculptured in central part and sometimes with some wrinkles along marginal carina; scutellar foveae separated by distinct median carina ( Figs 203 – 204); ventral spine of hypopygium with longer and dense tuft of setae ( Fig. 206) ........................................................................................................................................................ Chilaspis

24 Lateral propodeal carina weak, curved and thin or indistinct and fragmented, delimiting a smooth, shiny and glabrous area; metasoma strongly compressed laterally ............................................................ Neuroterus anthracinus

- Lateral propodeal carina distinct, usually parallel or diverging anteriorly and curved posteriorly, delimiting more or less sculptured area; metasoma less compressed laterally ( Fig. 17) .......................................................................... 25

25 Malar sulcus absent; pronotum smooth and shiny laterally ( Fig. 18); scutellar foveae confluent ......... Cynips , sexual

- Malar sulcus present ( Fig. 19); pronotum sculptured laterally, matte, with lateral carinae, without smooth areas; scutellar foveae distinctly separated ........................................................................................................................... 26

26 Tarsal claws with basal lobe; clypeus subquadrate, with lamella projected over mandibles, elevated and straight anteriorly ( Fig. 19); hind tarsomere II equal or only slightly shorter than V ....................................... Trigonaspis , sexual

- Tarsal claws simple; clypeus not elevated and emarginate anteriorly, not projected over mandibles; hind tarsomere II almost half as long as V ....................................................................................................................... Biorhiza , sexual

27 Tarsal claws with basal lobe ............................................................................................... Trigonaspis , asexual (part)

- Tarsal claws simple or with only indistinct basal lobe ............................................................................................... 28

28 Mesoscutum subquadrate, together with mesoscutellum nearly 2.0 times as long as broad; propodeum in the same plane as thorax or only slightly inclined ( Figs 22 – 23) ........................................................... Biorhiza , asexual (part)

- Mesoscutum ovate, broadest at the tegulae, only slightly longer than broad; propodeum strongly inclined ........... 29

29 Notaulus deep, reaching mesocutellum; transscutal articulation distinct, scutellum with foveae or deep transverse groove ( Fig. 21) ........................................................................................................................ Biorhiza , sexual (part)

- Notaulus absent or anteriorly traced only, transscutal articulation inconspicuous, mesoscutellum indistinctly separated from mesoscutum by a very shallow groove ( Fig. 20) ............................................. Trigonaspis , asexual (part)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Cynipidae