Chthonius,

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 112-123

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FC302AA5-49CC-41B0-9A66-23C11AB4EBAE

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FF84-F919-6B99-FA9B1D3FA394

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chthonius
status

 

Chthonius  (E.) tetrachelatus  (Preyssler, 1790)

( Figs 219–234View FIGURES 219 – 224View FIGURES 225 – 226View FIGURES 227 – 232View FIGURES 233 – 234, 282View FIGURES 282 – 285)

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) beieri Lazzeroni 1966: 497  , figs 1 A –G, 2 A –B (synonymized by Lazzeroni 1969 b: 395); DeVore-Scribante 1999: 15, 134, 223, 264, figs 10 a –i.

Not Chthonius  (E.) tetrachelatus  : Lazzeroni 1969 a: 324 (in part, see C. siculus  ); Lazzeroni 1969 b: 395 (in part, see C. fuscimanus  and C. nanus  ); Gardini 2008 a: 13 (in part, see C. concii  ).

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) tetrachelatus: DeVore-Scribante 1999: 21  , 139, 226, 266, figs 15 a –g; Gardini 2008 b: 632; Gardini 2009 b: 24, figs 1–14.

Type locality: Czech Republic, Prague, Karlovo námĕstí (50 °04ʹ 32 ʺN 14 ° 25 ʹ 11 ʺE).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic Region, chiefly Mediterranean; introduced to eastern Canada, U.S.A. (including Hawaii), Cuba, Argentina, Seychelles and southwestern Australia (Harvey 2011).

Diagnosis (3 Ƥ). An eyed epigean Chthonius  ( Ephippiochthonius  ) that differs from other species of the C. tetrachelatus  group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger without isolated subapical tooth (di) and with spinneret in both sexes; posterior margin of carapace with 2 macrosetae or with 2 macrosetae and 1 lateral microseta on each side; hand of chela not depressed—or with a very weak depression—at level of trichobothria ib-isb, without hump distad of ib-isb; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 3–4 (rarely 5) teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.024–0.040 mm); distal half of movable chelal finger with 5–8 triangular, pointed teeth; length of chela 0.65–0.95 (3), 0.55–1.04 (Ƥ) mm, length of movable chelal finger 0.38–0.56 (3), 0.39–0.60 (Ƥ) mm; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.3–1.5.

Type material examined. ITALY— Marche: Ancona Prov.— 1 Ƥ (paratype) (“ Chthonius  (E.) beieri  Lazzeroni, paratypus, G. Lazzeroni det.”), Sirolo, 13.VII. 1966, C. Baroni Urbani leg. (MSNV).

Other material examined. ITALY— Venezia Giulia: Gorizia Prov.— 3 3 1 Ƥ, Doberdò, Lago di Doberdò, 12.IV. 1981, E. Bognolo leg.; 1 3, id., Lago di Doberdò, 17.IV. 1983, E. Bognolo leg. Venezia Giulia: Trieste Prov.— 1 3, Banne, Grotta Arnaldo Germani, 11.II. 1979, M. Seriani leg., entrance; 1 Ƥ, Basovizza, 28.IV. 1983, E. Bognolo leg.; 1 3, Basovizza-Gropada, near Grotta Abisso Plutone, 21.X. 1979, M. Seriani leg.; 2 3, Borgo Grotta Gigante, 280 m a.s.l., 30.IX. 2007, L. Galli leg., Fraxinus ornus  and Quercus  wood; 1 3, Duino, 20 m a.s.l., 9.IV. 1993, F. Gasparo leg.; 2 3, Duino-Aurisina, Grotta tra bivio Aurisina e Sistiana 411 VG/TS, 102 m a.s.l., 26.VIII. 1988, F. Gasparo leg., entrance; 1 3, Muggia, Lazzaretto, 1 m a.s.l., 21.IV. 2002, F. Gasparo leg., meadow near seaside; 1 3, San Dorligo della Valle, San Lorenzo, Stagno n.119, 19.VII. 1999, F. Stoch leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., San Lorenzo, meadow near Stagno n.119, 9.IX. 1999, F. Stoch leg.; 1 3, id., San Lorenzo, Stagno n. 119, 455 m a.s.l., 4.VIII. 1999, F. Stoch leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 7.VI. 2000; 1 3, id., 26.V. 2000; 2 3 3 Ƥ 1 D, id., 6 / 13.IX. 1998; 1 Ƥ, id., 14.VII. 2000; 1 T, id., Bagnoli della Rosandra, 22.IX. 1983, M. Bodon leg.; 1 3, id., Grotta delle Gallerie 420 VG/ TS, 340 m a.s.l., 7.IV. 1985, F. Gasparo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Sgonico, Baratro dei Cavalli, 24.IV. 1982, M. Seriani leg.; 1 3 4 Ƥ, Sistiana, Costa dei Barbari, 510 m a.s.l., 12.IV/ 15.IX. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., traps in Quercus ilex  wood; 1 Ƥ, Ternova Piccola, Carso Triestino, 25.IV. 1980, E. Bognolo leg., under stone; 1 Ƥ, Trieste, Monte Spaccato, 400 m a.s.l., 16.VI. 1996, C. Giusto, R. Regalin & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., Percedol, 4.XII. 1981, M. Seriani leg.; 1 3, id., Monrupino, 3.I. 1982, M. Seriani leg., Quercus  wood; 3 3 3 Ƥ, id., Orto Lapidario, 30.VI/ 31.VII. 1994, Gruppo Entomologico Mus. Trieste leg.; 15 3 2 Ƥ 1 T 1 D, id., Vicolo delle Rose 73, 120 m a.s.l., 18.V. 1986, F. Gasparo leg.; 1 3, id., 25.IV. 1987; 1 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., Miramare, 30 m a.s.l., 1.IX/ 1.X. 1991, F. Gasparo leg., pitfall traps; 1 3 3 T, id., 1.X/ 1.XI. 1991; 1 Ƥ, id., 1.V/ 1.VI. 1991; 1 3 3 Ƥ, id., Villa Opicina, 16.VI. 1982, M. Seriani leg. Friuli: Udine Prov.— 1 3 1 Ƥ, Attimis, Porzus above Attimis, 750 m a.s.l., 10.VII. 1990, F. Gasparo leg., broad-leaved wood; 1 3, Forni, 2.VIII. 1980, M. Seriani leg.; 1 Ƥ, Gonars, Paludi del Corno, 1.IV. 2001, A. Zanetti, A. Tagliapietra, G. Tomasin & G. Governatori leg., tufts of Schoenus nigricans  , basic peat (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, Marano, Isola di Martignana, S slope, 7.V/ 9.VI. 2004, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in dunes; 1 Ƥ, Moruzzo, Torbiera di Borgo Pegoraro, 16.X. 2001, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in wood (MFNB); 1 3, Musi, Monte Musi, 14.XI. 1980, M. Seriani leg., moss; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Pioverno, Venzone, 250 m a.s.l., 11.II/ 14.VII. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., pitfall traps in Ostrya carpinifolia  wood. Veneto: Belluno Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Agordo, La Muda, 550 m a.s.l., 2.VII. 1985, G. Gardini leg. Veneto: Padua Prov.— 1 3, Rovolon, Buso dell’Orso 1398 V /PD, 28.V. 1983, E.Piva & I. Ferrari leg. (MSNV). Veneto: Venice Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Bibione, 17.VII. 1997, leg.? (MFNB); 4 3 3 Ƥ, Caorle, Valle Vecchia (Brussa), 0–5 m a.s.l., 26.VII/ 12.VIII. 1999, P. Glerean leg.; 1 3, id., 12 / 26.VIII. 1999, coastal pinewood (MFNB); 2 3 4 Ƥ, id., 11 / 26.VII. 1999 (MFNB); 1 3, id., 18.XII. 1999 / 9.I. 2000 (MFNB); 1 3, id., 29.V/ 13.VI. 1999 (MFNB); 1 T, id., 2 / 15.IV. 2000 (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., 1 / 14.V. 2000 (MFNB); 17 3 14 Ƥ, Venezia, Isola S. Giorgio, 21.VI/ 20.VII. 1996, H. Hansen leg. (MSNVE); 1 Ƥ, id., 17.III/ 18.IV. 1994 (MSNVE); 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., 18.II/ 17.III. 1994 (MSNVE); 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., 5.X/ 8.XI. 1994 (MSNVE); 2 Ƥ, id., 19.V/ 21.VI. 1994 (MSNVE); 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., 20.VIII/ 5.X. 1994 (MSNVE); 1 Ƥ, id., Laguna Veneta, Cassa colmata A, 10.IV. 1995, Celano leg. (MSNVE); 13 3 19 Ƥ 1 T, id., Giardini Biennale, VIII. 1992, H. Hansen leg., meadow (MSNVE). Veneto: Verona Prov. – 2 Ƥ, Bussolengo, Parco Natura Viva, 17.V. 2002, Marzotto & Vanin leg. (SVP); 2 3, id., 30.VIII. 2002 (SVP); 4 3, id., 29.III. 2003 (SVP); 1 3, id., 14.VI. 2003 (SVP); 1 T, id., 13.VIII. 2002 (SVP); 2 3, id., 26.VII. 2002; 3 Ƥ, id., 28.VI. 2002 (SVP); 1 3, id., 19.IX. 2002 (SVP); 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., 28.VI. 2003 (SVP); 2 3 (G. Lazzeroni det.), Custoza, 29.IV. 1968, G. Osella & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 7 3 6 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), Valli Grandi Veronesi, Torretta, 12.IX. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ 1 T, Verona, Giardino Giusti, 8.IX/ 14.X. 2005, F. Ballarin leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, id., 24.V/ 28.VI. 2005 (MSNV); 1 T, id., 2.VIII/ 8.IX. 2005 (MSNV); 1 T, id., 14.X/ 21.XI. 2005 (MSNV); 1 3, id., 1.II/ 7.III. 2006 (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, id., 7.III/ 12.IV. 2006 (MSNV); 1 Ƥ (G. Callaini det.), Verona, Cologna Veneta, 15.VII. 1979, R. Gioco leg. (MSNV); 1 3 2 Ƥ 1 T (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., 11.IX. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., Monte, 13.V. 1968, G. Osella & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 3 3 8 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., fort near Monte, 28.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., Navene, 8.IX. 1968, L. Tamanini leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., between S. Ambrogio and Monte, 13.V. 1968, G. Osella & A. Montolli (MSNV); 1 3 (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., S. Maria in Stelle, 20.V. 1966, Braga leg. (MSNV); 5 3 4 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., between S. Vigilio and Torri, 4.VI. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 3 (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., Vajo del Paradiso S slope, 28.III. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), id., Museo Storia Naturale, 27.X. 1961, leg.? (MSNV); 11 3 13 Ƥ 2 T (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., Villa Bartolomea, 11.IX. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV). Veneto: Vicenza Prov.— 2 Ƥ, Isola Vicentina, Grotta Azzurra 938 V/VI, 11.V. 1985, I. Ferrari leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ, Nanto, Covolo Fortificato di Trene 340 V/VI, 27.VIII. 1984, I. Ferrari leg. (MSNV); 2 Ƥ, Solagna, Monte Grappa, Col Cavallino, 13.IX. 1992, F. Rigobello & B. Peruffo leg.; 1 3, id., 30.V. 1992; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 27.III. 1993; 3 Ƥ, Valdagno, Grotta Predelle 1307 V /VI, 395 m a.s.l., 13.VIII. 2006, D. Bianco leg. Trentino: Trento Prov.— 2 Ƥ, Pergine Valsugana, 11.XI. 2005, M.

Campagnaro leg. Lombardy: Brescia Prov.— 1 3 1 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), Brescia, 8.XI. 1961, leg? (MSNV). Lombardy: Mantova Prov.— 7 3 1 Ƥ, Castiglione delle Stiviere, 107 m a.s.l., 29.VI. 2009, G. Ruzzante leg.; 1 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), Mantova, Ponti sul Mincio, 7.II. 1971, A Zanetti leg., marsh; 3 Ƥ, Sabbioneta, near Villa Pasquali, 29.III. 2005, S. Zoia leg., wooded embankment. Lombardy: Milan Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Cassano d’Adda, N Groppello d’Adda, 140 m a.s.l., 6.VIII. 2011, S. Zoia leg., sieved. Lombardy: Varese Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Gavirate, 5.VI. 2011, G. Gardini leg., base of Tilia  . Piedmont: Alessandria Prov.— 2 T, Alessandria, Valmadonna, 2.V. 1982, C. Torti leg., haystack; 2 Ƥ 1 T, id., Cuccaro, 25.I. 1981, C. Torti leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Bosio, Capanne di Marcarolo, loc. Preadoga, 700 m a.s.l., 24.I. 1982, A. Beda leg., Castanea sativa  wood; 1 Ƥ, Castelletto d’Orba, 28.XI. 1976, E. Bernabò leg., rotten wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Gavonata, 11.IX. 1973, R. Poggi leg.; 3 Ƥ, Lerma, Cirimilla, 260 m a.s.l., 9.VI. 2010, M. Capurro, S. Ferretti, L. Galli & C. Torti leg., Carpinus betulus  wood; 2 3 1 Ƥ 2 T, Lu Monferrato, 18.I. 1981, C. Torti leg., Robinia  scrub; 1 3 1 T, Rigoroso, gravel bed of Fiume Scrivia, 3.IV. 1972, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3, Valenza, Garzaia, 9.XII. 1989, C. Torti leg. Piedmont: Cuneo Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Caprauna, 3.XI. 1990, G. Gardini leg., web in a house; 1 3, Ormea, near Nasagò, 700 m a.s.l., 19.V. 1994, G. B. Delmastro leg.; 1 Ƥ, San Michele Mondovì, along the road to Niella Tanaro, 450 m a.s.l., 1.VI. 2000, G. B. Delmastro leg. (MCCI). Piedmont: Turin Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Carmagnola, via Rossini, private garden, 21.V. 2008, M. Evangelista leg. (MCCI); 1 3, Exilles, La Fucina, along Fiume Dora, 760 m a.s.l., 29.VI. 2000, G. B. Delmastro leg. (MCCI); 1 Ƥ ( Chthonius  (E.) austriacus nanus  , M. Beier det.), Leinì, 29.III. 1970, G. Osella leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, Locana, outskirts W of Rosone, 720 m a.s.l., 13.VIII. 1997, G. B. Delmastro leg. (MCCI); 2 Ƥ, Poirino, Favari, Cascina Bellezza, 19.VI/ 7.X. 2008, M. Evangelista leg. (MCCI); 2 3 5 Ƥ, Ulzio, slope of Monte Seguret, 1600 m a.s.l., 21.VIII. 1976, G. Gardini leg., under stones in pinewood. Liguria: Genoa Prov.— 1 3, Genova, Nostra Signora del Monte, 10 / 17.I. 1971, R. Poggi leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 24.X. 1971, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 5.XII. 1971, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3, id., Orto Botanico, 10.XII. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3, id., Pegli, Villa Pallavicini, 27.II. 1981, R. Rizzerio & G. Gardini leg.; 1 3, id., Quinto, Monte Moro W slope, 150 m a.s.l., 13.III. 2009, G. Gardini leg., hollow in Olea  ; 1 3, id., 25.I. 2004, G. Gardini leg., Quercus pubescens  wood; 1 3, id., 200 m a.s.l., 13.VI. 2002, G. Gardini leg.; 2 T, id., Quinto, Rio San Pietro, 70 m a.s.l., 18.X. 2009, G. Gardini leg., hollow of Olea  ; 4 T, id., 50 m a.s.l., 11.XII. 2009, G. Gardini leg., hollow of Olea  ; 2 3, id., Sant’Eusebio, 4.X. 1975, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 Ƥ, Genova, via Cairoli, 20.III. 1981, L. Briganti leg., in house; 1 3 3 T, Genova, Villetta Di Negro, 27.IX. 1979, Gruppo Entomologico Ligure leg.; 1 3 3 Ƥ, id., 4.VI. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 2 3, id., Voltri, Monte Geremia, 800 m a.s.l., 2.V. 1973, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Isola del Cantone, Santuario di Tuscia, 9.IX. 1992, M. Bodon leg.; 4 3 8 Ƥ 2 T, Sant’Olcese, San Lorenzo di Casanova, 26.III. 1972, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 1 Ƥ, id., 26.III. 1972, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 1 Ƥ, Sestri Levante, Punta Manara, 8.VII. 1975, G. Gardini leg., under stone; 1 Ƥ, id., Punta Manara near Riva Trigoso, 27.II. 1977, G. Gardini leg., under stone in olive grove; 1 3, id., Punta Manara, 12.VI. 1974, G. Gardini leg., sieved on coastal cliff; 1 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), Sestri Ponente, Grotta della Gianchetta 304 Li, 17.X. 1958, Dinale leg. (MSNV). Liguria: Imperia Prov.— 3 3 6 Ƥ, Bordighera, Sasso, 9.XI. 1974, G. Gardini leg., under stones in olive grove; 1 Ƥ, Diano Marina, 5– 50 m a.s.l., 4.IX. 1995, F. Gasparo leg., pinewood and Mediterranean scrub. Liguria: La Spezia Prov.— 2 3 2 Ƥ, Brugnato, Torrente Chiciosa, 29.II. 1976, N. Sanfilippo leg., sieved; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Deiva Marina, 22.X. 1972, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus suber  wood; 3 Ƥ, id., 26.X. 1972, G. Bartoli & G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus suber  wood; 1 3 5 Ƥ, id., 14.XII. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 4 3 1 Ƥ, id., 4.XI. 1972, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 1 3 3 Ƥ, Monterosso al Mare, Punta Mesco, 6.III. 1973, G. Gardini leg., under stones; 1 Ƥ, id., 15.III. 1973; 3 3 1 Ƥ, id., 29.III. 1974, G. Gardini leg., under stone in Quercus ilex  wood; 3 3 6 Ƥ, id., 4 m a.s.l., 11.XI. 1974, G. Gardini leg., under stones on coastal cliff (together with 1 3 2 Ƥ of C. concii  ); 2 3 2 Ƥ, id., 4 m a.s.l., 23.II. 1975, G. Gardini leg., under stones near seaside; 1 3, id., 25.IV. 1975; 2 3, Portovenere, Isola Palmaria, 11.VIII. 1981, L. Briganti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Vernazza, Corniglia, 3 m a.s.l., 5.II. 1978, G. Gardini leg., near seaside. Liguria: Savona Prov.— 2 Ƥ 1 T, Cairo Montenotte, slope of Monte San Giorgio, 650 m a.s.l., 18.I. 1981, D. Antichi & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Monte San Giorgio, 28.XII. 1973, G. Bartoli leg., sieved in Fagus sylvatica  wood; 1 Ƥ, Piampaludo, Lajone, 7.VII. 2004, M. Capurro, D. Duradoni & L. Galli leg., Fagus sylvatica  wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, near Quiliano, 14.III. 1986, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex  wood; 1 Ƥ, Sassello, Lago Gulli, 15.VI. 2006, G. Troiano & L. Galli leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Foresta Demaniale della Deiva, 27.VII. 2004, M. Capurro, D. Duradoni & L. Galli leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Savona, Santuario di Savona, 17.X. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 1 3 1 T, Stella, Santa Giustina, 330 m a.s.l., 14.III. 1986, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Urbe, Martina d’Olba, 480 m a.s.l., 15.VII. 1984, C. Giusto leg. Emilia: Bologna Prov.  — 1 Ƥ, S of Bologna, 10.VI. 1984, S. Zoia & L. Ansaldo leg.; 7 3 5 Ƥ, Bologna, near Gaibola, 8.XII. 1983, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 4 3, Bologna town, 20.IX. 1990, G. L. Agnoli leg., under wood in a garden; 3 3, Casalecchio di Reno, Vizzano, IX/ XI. 2010, L. Colacurcio leg.; 3 3 5 Ƥ, Sasso Marconi, Palazzo Rossi, III. 2010, L. Colacurcio leg. Emilia: Ferrara Prov.  — 4 3 3 Ƥ, Comacchio, Valli di Comacchio, Dosso Lungo (Punta Boscoforte), 21.III. 1990, Pantaleoni leg.; 1 T, Mesola, Bosco della Mesola, Elciola, 18.IX. 1996, R. Fabbri leg. (MCFS); 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., Bosco della Mesola, Bosco Panfilia, 17.IV. 1996, R. Fabbri leg. (MCFS); 1 Ƥ, id., 10.VI. 1996 (MCFS); 1 Ƥ, id., 18.IX. 1996 (MCFS); 4 Ƥ, id., 13.VIII. 1996 (MCFS); 2 Ƥ, id., Bosco della Mesola, Parco della Duchessa, 17.IV. 1996, R. Fabbri leg. (MCFS); 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., 23.X. 1996 (MCFS); 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 19.II. 1997 (MCFS). Emilia: Modena Prov.  — 2 3 3 Ƥ 3 T, Castelvetro, 9.XI. 1983, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Castanea sativa  wood; 3 Ƥ, id., 9.IV. 1984, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Modena, Parco Comunale, 30.VIII. 1981, G. Callaini & G. Gardini leg. Emilia: Parma Prov.  — 1 3, Albareto, Passo Cento Croci, 11.VIII. 1982, L. Ansaldo, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 3 3 7 Ƥ 10 T 1 D, Bedonia, Monte Pelpi, 750 m a.s.l., 11.VIII. 1982, L. Ansaldo, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Berceto, 450 m a.s.l., 30.IX. 1984, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Quercus  and Castanea  ; 1 3, Sala Baganza, 26.IV. 1993, M. Bodon leg., gravel bed of a torrent. Emilia: Reggio Emilia Prov.  — 1 3 2 Ƥ, Carpineti, Monte Valestra, 900 m a.s.l., 30.VIII. 1980, G. Gardini, C. Giusto & S. Zoia leg. Romagna: Forlì Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Meldola, Bosco di Scardavilla, 12.VI/ 18.VII. 1997, R. Fabbri leg.; 1 3, id., 18.VII/ 19.VIII. 1997, grassy clearing; 1 3, id., 19.VIII/ 23.IX. 1997; 1 T, id., 13.III/ 15.IV. 1998, reafforestation; 1 Ƥ, id., 17.VII/ 20.VIII. 1998, R. Fabbri leg. Romagna: Ravenna Prov.— 4 3 1 Ƥ, Ravenna, Punte Alberete, 4.IV. 1975, G. Gardini leg., under stones and sieved; 3 3 4 Ƥ, id., Saline di Cervia, 5.IV. 1975, G. Gardini leg., under logs; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Pineta di Classe, 5.IV. 1975, G. Gardini leg., sieved. Tuscany: Florence Prov.— 3 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, Strada in Chianti, 5.III. 1967, A. Bordoni leg., moss on rock; 1 3, Fiesole, 25.VIII. 1976, G. Bartoli leg., 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Fiesole, 21 / 23.VIII. 1975, G. Bartoli leg., sieved under Quercus ilex  ; 1 3 1 T, near Florence, 15.XI. 1981, L. Briganti & S. Rocchi leg. Tuscany: Grosseto Prov.— 2 3 1 Ƥ, Magliano, 25.IV. 1979, G. Castellini leg.; 3 3 3 Ƥ, Ribolla, Fiume Bruna, 5.I. 1996, M. Bodon leg. Tuscany: Massa Carrara Prov.— 2 3 1 Ƥ, Pontremoli, slope of Monte Orsaro, 1000 m ca a.s.l., 26.X. 1983, S. Zoia & C. Torti leg.; 1 3, id., near Caprio, 26.X. 1983, L. Ansaldo, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Terrarossa, Fiume Magra, 19.III. 1972, R. Poggi leg. Tuscany: Pisa Prov.— 2 Ƥ, San Miniato, Roffia, 20 m a.s.l., 7.VI. 2009, G. Gardini leg., lake shore. Tuscany: Pistoia Prov.— 1 Ƥ, San Marcello Pistoiese, Mammiano, 19.VI. 1983, S. Zoia leg. Tuscany: Siena Prov.— 2 3, Bagno Vignoni, 2.VIII. 1990, P. Magrini leg.; 1 3 1 T, Barbaione, 20.I. 1973, leg.? Tuscany Archipelago— 4 3, Grosseto, Isola del Giglio, Valle Pertuso, IV. 1985, A. Focarile leg., Quercus ilex  wood; 3 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., Isola di Giannutri, 14 / 20.V. 1978, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex  wood and garigue; 1 3, Livorno, Isola di Capraia, near Paese, 50 m a.s.l., 3.V. 1998, C. Giusto & E. Farinella leg.; 1 3, id., Porto, 2.X. 1974, G. Gardini leg., beach; 1 Ƥ, id., Isola di Capraia, 18 / 25.IV. 1973, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex  wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., Il Piano, 18.IV. 1995, G. Gardini & C. Giusto leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Porto, 20.IV. 1995, G. Gardini & C. Giusto leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ (G. Callaini det.), id., Isola di Montecristo, VI. 1974, F. Giusti leg. (MSNV). Marche: Ancona Prov.— 1 3, Portonovo, 30 m a.s.l., 12.X. 1991, F. Gasparo leg., Quercus ilex  wood; 1 3 (M. Beier det.), Sirolo, Monte Conero, Sassi Neri beach, 30.XI. 1961, leg.? (MSNV); 1 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), Sirolo, 2.XI. 1961, leg.? (MSNV); 1 3 (M. Beier det.), id., 3.IV. 1961, leg.? (MSNV); 1 3 1 T ( Chthonius  (E.) siculus  , M. Beier det.), id., VIII. 1964, leg.? (MSNV); 5 3 3 Ƥ, Sirolo, Monte Conero, 7.X. 1975, G. Gardini leg., under stones in cultivations; 1 Ƥ, id., 400 m a.s.l., 22.IV. 1989, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex  wood; 1 3, Sirolo, 60–80 m a.s.l., 13.X. 1991, F. Gasparo leg. Marche: Macerata Prov.— 2 3 8 Ƥ 5 T, Civitanova Marche, Fosso Caronte, Le Grazie, 150 m a.s.l., 12.I. 2007, M. Mori leg., Quercus pubescens  and Populus  . Marche: Pesaro Prov.— 3 3, near Serra San Abbondio, 600 m a.s.l., 18.VI. 1989, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica  wood. Marche: Pescara Prov.— 1 3 1 Ƥ, Bussi sul Tirino, 300 m a.s.l., 21.III. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., pasture. Umbria: Perugia Prov.— 1 3 1 Ƥ, Colfiorito, 5.VII. 1977, G. Gardini leg., under stone; 2 3, Nocera Umbra, Monte Alago, 16.V. 1993, P. Magrini leg.; 2 Ƥ, Spello, Anfiteatro romano, 24.III. 1974, R. Poggi leg.; 2 3, id., 13.IV. 1974, R. Poggi leg., under stones; 1 Ƥ, Uppello, 8.V. 1974, R. Poggi leg., under stone. Umbria: Terni Prov.— 2 Ƥ, Orvieto, Titignano, entrance cave 56 U/ TR, 260 m a.s.l., 6.VI. 2004, P. Magrini leg.; 1 3, id., 16.II. 1992, P. Magrini leg. Latium: Frosinone Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Cassino, Grotta a quota 300, 2.IV. 1988, P. Magrini leg. Latium: Latina Prov.  — 1 Ƥ, Cisterna, 26.VII. 1984, G. Nardi leg., under tiles, dry place; 1 Ƥ, Isola di Ponza, Piana d’Incenso, 8.XII. 1966, P. Brignoli leg.; 1 Ƥ, Isola di Zannone, Sp. Est, 19.V. 1966, A. Vigna leg.; 1 Ƥ, San Felice Circeo, Quarto Freddo, 14.IX. 1977, Tripaldi leg., Mediterranean forest; 1 3, id., Peretto, 190 m a.s.l., 3 / 17.V. 2005, G. Forcina & A. Noal leg., pitfall trap. Latium: Rieti Prov.— 1 3 (G. Lazzeroni det.), Amatrice-Capricchia, Monti della Laga, Sacro Cuore, IX. 1968, G. Osella leg. (MSNV). Latium: Rome Prov.— 1 3, Carpineto Romano, Grotta delle 13 Antenne 757 La/RM, 14.III. 1993, L. Latella leg.; 2 3 5 Ƥ, Roma, Villa Ada, 24.VI/ 4.IX. 1991, L. Latella leg., pitfall traps. Abruzzo: L’Aquila Prov.— 1 3, Barrea, between Barrea and Villetta Barrea, 990 m a.s.l., 26.VI. 1995, F. Gasparo leg., pinewood; 1 Ƥ, Capestrano, Capo d’Acqua, 5.XII. 1993, G. Osella leg., under Salix caprea  . Abruzzo: Chieti Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Ortona, Riparo di Giobbe, 13.III. 1967, P. Brignoli leg. Campania: Cosenza Prov.— 1 3 (G. Lazzeroni det.), Matese, road to Rif. Campitello, 1300–1500 m a.s.l., 2.IX. 1967, F. Giusti leg. (MSNV). Campania: Naples Prov.— 1 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), Napoli, Roccarainola, 11.II. 1967, D. Capolongo leg., on dried Magnolia  (MSNV); 2 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), id. 23.XII. 1967 (MSNV); 4 Ƥ 2 T (M. Beier det.), id., 11.XI. 1967 (MSNV). Campania: Salerno Prov.— 1 3, San Rufo, 3.IV. 1987, P. Magrini leg. Apulia: Bari Prov.— 1 3, Adelfia, 1.IV. 1988, F. Angelini leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Alberobello, 430 m a.s.l., 5.IX. 1993, V. Mahnert leg., under stones in olive grove; 4 3 1 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), Bari, Gravina, 22.VII. 1962, leg.? (MSNV). Apulia: Brindisi Prov.— 2 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), Brindisi, Ceglie Messapico, 26.IX. 1967, C. Baroni Urbani leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( Chthonius  (E.) spec. vic. siculus, M. Beier  det.), id., La Sciaia, 4.IX. 1973, G. Gardini leg., beach; 5 3 3 Ƥ, Ostuni, 220 m a.s.l., 15.IV. 2006, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex  wood. Apulia: Foggia Prov.— 1 3 (M. Beier det.), Gargano, Monte S. Angelo, contrada Caramanita, 500 m a.s.l., 9.X. 1961, leg.? (MSNV); 4 3 4 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), id., Foresta Umbra, 3.VIII. 1970, L. Magnano leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ (M. Beier det.), id., Malanotte, Peschici, 13.X. 1962, leg.? (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, Gargano, V. 1983, G. Carpaneto leg.; 7 3 3 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), Foggia, Lucera, 28.IX. 1967, C. Baroni Urbani leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T (G. Lazzeroni det.), id., Motta Montecorvino, 28.IX. 1967, C. Baroni Urbani leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, Peschici, Manaccora [?], 15.III. 1967, P. Brignoli leg.; 1 Ƥ, San Giovanni Rotondo, Convento San Leonardo, 25.X. 1996, R. Argano leg.; 1 Ƥ, Sannicandro Garganico, Bosco di Spina Pulci, 400 m a.s.l., 17.III. 1992, F. Gasparo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Sant’Angelo Garganico, 25.X. 1966, A. Vigna leg.; 1 Ƥ, Vico del Gargano, 19.VII. 1983, S. Vit leg., base of Olea  ; 2 3, Vieste, 18.V. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., pinewood; 9 3 11 Ƥ, Isole Tremiti, San Domino, 20–90 m a.s.l., 15.III. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., pinewood with Pistacia lentiscus  . Apulia: Lecce Prov.— 4 3 4 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), Lecce, Martano, 22.IX. 1967, C. Baroni Urbani leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ, near Monteroni di Lecce, 1.IX. 1996, R. Pepe leg., in a garden; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Otranto, Valle dell’Idro, 22.III. 1997, D. Ferreri leg.; 1 3, Otranto, 23.XI. 1996, D. Ferreri leg., under stone near a bauxite quarry; 1 Ƥ, id., Sorgenti Carlo Magno, 22.III. 1997, D. Ferreri leg. Apulia: Taranto Prov.— 1 3, Martina Franca, Parco delle Pianelle, 7.VII. 1983, S. Vit leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Grotta delle Nove Caselle, 26.IX. 1991, L. Latella leg.; 10 3 1 Ƥ (G. Lazzeroni det.), Taranto, Mottola, 24.IX. 1967, C. Baroni Urbani leg. (MSNV) (together with 1 3 of C. siculus  ). Basilicata: Matera Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Accettura, Torrente Salandrella, 14.V. 1989, F. Angelini leg., Quercus  wood. Basilicata: Potenza Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Lagonegro, Risorgenza del Dragone 30 B/PZ, 28.V. 1995, L. Latella leg. Sicily: Messina Prov.— 8 3 3 Ƥ 1 T, San Fratello, 500 m a.s.l., 29.IV. 1982, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg. Sicily: Palermo Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Caltavuturo, 450 m a.s.l., 30.V. 1985, S. Zoia & R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus ilex  wood; 1 Ƥ, Palermo, Orto Botanico, 4.X. 1979, G. Gardini leg. Sardinia: Cagliari Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Isola San Pietro, Spiaggia Vinagra, 10.V. 1988, V. Cottarelli leg. (MSNG); 1 Ƥ, id., Stagno Cala Vinagra, 13.V. 1988, R. Poggi leg. (MSNG); 2 3 1 Ƥ, Villasimius, Isola Serpentara, 30.VII. 1986, R. Poggi leg., under Pistacia lentiscus  (MSNG). Sardinia: Sassari Prov.— 2 Ƥ, Cargeghe, 13.VII. 2007, leg.?; 1 Ƥ, Olbia, Isola Molara, 13.IX. 1987, R. Poggi leg., under Salix  (MSNG); 1 Ƥ, Ozieri, Grotta del Carmelo 21 Sa/SS, 420 m a.s.l., 9.IV. 1995, G. Grafitti leg., on wall in deep area.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Integument pigmented, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps brown; marked hispid granulation on lateral surface of carapace, on cheliceral palm, on the base of pedipalpal femur and on base of chelal fingers. Carapace 0.9–1.1 times longer than broad, subquadrate; anterior margin (figs 219–220, 227 – 228) denticulate between median macrosetae, sometimes weakly prominent, rarely with epistome (3 Ƥ from Bordighera: Sasso); ocular area as in figs 221 and 229, anterior eyes always with strongly convex lens (diameter 0.04–0.06 mm), posterior ones with weak lens, both pairs of eyes with reflecting tapetum; distance from anterior eyes to anterior margin of carapace 0.03–0.04 mm; chaetotaxy mm 4mm: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), macrosetae thick, rarely one preocular microseta on each side; posterior margin of carapace rarely with 1 lateral microseta on each side; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.07–0.11 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 10:(3) 8 (3):(2) 7 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; genital opening of males V-shaped, flanked by 7–8 (rarely 6) setae on each side. Chelicerae (figs 222–223, 230 – 231) 1.9–2.15 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 7–8 teeth (rarely 6 or 9), proximally reduced in size, and 4–6 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with 5–6 teeth shaped as in fixed finger (the distal one always larger) and 3–5 proximal microtubercles; movable finger without isolated subapical tooth (di); gl ratio 0.53–0.66; spinneret prominent, apically rounded, a little smaller in male; rallum with 11 blades; serrulae interior and exterior with 12 and 14 blades respectively. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 7–12 coxal spines, coxa III with 3–7 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 5.4–7.5 (3), 5.3 –7.0 (Ƥ) times as long as broad; chela (figs 224–226, 232 – 234) 4.4–5.8 (3), 4.2–5.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.0– 2.5 (3) 1.8–2.25 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, not depressed, or only very weakly so, at level of trichobothria ib-isb; fixed chelal finger straight, with 14–22 teeth: 12–20 triangular, large, pointed teeth, with dental canals, weakly reclined and proximally reduced in size, and 2–4 tiny, rounded basal teeth, all with dental canals (often hard to see); base of fixed chelal finger often with 2–4 microtubercles; tip of fixed chelal finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 3–4 (rarely 5) teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.024–0.040 mm); distal half of movable chelal finger with a very small distal tooth (rarely absent) and 6–8 (rarely 5) triangular, upright, pointed teeth with dental canals; proximal half of movable chelal finger with 5–9 vestigial, undulate teeth gradually reduced back to level of sb or halfway between b-sb, mostly with dental canals; coupled sensilla pc halfway between b and sb, mostly nearer to sb; trichobothria as in figs 225–226 and 233–234, eb-esb-ist mostly in a straight line (ist always distad of esb); basal apodeme of movable chelal finger strongly sclerotized, rectangular; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3–1.4 (1.4–1.8 for 3 C. tetrachelatus  according to DeVore-Scribante, 1999: 139) (3), 1.2–1.3 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2–1.4 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.3–1.5 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.3–1.8 (3), 1.4–1.9 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.35–0.50 × 0.36–0.46 (0.32–0.42 anteriorly) (3), 0.37–0.55 × 0.38–0.54 (0.34–0.47 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.29–0.41 × 0.14–0.19 (3), 0.32– 0.45 × 0.16–0.21 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.13–0.19 (3), 0.16–0.23 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.47–0.69 × 0.08– 0.115 (3), 0.52–0.76 × 0.09–0.135 (Ƥ); chela 0.65–0.95 per 0.115–0.17 (3), 0.71–1.04 × 0.14–0.23 (Ƥ); hand length 0.27–0.42 (3), 0.30–0.44 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.38–0.56 (3), 0.395–0.60 (Ƥ).

Description of tritonymph. Integument weakly pigmented, with evident hispid granulation. Carapace 1.0 times longer than broad, subquadrate; anterior margin between median macrosetae without epistome; anterior eyes with very convex lens, posterior ones with weakly convex or flat lens, all eyes with tapetum; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), macrosetae thick; posterior margin of carapace rarely with 1 lateral microseta on each side; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.06–0.07 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 5:(2) 6 (2):(1) 6 (1): 7–8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7. Chelicera 2.1–2.2 times as long as broad, palm with 5 setae and one microseta laterally; fixed finger with 6–7 subequal teeth and few proximal microtubercles; movable finger with 5–6 teeth, isolated subapical tooth (di) absent; spinneret prominent, apically rounded; gl ratio 0.55–0.60; rallum with 9 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 2 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 5; coxa II with 7–8 coxal spines, coxa III with 2–5 (mostly 4) coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 5.0– 5.4 times as long as broad; chela 4.9–5.45 times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.0– 2.3 times as long as deep, with a weak depression at level of trichobothrium ib; form of dentition of chelal fingers as in adults; fixed chelal finger straight, with 13–17 teeth: 11–15 triangular teeth proximally reduced in size, with dental canals, and 1–4 proximal rounded teeth without dental canals; base of fixed chelal finger with a few microtubercles; tip of fixed chelal finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 4–5 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.025–0.028 mm); movable chelal finger with 8– 13 teeth: one very small distal tooth, 5–8 triangular pointed teeth proximally back to halfway between b and st, and 2–6 proximal rounded teeth, mostly with dental canals; coupled sensilla pc distad of b; trichobothria eb-esb-ist mostly placed in a straight line (rarely ist distad of line eb-esb); basal apodeme of movable chelal finger strongly sclerotized, straight, rectangular; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3–1.5; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2–1.3; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.1–1.2.

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.0– 1.2. Carapace 0.31–0.36 × 0.30–0.35 (0.26–0.31 anteriorly). Chelicerae 0.25–0.28 × 0.115–0.135, movable finger length 0.12–0.135. Pedipalp: femur 0.35–0.43 × 0.07–0.08; chela 0.52–0.60 × 0.10–0.12; hand length 0.21–0.26; movable finger length 0.30–0.34.

Remarks. The history and taxonomic problems concerning Chthonius tetrachelatus  are summarized by Gardini (2009), who redescribed the species from the neotype and other specimens from the centre of Prague. Evaluation of variability of C. tetrachelatus  , over its whole geographical distribution, is far from complete and examination of Italian material reveals that a more complicated situation occurs here and presumably in the rest of southern Europe.

The number of setae on posterior margin of carapace was assumed to be a character of taxonomic significance by Gabbutt (1966) and Lazzeroni (1966) when describing, respectively, C. kewi  from Great Britain (Essex: Colne Point, near St Osyth) and C. beieri  from Italy (Marche: Mt Conero near Sirolo). Both were distinguished from C. tetrachelatus  by the presence on the posterior margin of the carapace of a pair of lateral microseta (no microsetae in C. tetrachelatus  ).

Lazzeroni (1969 b) noted that many Italian specimens identified as C. tetrachelatus  show an asymmetrical arrangement of the lateral microsetae (i.e. 0 + 1) and considered both C. kewi  and C. beieri  as atypical forms and consequently synonyms of C. tetrachelatus  . Legg (1975) did not accept the synonymy between C. kewi  and C. tetrachelatus  , because he found genitalic differences, and later (Legg 1987) remarked that in C. kewi  from Britain the number of setae on the posterior margin of the carapace “can vary from two to five within any single population” (i.e. two macrosetae and 0 to 3 microsetae).

Callaini (1984) and DeVore-Scribante (1999) also disagreed with Lazzeroni’s (1969 b) opinion and considered C. beieri  specifically distinct from C. tetrachelatus  on the basis of the presence of lateral microsetae on the posterior margin of the carapace.

Examination of the material listed above from mainland and insular Italy, including a female paratype of C. beieri  , shows that: i) many Italian populations—chiefly from central Italy—have lateral microsetae on the posterior margin of the carapace; ii) the standard number of microsetae, if present, is two, rarely one (0 + 1) or three (1 + 2); iii) populations without microsetae and populations with microsetae are never syntopic; iv) the measurements and ratios obtained mostly overlap those given for C. beieri  by Lazzeroni (1966), Callaini (1984) and DeVore-Scribante (1999), except specimens from Montecristo Isl. (Tuscany Archipelago), with greater size (Callaini 1984); v) the measurements and ratios of topotypical specimens of C. tetrachelatus  from Prague fall within the range of Italian populations; vi) no diagnostic characters have been found in genitalic structures between populations with and without microsetae.

Despite the presence in Italy of populations with additional microsetae on the posterior margin of carapace, I follow Lazzeroni (1969 b) and temporarily consider C. beieri  to be a junior synonym of C. tetrachelatus  . However, the heterogeneous morphology of C. tetrachelatus  probably hides a species complex that current morphological taxonomy is unable to detect. Many Italian records of C. tetrachelatus  reported by Gardini (2000), chiefly from Sardinia, remain to be verified.

For comparisons between C. tetrachelatus  and the related C. siculus  , see Remarks under the latter species.