Chthonius, Gardini, Giulio, 2013

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 130-136

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FC302AA5-49CC-41B0-9A66-23C11AB4EBAE

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FF6A-F9E4-6B99-FE181BE9A4F2

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chthonius
status

n. sp.

Chthonius   (E.) tyrrhenicus   n. sp.

( Figs 252–260 View FIGURES 252 – 258 View FIGURES 259 – 260 , 288 View FIGURES 286 – 289 )

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) austriacus   ssp. nanus Beier 1953 c: 105   (misidentification, in part: Ƥ). Chthonius pyrenaicus   (not Beier, 1934): Pasquini & Consiglio 1971: 13 (misidentification). Chthonius   (E.) cfr. gibbus: Gardini 1980 c: 268   , figs 16–22 (misidentification).

Chthonius   sp. gr. elbanus: Callaini 1984: 135   , figs IIIA –E.

Type locality: Italy, Liguria, Genoa Prov., Quinto al Mare, Mt Moro (44 ° 23 ʹ 22 ʺN 9 °01ʹ 10 ʺE).

Distribution. France: Alpes Maritimes, Corsica; Italy: from Piedmont to Campania.

Diagnosis (Ƥ). An eyed epigean Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) that differs from other species of the C. fuscimanus   group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger with isolated subapical tooth (di) and with spinneret in both sexes; chelal hand (in lateral view) without a rounded hump distad of trichobothria ib-isb, with abrupt slope between trichobothria ib-isb and eb-esb-ist (giving hand a square profile), without ventral hollow just before the base of movable finger; fixed and movable chelal finger respectively with 11–12 and 5–8 triangular teeth, fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 5 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.020 mm); proximal half of movable chelal finger with straight, thick marginal lamina; length of chela 0.435–0.54 (3), 0.47–0.60 (Ƥ) mm, length of movable chelal fingers 0.25–0.31 (3), 0.265–0.34 (Ƥ) mm; chela 4.6–5.4 (3), 4.1–4.7 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.1–1.2 (3 Ƥ).

Type material. ITALY— Liguria: Genoa Prov.— 1 3 (holotype), Genoa, Quinto al Mare, slope of Monte Moro (44 ° 23 ʹ 22 ʺN 9 °01ʹ 10 ʺE), 150 m a.s.l., 30.III. 2003, G. Gardini leg., Quercus pubescens   wood (deposited in MHNG). All the following are paratypes:

FRANCE— Alpes Maritimes— 1 Ƥ, Lantosque, 9.X. 1984, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Nice, SE Contes, 250 m a.s.l., 7.II. 1984, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, near Nice, 13.XI. 1983, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, Vence, NE Col de Vence, 800 m a.s.l., 28.IV. 2003, S. & F. Zoia leg. Corsica— 1 3 1 Ƥ, near Lano, SW slope Monte San Petrone, 26.V. 1982, A. Torchia & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood on limestone.

ITALY— Piedmont: Alessandria Prov.— 2 Ƥ, Montaldeo, 280 m a.s.l., 15.III. 1984, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., sieved in Robinia   scrub; 1 3, San Sebastiano Curone, 1.V. 1980, C. Torti leg. Piedmont: Cuneo Prov.— 2 3 1 Ƥ, Cherasco, Rio Crosio, 240 m a.s.l., 24.I. 1993, G. B. Delmastro leg.; 1 Ƥ, Clavesana, San Martino, 420 m a.s.l., 12.VI. 1992, G. B. Delmastro leg.; 1 3, Sommariva Perno, Bric Ridone, 240 m a.s.l., 27.IV. 1993, G. B. Delmastro leg. Liguria: Genoa Prov.— 1 3 2 Ƥ, Arenzano, 8.III. 1992, G. Gardini leg.; 2 3, id., Pineta di Arenzano, 22.VI. 1986, G. Gardini leg.; 2 3 8 Ƥ, Avegno, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., rotten stump of Castanea   (MHNG); 4 3 2 Ƥ 3 T, Bogliasco, San Bernardo, 100 m a.s.l., 20.VI. 2007, S. Costa leg., Quercus pubescens   mixed wood; 1 Ƥ, Camogli, Monte di Portofino, 24.IV. 1972, R. Poggi leg., sieved; 1 Ƥ, id., 22.IX. 1972, G. Bartoli leg.; 6 Ƥ, id., 15.II. 1976, G. Gardini & R. Poggi leg., sieved in Ostrya carpinifolia   wood; 1 3, id., 9.I. 1977, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3, id., E slope Monte Tocco, 440 m a.s.l., 5.XI. 1998, G. Gardini leg., under Calicotome   and Euphorbia spinosa   ; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., W slope Monte di Ruta, 310 m a.s.l., 5.XI. 1998, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., Portofino Vetta, 300 m a.s.l., 24.I. 1982, C. Giusto leg.; 2 3 ( C. elbanus   , det. Beier), id., Ruta, 24.IV. 1972, G. Gardini leg.; 6 3 7 Ƥ, id., Ruta, 8.V. 1972, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 7 Ƥ, id., 260 m a.s.l., 13.XII. 1981, C. Giusto leg.; 2 3 3 Ƥ, id., San Rocco Sud, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., under fern (MHNG); 3 3, id., San Rocco Sud, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., leaf litter Quercus ilex   (MHNG); 1 3, id., 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., rotten stump of Laurus   (MHNG); 2 Ƥ, id., 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., leaf litter Pinus   (MHNG); 1 Ƥ, id., 2.I. 1984, S. Vit leg., under Olea   (MHNG); 6 3 2 Ƥ, id., San Rocco Nord, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., under fern (MHNG); 1 Ƥ, Carasco, Terrarossa, 23.IX. 1985, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg. (together with 1 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 1 Ƥ, “ Chthonius austriacus nanus   n. ssp., det. Beier, Typen!” “ 4. Tann-a da Reixe N. 132 Li 7.7. 48, Carsi (M. Antola) pr. Genova, M. Franciscolo” [Torriglia, Carsi, Tann-a da Reixe 132 Li/GE] (MSNG); 3 3 1 Ƥ 2 T (1 3: C. nanus   , det. Beier), id., Carsi, Tann-a da Reixe 132 Li/GE, 14.VII. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Chiavari, Madonna delle Grazie, 16.V. 2005, L. Galli & F. Phytilis leg., Quercus ilex   wood (together with 1 3 of C. nanus   ); 4 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., 80 m a.s.l., 24.X. 2009, L. Galli & G. Torrisi leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3, id., slope of Monte Cucco, 260 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1994, S. Zoia leg. (together with 6 3 10 Ƥ 1 T of C. nanus   ); 1 3, id., SW slope Monte Cucco, 270 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1994, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 4 3 9 Ƥ, Fontanigorda, Monte Collere, 1100 m a.s.l., 5.VII. 1982, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 Ƥ, Genova, Bavari, 26.X. 1983, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Molassana, 28.III. 1976, G. Gardini leg., sieved under Thymus   ; 1 3, id., Molassana, Prato Casarile, 28.VIII. 1973, R. Poggi leg.; 1 3, id., Monte Fasce, 30.I. 1976, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Castanea sativa   wood; 30 3 34 Ƥ, id., Monte Fasce S slope, 600 m a.s.l., 2.I. 1984, S. Vit leg., leaf litter Quercus   (MHNG); 1 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., Monte Fasce, Calcinara, 4.VIII. 1984, S. Vit leg., under Corylus   (MHNG); 1 3, Nervi, Sant’Ilario: Istituto Marsano, 30.X. 2009, A. Comenale & G. Gardini leg., hollow in Olea   ; 2 3, id., Nostra Signora del Monte, 10 / 17.I. 1971, R. Poggi leg., sieved; 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., Pino Soprano, 18.VIII. 1973, R. Poggi leg. (together with 1 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 1 Ƥ, id., Premanico, 17.XII. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., near Quezzi, 11.III. 1984, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 3 Ƥ, id., Quinto, Monte Fasce E slope, 400 m a.s.l., 18.V. 2001, G. Gardini leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   wood; 5 3 13 Ƥ, id., 1.V. 2010, G. Gardini & C. Giusto leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Moro S slope, 300 m a.s.l., 23.IV. 2000, G. Gardini leg., Quercus pubescens   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Moro W slope, 200 m a.s.l., 20.III. 2002, G. Gardini leg., olive grove; 6 3 6 Ƥ 1 T, id., Monte Moro SW slope, 150 m a.s.l., 20.II. 2003, G. Gardini leg., Quercus   and Castanea   (NMW); 8 3 5 Ƥ 3 T, id., slope of Monte Moro, 150 m a.s.l., 30.III. 2003, G. Gardini leg., Quercus pubescens   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Moro W slope, 150 m a.s.l., 25.I. 2004, G. Gardini leg., Quercus pubescens   wood (together with 1 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 2 3, id., Monte Moro S slope, 100 m a.s.l., 29.II. 2004, G. Gardini leg., Quercus pubescens   wood; 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., Monte Moro W slope, 200 m a.s.l., 10.XI. 2006, G. Gardini leg., under Pistacia   ; 13 3 4 Ƥ, id., slope of Monte Moro, 100 m a.s.l., 15.II. 2008, G. Gardini leg.; 2 3 1 T, id., Monte Moro S slope, 50 m a.s.l., 27.X. 2008, G. Gardini leg., Quercus pubescens   wood; 1 3, id., Monte Moro SW slope, 150 m a.s.l., 3.IV. 2009, G. Gardini leg., sieved under Castanea   ; 1 3, id., Monte Moro W slope along Rio San Pietro, 60 m a.s.l., 2.V. 2009, G. Gardini leg., soil, base of Quercus ilex   ; 1 Ƥ, id., 9.V. 2009; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Moro W slope, 60 m a.s.l., 16.V. 2009, G. Gardini leg., base of Quercus ilex   ; 2 3 3 Ƥ, id., Monte Moro W slope along Rio San Pietro, 60 m a.s.l., 16.V. 2009, G. Gardini leg., base of Quercus ilex   ; 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Moro W slope, 150 m a.s.l., 18.V. 2009, G. Gardini leg., base of Castanea   ; 3 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., 50 m a.s.l., 29.IX. 2009, G. Gardini & A. Schönhofer leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, id., Monte Moro E slope, 300 m a.s.l., 14.X. 2009, G. Gardini leg., hollow in Olea   ; 3 3 2 Ƥ, id., Monte Moro W slope, 220 m a.s.l., 21.V. 2010, G. Gardini leg., base of Quercus ilex   ; 1 Ƥ, id., Rio San Pietro, 70 m a.s.l., 18.X. 2009, G. Gardini, hollow in Olea   ; 1 3, id., Rio San Pietro, 50 m a.s.l., 11.XII. 2009, G. Gardini leg., hollow in Olea   ; 2 3 3 Ƥ, id., Sturla, Valle Sturla, 2.I. 1984, S. Vit leg., base of Olea   and roots of Rubus   (MHNG); 2 3 6 Ƥ, Genova, Sant’Eusebio, 4.X. 1975, G. Bartoli leg.; 2 3 3 Ƥ, Genova, Villetta Di Negro, 12.II. 1973, G. Bartoli & G. Gardini leg., sieved; 1 Ƥ, Gorreto, Passo della Maddalena on E slope of Monte Carmo, 1400 m s.l.m, 11.IX. 1980, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ, Isola del Cantone, 27.V. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 1 Ƥ, Lavagna, 20.IV. 1975, S. Zoia leg., Castanea sativa   wood; 3 3 2 Ƥ, Mezzanego, Monte Vailera SW slope, 990 m a.s.l., 26.IV. 2007, M. Bodon leg., Pinus pinaster   wood; 1 Ƥ, Montoggio, Creto, Gola dell’Alpesisa, 25.IV. 1972, G. Gardini leg. (together with 1 3 4 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 1 Ƥ, id., 15.V. 1972 (together with 1 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 1 Ƥ, id., 25.V. 1972, R. Poggi leg., sieved (together with 2 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 2 3 3 Ƥ, id., 23.VII. 1973, R. Poggi leg. (together with 2 3 of C. nanus   ); 2 3, Ne, 11.II. 1974, S. Zoia leg., sieved in Castanea sativa   wood (together with 2 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 5 3 7 Ƥ, id., Piandifieno, 11.II. 1976, L. Briganti & G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 9 3 12 Ƥ, id., 19.III. 1976, L. Briganti & S. Zoia leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood (together with 3 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 3 3 10 Ƥ, Ognio di Neirone, 30.IV. 1972, G. Gardini leg. (together with 4 3 of C. nanus   ); 2 3 1 Ƥ ( C. parmensis   , det. Beier), Portofino, 22.V. 1972, G. Bartoli leg.; 5 3 8 Ƥ 1 T, Rapallo, Montallegro, 3.IX. 1973, R. Poggi leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Manico del Lume, 700 m a.s.l., 1.XII. 1974, L. Briganti leg., sieved in Alnus glutinosa   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Manico del Lume N slope, 14.III. 1982, G. Gardini leg. (together with 2 3 3 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 3 3 3 Ƥ, id., Monte Manico del Lume SE slope, 300 m a.s.l., 17.XI. 1982, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   wood on flysch; 4 3, id., Valle Rio Tonnego, 5.I. 1976, S. Zoia leg., sieved; 2 3, Recco, 23.I. 1975, S. Zoia leg., sieved; 1 Ƥ, Rovegno, Monte della Cavalla, 1300 m a.s.l., 31.VII. 1994, G. Gardini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 4 Ƥ, Sant’Olcese, Campi, 22.V. 2008, M. Capurro, L. Galli & C. Torti leg., Fraxinus   , Ostrya   and Pinus   mixed wood; 1 Ƥ, id., Camporsella, 8.IV. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., Castanea sativa   wood; 1 3, id., 2.V. 1974, sieved; 2 3, id., Manesseno, 27.X. 1974, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., San Lorenzo di Casanova, 26.III. 1972, G. Gardini leg., sieved (together with 3 3 2 Ƥ of C.

nanus   ); 2 3 2 Ƥ, id., Trensasco, 19.V. 2009, M. Capurro leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   wood; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Sestri Levante, Villa Scorza, 100 m a.s.l., 29.VII. 2008, M. Capurro leg., Quercus pubescens   wood; 1 Ƥ, Sori, Sant’Apollinare, 16.III. 1986, G. Gardini leg. Liguria: La Spezia Prov. — 1 Ƥ, Levanto, Ridarolo, 10.I. 1993, M. Bodon leg.; 1 Ƥ, Quaratica, Monte Bermego, 630 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1982, G. Gardini, C. Giusto & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 3 7 Ƥ, Varese Ligure, Passo Cento Croci, 11.VIII. 1982, L. Ansaldo, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg. Liguria: Savona Prov.— 3 3 8 Ƥ, Alassio, Isola Gallinara, 8.V. 1996, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 3 3 3 Ƥ, id., 10.VI. 1996, D. Lanteri leg. (together with 1 3 1 T of C. nanus   ); 2 3 3 Ƥ, id., Isola Gallinara NNE slope, 11.IV. 2007, F. Oneto & D. Ottonello leg.; 1 Ƥ, Altare, Bric del Tesoro, 800 m a.s.l., 12.X. 1989, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, id., Monte Baraccone, 250 m a.s.l., 14.III. 1986, S. Zoia leg., stump of Castanea   ; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Bardineto, 1.IV. 1973, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 1 3, Bardineto, Roveirola, 29.V. 1986, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 2 3 2 Ƥ, id., 3.X. 1989, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & G. Troiano leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Tana da Roveirola 40 Li/SV, 8.VI. 1981, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., sieved at entrance; 45 3 8 Ƥ, Bergeggi, Isola di Bergeggi, 13.V. 2003, G. Gardini & A. Trotta leg.; 1 3 11 Ƥ, Bergeggi, 21.IV. 2006, M. Capurro, D. Duradoni & L. Galli leg., Quercus suber   wood; 5 3 3 Ƥ 8 T 1 D, id., 1.II. 2007; 13 3 14 Ƥ 11 T 2 D, id., 6.III. 2007; 2 3 6 Ƥ, id., 3.IV. 2007; 22 3 7 Ƥ 2 T 3 D, id., 9.V. 2007; 62 3 62 Ƥ 24 T 30 D, id., 13.VI. 2007; 42 3 51 Ƥ 6 T 6 D, id., 5.VII. 2007; 5 3 17 Ƥ 10 T 7 D, id., 30.VII. 2007; 30 3 17 Ƥ 37 T, id., 17.IX. 2007; 77 3 60 Ƥ 45 T 5 D, id., 15.X. 2007; 33 3 29 Ƥ 26 T 2 D, id., 20.XI. 2007; 32 3 17 Ƥ 20 T 6 D, id., 28.XII. 2007; 24 3 28 Ƥ 39 T 4 D, id., 31.I. 2008; 1 3 2 T, Boissano, 11.III. 1979, G. Gardini leg., under Pistacia   ; 1 3, id., Monte Carmo di Loano, 1389 m a.s.l., 18.V. 1975, G. Gardini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 Ƥ, id., Monte Ravinet 900 m a.s.l., 7.VI. 1975, G. Gardini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 13 3 6 Ƥ 9 T, id., slope Monte Ravinet, 6.V. 1990, G. Gardini & R. Benelli leg., sieved under Pistacia lentiscus   ; 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., SW slope Monte Ravinet, 900 m a.s.l., 10.IV. 1977, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 3 Ƥ, Cairo Montenotte, slope Monte San Giorgio, 650 m a.s.l., 18.I. 1981, D. Antichi & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Calizzano, Colle del Melogno, 24.V. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 8.X. 1985, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., fagetum; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Cisano sul Neva, Martinetto, 100 m a.s.l., 6.VI. 1980, S. Zoia, A. Torchia, R. Rizzerio & G. Gardini leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, Erli, Gazzo, 500 m a.s.l., 6.VI. 1980, S. Zoia, A. Torchia, R. Rizzerio & G. Gardini leg. (together with 1 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 1 3, id., 24.VII. 1980, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 3 Ƥ, id., 18.IV. 1985, G. Gardini & G. Troiano leg.; 6 3 5 Ƥ, Finale Ligure, upper Val Ponci, 31.V. 1975, R. Poggi leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 3 6 Ƥ, id., 15.VI. 1975, R. Poggi & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 10 3 8 Ƥ, id., 24.VI. 1975, G. Bartoli & R. Poggi leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 4 Ƥ, id., 4.IV. 1976, R. Poggi leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 3 5 Ƥ 2 T, id., 3.IV. 1977, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 17 3 14 Ƥ 1 T, Finale Ligure, Caprazoppa, 18.X. 1973, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 4 3 5 Ƥ, id., 28.X. 1973, R. Poggi leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 5 3 7 Ƥ 2 T, id., 11.XI. 1973, G. Gardini & R. Poggi leg., sieved; 2 3 3 Ƥ, id., 10.XII. 1973, G. Bartoli leg., under Cistus   ; 3 3 7 Ƥ 1 T 1 D, id., 10.III. 1974, G. Gardini leg., sieved in garigue; 1 3, id., 23.II. 1975, S. Zoia leg., sieved in garigue; 3 3 5 Ƥ, id., 7.X. 1975, R. Poggi leg., sieved under Cistus   and Euphorbia   ; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 21.XI. 1975, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 3 4 Ƥ, id., 4.I. 1981, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 29.X. 1982, G. Gardini, C. Giusto & G. Troiano leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 15 3 21 Ƥ 1 T, id., 29.I. 1985, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., under Euphorbia   ; 4 3 3 Ƥ, id., 7.III. 1985, C. Giusto leg.; 13 3 15 Ƥ 3 T 2 D, Finale Ligure, Manie, 13.V. 1979, L. Briganti & S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 6 Ƥ, id., Pianmarino, 7.XII. 1975, G. Gardini, R. Poggi & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., San Bernardino, 24.III. 1974, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 23.III. 1975, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 2 Ƥ, id, 1.XI. 1979, S. Zoia, A. Torchia & G. Gardini leg.; 3 3 4 Ƥ, id., 29.X. 1982, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 4 3 3 T, id., 18.II. 1983, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., Torrente Aquila, 29.XII. 1973, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Verzi, 19.X. 1972, G. Gardini leg.; 13 3 28 Ƥ, id., Verzi, 7.IV. 1981, G. Gardini & G. Troiano leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 19 3 31 Ƥ 6 T, id., Verzi, 18.II. 1983, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Giustenice, slope Monte Carmo, 880 m a.s.l., 24.III. 1985, S. Zoia & R. Rizzerio leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, Loano, Verzi di Loano, Torrente Nimbalto, 18.V. 1975, R. Poggi leg., sieved under Alnus   ; 5 3 3 Ƥ, Magliolo, 22.IX. 1974, S. Zoia leg., sieved; 2 3 2 Ƥ, id., Isallo, 15.XI. 1981, C. Giusto & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 ( C. nanus, Beier   det.), id., Tana del Pecetto 569 Li/SV, 30.IX. 1973, L. Briganti & G. Gardini leg., entrance (together with 1 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 1 3, Mallare, Monte Alto slope, 700 m a.s.l., 12.X. 1989, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, Murialdo, Riofreddo, 580 m a.s.l., 15.XI. 1981, C. Giusto & S. Zoia leg.; 18 3 23 Ƥ 9 T, Noli, Capo Noli, 7.I. 1973, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 9 3 11 Ƥ, id., 14.I. 1973, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 2 3 2 Ƥ, id., 19.III. 1974, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 7 3 8 Ƥ, id, 3.IV. 1977, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., sieved in garigue; 4 3 6 Ƥ 3 T, Noli, Voze, 200 m a.s.l., 7.II. 1989, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 3, Osiglia, Lago di Osiglia, 29.V. 2006, L. Galli leg.; 5 3 1 Ƥ, Quiliano, Garzi, 4.II. 1986, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 6 3 2 Ƥ, id., Molini, 50 m a.s.l., 5.XI. 1982, G. Gardini leg., under Cistus   ; 21 3 23 Ƥ, id., Treponti, 80 m a.s.l., 29.X. 1980, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 12.II. 1985, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 23 3 23 Ƥ 9 T, Spotorno, 16.I. 1977, G. Gardini leg., sieved under Pistacia   ; 7 3 9 Ƥ, id., Mortou, 18.X. 1983, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 39 3 39 Ƥ 2 T, id., Mortou, 12.II. 1985, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus suber   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ 2 T, Stella, Corona, 13.IV. 1980, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg. (together with 1 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 1 3 2 Ƥ, Toirano, Rio nella Valle, 500 m a.s.l., 9.XI. 1984, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Fraxinus ornus   , Ostrya carpinifolia   and Fagus sylvatica   mixed wood (together with 1 3 1 Ƥ of C. nanus   ); 1 3, id., near Toirano, 16.II. 1985, G. Gardini leg., olive grove; 1 Ƥ, id., Rio nella Valle, 3.IV. 1986, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & E. Belluati leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   wood; 3 3 2 Ƥ, id., Rocca Berleurio NE slope, 27.V. 2006, L. Galli leg.; 1 Ƥ, Urbe, Passo del Faiallo, 1000 m a.s.l., 27.VIII. 1980, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Urbe, Rocca della Marasca, 900 m a.s.l., 12.IV. 1982, C. Giusto leg.; 9 3 19 Ƥ 4 T, Vado Ligure, Rocca dei Corvi, 750 m a.s.l., 1.III. 1983, S. Zoia leg.; 5 3 5 Ƥ, id., Rocca dei Corvi W slope, 550 m a.s.l., 21.I. 1985, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   and Ostrya carpinifolia   mixed wood; 2 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, id., Segno near, 200 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1985, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Castanea sativa   wood; 2 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., Segno, Rocca dei Corvi, 780 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1988, G. Gardini leg.; 14 3 26 Ƥ 11 T, Varazze, 19.II. 1978, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 6 3 13 Ƥ 9 T, id., 28.III. 1978; 12 3 14 Ƥ 4 T 2 D, id., 19.III. 1981, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 8 3 6 Ƥ 3 T, id., 29.IV. 1981; 8 3 9 Ƥ 1 T 3 D, id., 29.V. 1981; 9 3 14 Ƥ 9 T 5 D, id., 30.VI. 1981, R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 16 3 26 Ƥ 20 T 3 D, id., 10.IX. 1981; 2 3 5 Ƥ 1 T, id., 8.X. 1981; 4 3 11 Ƥ, id., 5.XI. 1981; 19 3 29 Ƥ 12 T, id., 17.XII. 1981; 6 3 6 Ƥ 5 T 2 D, id., 28.I. 1982; 1 3 3 Ƥ 1 T 1 D, id., 14.III. 1982; 7 3 11 Ƥ 2 T, id., 14.IV. 1982. Emilia: Bologna Prov.   — 3 3 2 Ƥ, Casalecchio, Vizzano, IX/ XI. 2010, L. Colacurcio leg. Emilia: Parma Prov.   — 7 3 1 Ƥ, Bedonia, Monte Pelpi, 750 m a.s.l., 11.VIII. 1982, L. Ansaldo, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg. Tuscany: Grosseto Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Isola del Giglio, il Franco, 18.VII. 2009, G. Caoduro leg. Umbria: Terni Prov.— 1 3 2 Ƥ, Terni, Piediluco, 370 m a.s.l., 13.VI. 2010, G. Gardini leg., mixed wood. Latium: Frosinone Prov.— 1 3, Ausonia, Monti Aurunci, 8.IV. 1985, S. Vit leg., base of Olea   (MHNG); 1 Ƥ, Cassino, Monte Cairo, III. 1991, P. Magrini leg. Latium: Rome Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Bracciano, Pisciarelli, 650 m a.s.l., 12.IV. 1992, P. Magrini leg.; 1 Ƥ, Roma, Castelgiuliano, 15.XI. 1990, L. Latella leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Mario, 20.VI/ 16.IX. 1991, L. Latella leg., pitfall traps; 2 3, Sasso, 23.XII. 1990, S. Zoia & L. Latella leg. Abruzzo: L’Aquila Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Gran Sasso, Campo Imperatore, 1670 m a.s.l., 13.VI/ 30.VIII. 1988, S. Zoia leg. Campania: Salerno Prov.— 1 3 1 Ƥ, Cilento, Monte Bulgheria, 800 m a.s.l., 20.IV. 1992, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood.

Derivatio nominis. From the Latin adjective “ tyrrhenicus   ”, relating to Tyrrhenus, the name of the mythological saviour of the Etruscans, who led them from Lydia, western Anatolia, to Etruria (Herodotus, Histories, I. 94.5, 7); subsequently the Romans called the sea west of Etruria the Tyrrhenian Sea. This new species chiefly inhabits the northern Tyrrhenian lands.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Integument weakly pigmented, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps pale brown-yellow; marked hispid granulation on lateral surfaces of carapace, on cheliceral palm, on distal surface of chelal hand and on base of movable chelal finger. Carapace 1.0– 1.1, subquadrate; anterior border (figs 252–254) strongly denticulate between median macrosetae, rarely with weak epistome; ocular area as in fig. 255, anterior eyes with convex lens (diameter 0.026–0.035 mm), posterior eyes reduced to smooth cuticular area, both pairs of eyes with tapetum; distance from anterior eyes to anterior margin of carapace 0.02–0.03 mm; chaetotaxy mm 4mm: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), macrosetae slightly thick; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.07–0.08 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 10:(3) 8 (3):(2) 7 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternite II rarely with 9 or 11 setae, sternite III rarely with (3) 7 or 9 (3) setae, sternite IV rarely with (2) 8–9 (2) setae, sternite V rarely with 9–10 setae; genital opening of males flanked by 6–7 (rarely 5) setae on each side. Chelicerae (figs 256–257) 1.9– 2.2 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 5–7 teeth proximally reduced in size and 3–5 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with a large isolated subapical tooth (di) (proximal with respect to the spinneret), 4–6 contiguous teeth and 3–5 proximal microtubercles; gl ratio 0.52–0.61; spinneret prominent, conical, apically rounded, more obtuse in males, with 4 glandular ducts; rallum with 11 blades; serrulae interior and exterior respectively with 12 and 14 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 4–8 (mostly 5–7) coxal spines, coxa III with 1–5 (mostly 2–3) coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 4.55–5.3 (3), 4.4–5.3 (Ƥ) times as long as broad, with laterobasal hispid granulation; chela (figs 258–260) 4.6–5.4 (3), 4.1–4.7 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.0– 2.2 (3), 1.7–2.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, depressed at level of trichobothria ibisb, with abrupt slope between trichobothria ib-isb and eb-esb-ist (hand with a square profile); fixed chelal finger with 11–12 (rarely 13) triangular teeth, weakly reclined, with dental canals, the 3–4 distal ones gradually reduced in size towards fingertip, the last usually with rounded tip; base of fixed chelal finger with 6–8 microtubercles; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 5 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.020 mm); distal half of movable chelal finger with 6–7 (rarely 5 or 8) upright triangular teeth, the distal one small or very small, with dental canals; proximal half of movable chelal finger with thick marginal lamina weakly undulated or finely serrated; coupled sensilla pc between b and sb, mostly at level of sb, rarely distad of sb; trichobothria as in figs 259–260, eb-esb-ist mostly placed in a straight line, or ist proximad of the line eb-esb; basal apodeme of movable chelal finger strongly sclerotized, subrectangular, squat, mostly truncate and indented apically; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3–1.4 (3), 1.2–1.35 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2–1.3 (3), 1.15–1.25 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/ carapace 1.1–1.2 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 0.90–1.05 (3), 0.93–1.30 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.26–0.30 × 0.26–0.30 (0.23– 0.28 anteriorly) (3), 0.29–0.36 × 0.28–0.36 (0.25–0.31 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.20–0.245 × 0.11–0.12 (3), 0.23–0.29 × 0.11–0.15 (Ƥ), movable finger length 0.11–0.135 (3), 0.12–0.15 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.29–0.37 × 0.06–0.07 (3), 0.32–0.42 × 0.065–0.09 (Ƥ); chela 0.435–0.54 × 0.09–0.105 (3), 0.47–0.60 × 0.10–0.135 (Ƥ); hand length 0.185–0.22 (3), 0.20–0.26 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.25–0.31 (3), 0.265–0.34 (Ƥ).

Description of tritonymph. Integument weakly pigmented, hispid granulation less evident than in adults. Carapace 1.0 times longer than broad, anterior border with sharp denticles, without epistome; diameter of anterior eyes 0.024 mm; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18); length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.05–0.06 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –IX 5:(2) 6–7 (2):(1) 6–7 (1): 7: 6: 6: 6: 6. Chelicerae 1.9–2.1 times as long as broad, palm with 5 setae and one microseta laterally; fixed finger with 5 teeth, movable finger with 4 teeth and one isolated subapical tooth (di); spinneret prominent as in females; rallum with 9 blades; serrulae interior and exterior respectively with 10 and 12 blades; gl ratio 0.54–0.57. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 2 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 5; coxa II with 4–5 coxal spines, coxa III with 1– 3 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 4.0– 4.6 times as long as broad; chela 4.2–4.7 times as long as deep; hand of chela 1.8 –2.0 times as long as deep; fixed chelal finger with 10–12 triangular teeth, the proximal one apically rounded; base of fixed chelal finger with a few microtubercles; tip of fixed chelal finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; distal half of movable chelal finger with 6–8 triangular teeth; proximal half of movable chelal finger with weakly undulated and crenellated marginal lamina; coupled sensilla pc mostly nearer to b than to sb; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3–1.4; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.1–1.2; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.0– 1.1.

Measurements (in mm). Body length 0.70–0.80. Carapace 0.23–0.245 × 0.23–0.24 (0.20–0.22 anteriorly). Chelicerae 0.18–0.20 × 0.085–0.105, movable finger length 0.09–0.11. Pedipalp: femur 0.24–0.28 × 0.05–0.06; chela 0.36–0.40 × 0.08–0.095; hand length 0.15–0.17; movable finger length 0.20–0.22.

Remarks. Among the species of the Chthonius fuscimanus   group, C. tyrrhenicus   n. sp. is closely related to C. nanus   , an epigean species common and widespread in the same geographical area, and, perhaps, to C. pyrenaicus Beier, 1934   , from Spain, the Balearic Islands and France (Pyrénées Orientales). Differences between C. tyrrhenicus   and C. nanus   are given in the Remarks under the latter species.

Callaini (1984) first detected and described morphological differences between some populations from western Liguria—referred to Chthonius   sp. (gr. elbanus Beier   )—and the true C. nanus   (as C. elbanus   ), but he did not formally propose a new species. Gardini (1990) followed the opinion of Callaini (1984) in a key to the Ligurian Ephippiochthonius   . The description and measurements of Gardini (1980 c) and Callaini (1984) agree with the above description of C. tyrrhenicus   . Many syntopic occurrences of C. tyrrhenicus   and C. nanus   have been detected in Liguria (from Genoa and Savona Provinces: see Material examined).