Chthonius

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 79-88

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

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persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FFA5-F934-6B99-FE731D46A42F

treatment provided by

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scientific name

Chthonius
status

 

Chthonius   (E.) nanus   Beier, 1953

( Figs 163–170 View FIGURES 163 – 168 View FIGURES 169 – 170 , 287 View FIGURES 286 – 289 )

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) austriacus nanus Beier 1953 c: 105   , fig. 1 (in part, 3 only).

Chthonius   (E.) elbanus   Beier 1963 b: 151, fig. 2 (n. syn.).

Chthonius   (E.) tetrachelatus   (not Preyssler, 1790): Lazzeroni 1969 b: 395 (misidentification, in part).

Chthonius   (E.) elbanus   (not Beier, 1963): Lazzeroni 1970: 103; Gardini 1975: 387, fig. 1; Callaini 1979 b: 345, figs Ic –d; Callaini 1980: 227; Callaini 1981: 308; Callaini 1983 a: 149; Callaini 1983 b: 412; Callaini 1984: 130, figs IIA –D; Gardini et al. 1997: 221; Gardini 2004: 127; Gardini 2008 a: 6; Gardini 2008 b: 631.

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) nanus: Gardini 1980 c: 264   , figs 8–15.

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) gibbus   (not Beier, 1953): Gardini et al. 1997: 221 (misidentification, in part).

Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) sp. prope elbanus: Gardini 2008 b: 631   (misidentification).

Type locality: Italy, Liguria, Genoa Prov., Valbrevenna, Tann-a da Reixe 132 Li/GE (44 ° 32 ’ 47 ʺN 9 °05’ 39 ʺE).

Distribution. Switzerland, mainland Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Morocco (?).

Diagnosis (Ƥ). An eyed epigean Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) that differs from other species of the C. fuscimanus   group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger with isolated subapical tooth (di) level with spinneret; both sexes with spinneret; carapace without epistome; pedipalpal hand (in lateral view) without a rounded hump distad of trichobothria ib-isb, weakly depressed at level of ib-isb; fixed and movable chelal fingers respectively with 9–12 and 5–7 triangular teeth; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 5 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.026–0.031 mm); proximal half of movable chelal finger with straight, thick marginal lamina; length of chela 0.52–0.65 (3), 0.56–0.73 (Ƥ), length of movable chelal finger 0.29–0.37 (3), 0.31–0.40 (Ƥ); chela 4.6–5.9 (3) 4.1 –5.0 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; ratio of pedipalpal femur/ carapace 1.15–1.3 (3 Ƥ).

Type material examined. ITALY— Liguria: Genoa Prov. — Lectotype 3 of C. nanus   : “ Chthonius austriacus nanus   n. ssp., det. Beier, Typen!” “ 4. Tann-a da Reixe N. 132 Li 7.7. 48, [Valbrevenna] Carsi (M. Antola) pr. Genova, M. Franciscolo” (MSNG). Tuscany: Livorno Prov. — Holotype Ƥ of C. elbanus   : “ Chthonius   (E.) elbanus   n. sp. Ƥ Type det. Beier” “Chiessi (Elba), macchia Lecci, foglie marce e terriccio. 5.I. 1963 Valle Bianchi” (MBCG).

Other material examined. SWITZERLAND— Tessin— 1 Ƥ, Monte Generoso, Soldino, 580 m a.s.l., 25.VI. 1987, leg.?, Fagus sylvatica   wood.

FRANCE— Alpes de Haute Provence — 3 3 7 Ƥ, Castellane, near La Batie, 1000 m a.s.l., 9.VII. 1984, S. Zoia leg., Quercus   and Ostrya   . Alpes Maritimes — 1 Ƥ, near Breil, 1.V. 1992, M. Bodon leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Levens, 3 km from Levens, 143 m a.s.l., 9.X. 1984, S. Zoia & R. Rizzerio leg., Ostrya   ; 6 3 2 Ƥ 3 T, Sospel, Valle Rio Albarea, 800 m a.s.l., 26.IV. 1980, S. Zoia & A. Torchia leg. Corsica— 5 3 1 Ƥ, Val Gravona, near Tavera, 30.V. 1982, A. Torchia & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 3, Ajaccio, near Suarella, 31.V. 1982, A. Torchia & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood.

ITALY— Venezia Giulia: Gorizia Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Devetaki, [no date], M. Seriani leg. Friuli: Pordenone Prov.— 4 3 5 Ƥ, Chions, Bosco near Torrate, 23.I. 1982, M. Seriani leg.; 1 Ƥ, Claut, Alta Val Cellina, Val Margons, 870 m a.s.l., 29.VI. 2002, A. Dall’Asta leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB). Friuli: Udine Prov.— 2 Ƥ 1 T 1 D, Forni, 2.VIII. 1980, M. Seriani leg. Veneto: prov. Belluno — 23 3 22 Ƥ 6 T, Agordo, La Muda, 550 m a.s.l., 2.VII. 1985, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 1 T, Mel, Praderadego, 750 m a.s.l., 2.XI. 1990, L. Latella & S. Zoia leg. Veneto: Treviso Prov. — 2 3, Fadalto, 2.VIII. 1972, A. Minelli leg.; 2 Ƥ ( Chthonius   (E.) austriacus   , Nymphen, det. Beier), id., 17.IX. 1972; 2 3 3 Ƥ 1 T, Mausè, Basalghelle, 10.VII. 1980, M. G. Paoletti leg., leaf litter; 2 3 5 Ƥ 1 T, Il Montello, 3.X. 2011, E.

Ruzzier leg. Veneto: Vicenza Prov. — 2 Ƥ, Arcugnano, Lago di Fimon, 31.VIII. 1987, R. Rizzerio & G. Gardini leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., wood eastwards Trattoria Moreieta, 335 m a.s.l., 22.XII. 2002, E. Piva leg. (EPV); 1 Ƥ, Chiampo, Grotta dei Fontana 4 V /VI, 20.V. 2006, M. Grottolo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Longare, Grotta della Guerra 127 V/VI, 150 m a.s.l., 16.VI. 1991, E. Piva leg.; 1 3 ( C. elbanus, G. Callaini   det.), Pederiva, Colli Berici, 18.III. 1972, A. Zanetti leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ, Schio, Val Grande, loc. Siberia, 10.VI. 2007, D. Bianco leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Zovencedo, San Gottardo, 13.VI. 1996, R. Monguzzi leg. (RMM). Ve n e to: pro v. Ve ro na — 1 T ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Boscochiesanuova, Rifugio Podestaria, 18.VII. 1968, A. Vigna & G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 2 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., VIII. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 6 Ƥ, id., small valley below Malga Bagorno, 1500 m a.s.l., 10.X. 2010, D. Bianco & E. Piva leg. (EPV); 1 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Cerro Veronese, Vajo di Squaranto, 8.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 3 6 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., 9.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 T ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Colognola ai Colli, 1.XI. 1967, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., 30.XI. 1967, G. Osella & G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Erbezzo, 20.VI. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 2 Ƥ, cave near Ponte dell’Anguillara, 1020 m ca a.s.l., 20.V. 2011, E. Piva leg. (EPV); 1 T ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Fumane, Monte Pastello, 1127 m a.s.l., 28.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det.), id., Monte Pastello, loc. Molane, 22.VII. 1999, C. Manfrin leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., Cavalo, 600 m a.s.l., 21.XI. 1998, R. Monguzzi leg. (RMM); 3 3 ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Giazza, Rifugio Rivolto, 9.VII. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 2 3 2 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., Tregnago, 8.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 3 3 1 Ƥ 1 T ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., between Giazza and Revolto, 10.VII. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Malcesine, Navene, 8.IX. 1968, L. Tamanini leg. (MSNV); 1 3 2 T, Monte Baldo, Prada, 950 m a.s.l., 9.IX. 1993, G. Gardini, C. Giusto & R. Rizzerio, hazel leaf litter; 1 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Negrar, Montecchio, 6.XII. 1967, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Roverè Veronese, Malga Campo Rotondo di Sotto, 19.VI. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 4 3 4 Ƥ 2 T ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Sant’Anna d’Alfaedo, Monte Corno, in front of Grotta del Ciabattino, 1550 m a.s.l., 29.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Sega di Ala, 20.VI. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 2 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Torri del Benaco, Albisano, VI. 1968, G. Lazzeroni, R. M. Gioco & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Velo Veronese, 8.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Verona, Prada, 850 m a.s.l., 22.V. 1968, G. Osella & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Verona, Vajo del Paradiso slope N, 27.III. 1968, G. Osella leg. (MSNV); 17 3 16 Ƥ 10 T 3 D, id., 27.II. 1973, leg.? Alto Adige: Bolzano Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Salorno, 17.VII. 1991, M. Bodon leg. Trentino: Trento Prov.— 1 3, Ala, Val Ronchi, 900 m a.s.l., 5.X. 1989, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3 ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Centa San Nicolò, Passo della Fricca, 7.VIII. 1966, R. M. Gioco leg. (MSNV); 2 Ƥ, Levico, 24.VII. 1978, S. Vit leg., damp roots (MHNG); 1 3 2 T, Vallarsa, Pian delle Fugazze, small valley near Buffet mountain-bike trail, 1160 m a.s.l., 25.IX. and 17.X. 2007, D. Bianco leg., soil washing. Lombardy: Bergamo Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Endine Gaiano, Perlisa, 550 m a.s.l., 19.VI/ 8.VIII. 1996, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg., scree; 8 3 7 Ƥ, Fonteno, 7.V. 1978, G. Parodi & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Sovere, Valle Sandina, 500 m a.s.l., 8.VIII – 10.X. 1996, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg. Lombardy: Brescia Prov. — 4 3 1 Ƥ, Gavardo, Casalicolo, 3.X. 1981, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Lumezzane, Val Porcino, 24.X. 1987, M. Grottolo leg.; 4 3, near Polaveno, 9.VII. 1979, S. Zoia leg. Lombardy: prov. Lecco — 2 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, Monte Barro, 800 m a.s.l., 24.XI. 1990, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ 6 T, Lecco, SW slope of Grigna Settentrionale, 1100 m a.s.l. ca, 19.IV. 1997, S. Zoia leg., base beech and holly; 1 Ƥ, Varenna, 4.VII. 1978, S. Vit leg., roots (MHNG). Lombardy: prov. Pavia — 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Santa Margherita Staffora, slope of Monte Lesima, 1450 m a.s.l., 14.IX. 1981, C. Torti leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood. Piedmont: Alessandria Prov. — 9 3 5 Ƥ 5 T, Borghetto Borbera, 15.III. 1981, C. Torti leg.; 6 3 6 Ƥ 7 T, Bosio, Capanne di Marcarolo, loc. Preadoga, 700 m a.s.l., 24.I. 1982, A. Beda leg., chestnut-wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, id., near Capanne di Marcarolo, 700 m a.s.l., I. 1981, C. Torti leg.; 3 3 4 Ƥ 5 T 9 D, near Cabella Ligure, 16.VIII. 1979, C. Torti leg., oak wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Carrega Ligure, 600 m a.s.l., 1.IV. 1986, S. Zoia & C. Torti leg.; 2 Ƥ, id., Cartasegna, 800 m a.s.l., 12.IX. 1981, C. Torti leg., oak wood; 8 3 8 Ƥ 5 T, Cassinelle, 14.X. 1973, G. Gardini leg., sieved under maples; 4 3, Lerma, Cirimilla, 260 m a.s.l., 9.VI. 2010, M. Capurro, S. Ferretti, L. Galli & C. Torti leg., Carpinus betulus   ; 5 3 1 Ƥ 4 T, Ovada, Lercaro, 10.III. 1981, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., oak wood; 3 3 6 Ƥ, Roccagrimalda, San Giacomo, 15.X. 1979, C. Torti leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ 7 T 1 D, id., San Giacomo, 6.IX. 1980, C. Torti leg., moss; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Sardigliano, 260 m a.s.l., 15.III. 1984, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Tassarolo, 250 m a.s.l., 23.III. 1997, S. Zoia leg., base of Castanea   stump. Piedmont: prov. Cuneo — 1 Ƥ, Alto, 600 m a.s.l., 28.VI – 4.VIII. 1987, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 4.VIII – 10.IX. 1987, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 2 Ƥ, Bastia Mondovì, regione Minetti, 320 m a.s.l., 29.I. 1993, G. B. Delmastro leg.; 8 3 1 Ƥ 15 T 4 D, Bossea, Val Corsaglia, 900 m a.s.l., 8.X. 1986, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Ponte del Murao, 6.VIII. 1986, R. Rizzerio leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, Caprauna, 28.VI. 1987, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, id., slope of Monte Dubasso, 1000 m a.s.l., 1.XI. 1979, G. Gardini, S. Zoia & A. Torchia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., northern slope of Monte Armetta, 1600 m a.s.l., 17.VI. 1985, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 Ƥ, Monteu Roero, Bric del Gallo, 370 m a.s.l., 27.X. 1995, G. B. Delmastro leg.; 1 3 4 Ƥ, Ormea, Aimoni, 20.VII. 1986, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Armetta, 8.VII. 1986, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., southern slope of Monte Dubasso, 1300 m a.s.l., 3.II. 2002, S. Zoia & F. Polese leg., Corylus   ; 1 3, Prunetto, Bric dei Faggi, 850 m a.s.l., 19.VIII. 1992, G. B. Delmastro leg.; 1 Ƥ, Roburent, San Giacomo di Roburent, 1000 m a.s.l., 22.V. 1982, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood on limestone; 1 3, id., 29.X. 1989, R. Benelli leg.; 1 3, id., 1000 m a.s.l., 30.X. 1994, G. Gardini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 3 2 Ƥ, Santa Vittoria d’Alba, Bosco di Fontana Lupa, 270 m a.s.l., 26.III. 1993, G. B. Delmastro leg.; 1 3, Valdieri, Tetti della Puera, 800 m a.s.l., 10.VI. 1993, G. B. Delmastro leg. Liguria: Genoa Prov. — 1 3, Arenzano, Pineta di Arenzano, Peschiera, 6.XI. 1977, G. Gardini leg, Quercus ilex   wood on dolomite; 6 3 5 Ƥ, Avegno, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., rotten stump of Castanea   (MHNG); 15 3 17 Ƥ, Bargagli, Trapena, 2.I. 1984, S. Vit leg., Castanea   (MHNG); 13 3 11 Ƥ, Bargagli, Traso, 3.14. XI. 1971, G. Bartoli, G. Gardini & R. Poggi leg., sieved; 2 3 2 Ƥ ( C. nanus   , det. Beier), id., 6.XII. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 5 3 4 Ƥ ( C. austriacus nanus   , det. Beier), id., 13.XII. 1972; 5 3 7 Ƥ 2 T 3 D, id., 4.I. 1973; 9 3 6 Ƥ, id., 4.II. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 27.XI. 1974, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 4 3 6 Ƥ, id., 4.I. 1976, G. Bartoli & R. Poggi leg.; 8 3 7 Ƥ, id., north of Traso, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg. (MHNG); 1 3, id., south of Traso, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., rotten stump of Castanea   (MHNG); 15 3 7 Ƥ 3 T, id., 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., leaf litter and roots (MHNG); 1 3 3 Ƥ, id., near Viganego, 19.XI. 1992, G. Gardini leg., oak wood; 2 3 2 Ƥ, Camogli, Monte di Portofino, 4.X. 1972, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 3, id., 8.XI. 1972, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 13.I. 1974, G. Gardini leg., sieved on Quercus ilex   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., 20.V. 1974, sieved on Ostrya   ; 1 Ƥ, id., northern slope of Monte di Portofino, 18 / 25.IX. 1975, G. Bartoli & R. Poggi leg., sieved on Ostrya   ; 2 3 4 Ƥ, id., Monte di Portofino, Pietre Strette, 2.III. 1972, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 400 m a.s.l., 2.XII. 1997, S. Zoia & F. Polese leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Ruta, 1.XI. 2001, R. Monguzzi leg.; 1 3, id., south of San Rocco, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., rotten stump of Laurus   (MHNG); 1 3 2 T, id., 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., base of Olea   (MHNG); 3 3 3 Ƥ, id., north of San Rocco, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., base of ferns (MHNG); 1 Ƥ, near Campomorone, 150 m a.s.l., 26.X. 1980, D. Antichi & C. Giusto leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Grotta del Verde 13 Li/GE, 7.I. 1975, S. Zoia leg., sieved at entrance; 3 3, id., Isoverde, 5.IV. 1988, S. Zoia & C. Torti leg.; 1 Ƥ, Carasco, Terrarossa, 23.IX. 1985, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg. (together with 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 4 3 4 Ƥ, Casarza Ligure, Bargone, 350 m a.s.l., 29.XII. 1989, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 3 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, Ceranesi, 23.II. 1973, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 1 3, Chiavari, Madonna delle Grazie, 16.V. 2005, L. Galli & F. Phytilis leg., Quercus ilex   wood (together with 2 3 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 6 3 10 Ƥ 1 T, id., slope of Monte Cucco, 260 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1994, S. Zoia leg.; 3 3 7 Ƥ 1 T, id., southwestern slope of Monte Cucco, 270 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1994, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood (together with 1 3 of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 1 Ƥ, Favale di Malvaro, Passo della Scoglina, 1000 m a.s.l., 8.XI. 1992, C. Giusto leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 Ƥ, Fontanigorda, slope of Monte Collere, 900–1000 m a.s.l., 25.VII. 1977, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3, id., Canale, 22.V. 1977, S. Zoia leg.; 4 Ƥ 3 T, id., Monte Collere, 1100 m a.s.l., 5.VII. 1982, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 23 3 27 Ƥ, northeast of Genoa, Val Bisagno, 2.I. 1984, S. Vit leg., rotten stump of Alnus   (MHNG); 1 Ƥ, Genoa, Pino Soprano, 18.VIII. 1973, R. Poggi leg. (together with 2 3 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 1 3 1 T, id., Prati Casalini, 6.IX. 2007, D. Badano, S. Ferretti & M. Iacconi leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Quinto al Mare, western slope of Monte Moro, 150 m a.s.l., 25.I. 2004, G. Gardini leg., Quercus pubescens   wood (together with 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., San Desiderio di Bavari, 22.II. 1976, R. Poggi leg.; 5 3 11 Ƥ, id., Vesima, 3.I. 1985, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Gorreto, Passo della Maddalena, eastern slope of Monte Carmo, 1400 m a.s.l., 11.IX. 1980, S. Zoia leg.; 9 3 12 Ƥ 3 T, Isola del Cantone, Spinola, 5.XI. 1978, G. Gardini leg.; 2 3 2 Ƥ, Isola di Rovegno, 22.II. 1976, G. Gardini leg.; 16 3 8 Ƥ, Lavagna, 27.V. 1979, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 3 Ƥ 3 T, Mezzanego, Passo della Camilla, slope of Monte Zatta, 450 m a.s.l., 6.X. 1996, S. Zoia leg., chestnut-wood; 2 Ƥ, id., Monte Zatta, La Faggeta, 1025 m a.s.l., 26.IV. 2007, M. Bodon leg.; 1 Ƥ, Moconesi, near Cornia, 280 m a.s.l., 10.III. 1996, S. Zoia leg.; 3 Ƥ, id., Gattorna, IV. 1977, M. B. Invernici leg.; 3 Ƥ, Montoggio, Acquafredda, 16.V. 1976, G. Bartoli leg., hollow in Castanea   ; 1 3, id., Creto, Gola dell’Alpesisa, 13.IV. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 1 3 4 Ƥ, id., 25.IV. 1972, G. Gardini leg. (together with 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 1 Ƥ, id., 15.V. 1972 (together with 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 2 Ƥ, id., 25.V. 1972, R. Poggi leg., sieved (together with 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 2 3, id., 23.VII. 1973 (together with 2 3 3 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 1 Ƥ, id., 27.X. 1985, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Gazzolo, 23.VIII. 1992, M. Bodon leg.; 2 Ƥ, id., near Lago di Val Noci, 14.XII. 1983, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 2 Ƥ, Ne, 11.II. 1974, S. Zoia leg., sieved in chestnut-wood (together with 2 3 of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 15 3 8 Ƥ, id., Piandifieno, 11.II. 1976, L. Briganti & G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 3 Ƥ, id., 19.III. 1976, A. & L. Briganti & S. Zoia leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood (together with 9 3 12 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 7 3 3 Ƥ 1 T, id., 8.VIII. 1976, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 2 3 5 Ƥ 2 T, id., 31.VIII. 1980, L. Briganti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Ponte di Lagoscuro, 230 m a.s.l., 26.XI. 2006, M. Bodon leg.; 5 3 2 Ƥ 10 T 1 D, Neirone, Monte Caucaso, 1100 m a.s.l., 15.III. 1992, G. Gardini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3 7 Ƥ, id., San Marco d’Urri, 2.XI. 1984, S. Zoia leg., Ostrya   ; 4 3, Ognio di Neirone, 30.IV. 1972, G. Gardini leg. (together with 3 3 10 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 1 3 4 Ƥ, id., western slope of Monte Castello, 500 m a.s.l., 17.III. 1985, S. Zoia leg., Castanea   ; 12 3 7 Ƥ, Propata, Caffarena, 21.I. 1983, S. Vit leg., leaf litter (MHNG); 2 3 3 Ƥ, Rapallo, northern slope of Monte Manico del Lume, 14.III. 1982, G. Gardini leg. (together with 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 4 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, id., Rio Tonnego, 16.X. 1971, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 3 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Rapallo, San Pietro di Novella, 8.XII. 1977, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 3 Ƥ 1 T, id., 50 m a.s.l., 11.II. 1983, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 1.III. 1992, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3, Rezzoaglio, 22.VIII. 1978, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 5.X. 1978, S. Zoia leg; 1 Ƥ, near Rezzoaglio, 6.VIII. 1977, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Rovegno, Monte della Cavalla, 1300 m a.s.l., 17.VIII. 1980, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 3 3 2 Ƥ 2 T, San Colombano Certenoli, 13.III. 1978, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., chestnut-wood; 10 3 18 Ƥ 2 T, id., Celesia, 200 m a.s.l., 26.I. 1984, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, San Colombano Certenoli, 18.XI. 2003, G. Gardini leg., mixed wood; 2 Ƥ, id., La Pozza, 50 m a.s.l., 13.I. 2004, G. Gardini leg., chestnut-wood; 3 3 1 Ƥ, id., 20.I. 2004, G. Gardini leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 6.II. 2004, G. Gardini leg., chestnut-wood; 1 Ƥ, Sant’Olcese, Busalletta, 17.X. 1971, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Busalletta, 6.XI. 1976, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Campi, 22.V. 2008, M. Capurro, L. Galli & C. Torti leg., mixed wood; 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., Camporsella, 8.IV. 1972, G. Gardini leg., sieved in chestnut-wood; 5 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., 27.X. 1974, L. Briganti, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., sieved; 1 3, id., 1.XI. 1982, G. Gardini leg., Ostrya   ; 2 Ƥ, id., Manesseno, 27.X. 1974, G. Gardini leg., sieved; 3 3 2 Ƥ, id., San Lorenzo di Casanova, 26.III. 1972, G. Gardini leg., sieved (together with 2 3 1 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 3 3 4 Ƥ, id., 18.II. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 4 3 10 Ƥ 1 T, id., 24 / 27.III. 1973, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 2 Ƥ 2 T 1 D, id., 24.III. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., near San Lorenzo di Casanova, 18.IV. 1973, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus nanus   , det. Beier), id., San Lorenzo di Casanova, 13.V. 1973, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 8 3 5 Ƥ 1 T, id., 3.X. 1973, G. Bartoli leg.; 7 3 5 Ƥ, id., 25.III. 1974, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 11.IV. 1976, R. Poggi leg., sieved; 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 D, Sestri Levante, Libiola, 80 m a.s.l., 18.III. 1984, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 Ƥ, id., Monte Domenico, 340 m a.s.l., 18.III. 1984, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Punta Manara, 8.XII. 1974, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 1 Ƥ, Torriglia, Lago Brugneto, 800 m a.s.l., 27.III. 2008, M. Capurro leg., moss in chestnut-wood; 2 3 3 Ƥ, Uscio, Calcinara, 2.I. 1984, S. Vit leg., rotten stump of Castanea   (MHNG); 3 3 2 Ƥ 2 T, south of Uscio, 4.VIII. 1984, S. Vit leg., leaf litter (MHNG); 1 3 1 Ƥ, near Vobbia, 2.III. 1976, R. Poggi leg., sieved; 1 3, Zoagli, near Sant’Ambrogio, 250 m a.s.l., 24.I. 1993, C. Giusto leg. Liguria: Imperia Prov.— 5 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Colle di Gouta, 1000 m a.s.l., 19.VII. 1975, R. Poggi leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ 2 T, Aquila d’Arroscia, slope of Monte Bozzaro, 17.IX. 1985, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg.; 11 3 3 Ƥ 5 T 13 D, Badalucco, 150 m a.s.l., 31.VIII. 1979, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, near Badalucco, 300 m a.s.l., 12.V. 1988, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 T, near Baiardo, 800 m a.s.l. ca, 6.XI. 1981, S. Zoia, G. Gardini & A. Boato leg., mixed wood on flysch; 1 3 4 Ƥ 2 T, id., 17.VI. 1982, L. Ansaldo, C. Torti & A. Torchia leg.; 2 Ƥ 6 T 10 D, Baiardo, slope of Monte Cavanelle, 1300 m a.s.l., 6.XI. 1981, S. Zoia, G. Gardini & A. Boato leg.; 9 3 13 Ƥ 7 T, id., Monte Cavanelle, 1300 m a.s.l., 17.VI. 1982, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., 1050 m a.s.l., 12.V. 1988, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., slope of Monte Cavanelle, 1000 m a.s.l., 30.V. 1989, G. Gardini & G. Troiano leg., fagetum; 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., southern slope of Monte Ceppo, 1160 m a.s.l., 28.I. 2003, S. Zoia & F. Polese leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, Pontedassio, Rio Sgoreto, 27.XI. 1994, M. Bodon leg.; 2 Ƥ, Pornassio, 500 m a.s.l., 23.VI. 1980, L. Briganti & G. Gardini leg., Alnus   - Castanea   ; 4 Ƥ 1 T, Sanremo, southern slope of Monte Colma, 260 m a.s.l., 6.XI. 1981, S. Zoia, G. Gardini & A. Boato leg.; 3 3 1 Ƥ 5 T, Taggia, Monte dei Frati, 400 m a.s.l., 7.XI. 1981, S. Zoia, G. Gardini & A. Boato leg.; 1 3, Testa d’Alpe, Rio Giacassa, 1160 m a.s.l., 30.VIII. 2009, M. Capurro leg., mixed wood; 3 Ƥ, Ventimiglia, Ciaixe, 300 m a.s.l., 7.XI. 1981, S. Zoia, G. Gardini & A. Boato leg. Liguria: La Spezia Prov. — 3 3 8 Ƥ 3 T, Ameglia, 3.III. 1980, S. Zoia leg.; 4 Ƥ, near Beverino, 12.VII. 1985, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Comuneglia, road to Varese Ligure, 23.IX. 1985, S. Zoia & R. Rizzerio leg.; 4 3 1 Ƥ, Deiva Marina, 21.XI. 1976, L. Briganti, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Quercus suber   wood and hollow in Olea   ; 1 3 2 T, id., Case Mirò, 2.II. 1992, G. Gardini leg., Quercus suber   wood; 2 Ƥ, Lerici, San Terenzo, 11.IX. 1985, S. Zoia, C. Torti & A. Rey leg.; 1 3, Maissana, northern slope of Monte Zenone, 1000 m a.s.l., 23.IV. 1985, S. Zoia leg., fagetum. Liguria: Savona Prov. — 1 3 1 T, Alassio, Isola Gallinara, 10.VI. 1996, D. Lanteri leg. (together with 3 3 3 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 1 Ƥ, id., 11.IV. 2007, F. Oneto & D. Ottonello leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 Ƥ 5 T, Albenga, Bastia, 40 m a.s.l., 20.XII. 1987, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, near Bardineto, 22.V. 1996, G. Gardini leg.; 9 3 5 Ƥ 2 T 3 D, Boissano, northern slope of Monte Carmo di Loano, ca 1000 m a.s.l., 17.I. 1983, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 ( C. elbanus, G. Callaini   det.), Cairo Montenotte, Monte San Giorgio, 700 m a.s.l., 22.III. 1968, M. Meregalli leg. (MSNV); 1 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., 28.XII. 1973, G. Bartoli leg., sieved in Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 3 1 T, id., 6.IV. 1974, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 2 3 3 Ƥ, id., slope of Monte San Giorgio, 650 m a.s.l., 18.I. 1981, D. Antichi & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Calizzano, Colle del Melogno, 1000 m a.s.l., 29.V. 1986, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 4 3 2 Ƥ 13 T 2 D, near Castelbianco, 450 m a.s.l., 10.II. 1980, G. Gardini leg., Ostrya   ; 3 Ƥ 1 D, Erli, 18.IV. 1985, G. Gardini leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Gazzo, 500 m a.s.l., 6.VI. 1980, S. Zoia, A. Torchia, R. Rizzerio & G. Gardini leg. (together with 1 3 2 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 8 3 7 Ƥ 2 T 2 D, Giustenice, northern slope of Monte Carmo di Loano, 880 m a.s.l., 13.II. 1984, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Magliolo, Tana del Pecetto 569 Li/SV, 30.IX. 1973, L. Briganti & G. Gardini leg., cave entrance (together with 1 3 of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 1 Ƥ, id., near Tana del Pecetto 569 Li/SV, 18.V. 1981, D. Bruzzone, G. Gardini & G. Troiano leg., Ostrya   ; 1 Ƥ, Mallare, slope of Monte Alto, 700 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1985, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 Ƥ, Millesimo, Bric Tana, 600 m a.s.l., 1.XI. 2006, L. Galli leg., leaf litter oak wood; 3 3 6 Ƥ, Murialdo, Monte Camulera, 1100 m a.s.l., 17.VII. 1985, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 Ƥ, Nasino, 4.IV. 1982, A. Boato & M. Bodon leg.; 2 3 4 Ƥ 3 T, id., southern slope of Monte Galero, 1000 m a.s.l., 5.I. 1992, G. Gardini leg., oak wood; 2 3, id., 340 m a.s.l., 29.XII. 1991, S. Zoia & L. Latella leg.; 1 Ƥ, Noli, Capo Noli, 7.I. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3, Peagna, Rio Torsero, 17.XI. 1991, M. Bodon leg.; 1 Ƥ, Quiliano, 15.IV. 1973, R. Poggi leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Sassello, Foresta della Deiva, VI. 2005, E. Biancardi & L. Galli leg.; 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., Lago Gulli, 15.VI. 2006, G. Troiano & L. Galli leg.; 1 Ƥ, Stella, Corona, 13.IV. 1980, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg. (together with 1 3 2 Ƥ 2 T of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 1 Ƥ, near Stellanello, 20.III. 1986, S. Zoia & C. Torti leg., hollow in Olea   ; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Toirano, Rio nella Valle, 500 m a.s.l., 9.XI. 1984, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Ostrya   and Fagus   (together with 1 3 2 Ƥ of C. tyrrhenicus   ); 3 Ƥ, id., northeastern slope of Rocca Berleurio, 27.V. 2006, L. Galli leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Salto del Lupo, 200 m a.s.l., 19.I. 1983, E. Belluati leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Urbe, Passo del Faiallo, 24.XI. 1972, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., Passo del Faiallo, 27.VIII. 1980, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 9 3 8 Ƥ, id., Vara Inferiore, 700 m a.s.l., 30.IX. 1992, C. Giusto leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Varazze, Deserto di Varazze, 27.I. 1974, S. Zoia leg., sieved; 1 Ƥ, id., 22.VIII. 1979, G. Gardini leg.; 1 Ƥ, Vendone, northern slope of Monte Castell’Ermo, 800 m a.s.l., 16.V. 1976, G. Gardini leg., Ostrya   ; 1 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, id., 900 m a.s.l., 20.XII. 1987, G. Gardini leg., base holm-oak; 3 3 2 Ƥ 4 T 1 D, id., southern slope of Monte Castell’Ermo, 950 m a.s.l., 15.III. 1982, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., base holm-oak; 1 3 1 Ƥ 12 T, id., Curenna, 400 m a.s.l., 15.III. 1982, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., chestnut-wood. Emilia: Bologna Prov.   — 14 3 8 Ƥ 3 T, Bologna, Madonna di San Luca, 8.XII. 1983, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., oak litter; 12 3 19 Ƥ 10 T 1 D, near Gaibola, 8.XII. 1983, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 2 Ƥ, Loiano, Guarda, 9.VI. 1984, S. Zoia leg., chestnut-wood. Emilia: Ferrara Prov.   — 1 Ƥ, Mesola, Bosco della Mesola, Elciola, 18.IX. 1996, R. Fabbri leg. (MCFS). Emilia: Piacenza Prov.   — 23 3 19 Ƥ 1 T, Bobbio, Dezza, 5.VII. 1982, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ, Ottone and neighbourhood, 19.IX. 1980, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Bobbio, Fiume Trebbia, 30.XI. 1991, M. Bodon leg., drifts; 2 Ƥ, Salsominore, 31.V. 1974, G. Gardini leg., sieved. Emilia: Parma Prov.   — 3 3 2 T, Bedonia, near Anzola, 770 m a.s.l., 11.VIII. 1982, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ, Berceto, 450 m a.s.l., 30.IX. 1984, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Quercus   and Castanea   litter. Tuscany: Florence Prov.— 1 3, Cintoia, VII. 1977, G. Castellini leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Greve, IX. 1976, G. Castellini leg.; 1 Ƥ, Fiesole, 29.IX. 1984, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., oaks and chestnuts litter. Tuscany: Grosseto Prov. — 2 3 1 Ƥ, Grosseto, VI. 1984, G. Castellini leg.; 1 Ƥ, near Massa Marittima, 7.IV. 1994, G. Gardini leg., Quercus suber   wood; 11 3 14 Ƥ 1 T, Montersaio, 5.X. 1990, P. Magrini leg.; 5 3 4 Ƥ, Poggio Cavallo, 1.IV. 1990, P. Magrini leg.; 4 Ƥ 1 T, Poggio Moscona, 5.X. 1990, P. Magrini leg.; 2 Ƥ, Scarlino, Cala Violina, 30 m a.s.l., 20.III – 5.IV. 2005, Mazza leg., pitfall trap; 1 Ƥ, id., 19.V – 3.VI. 2005, M. Mazza leg., pitfall trap (CNBFVR); 1 Ƥ, id., 17.IX – 1.X. 2005, M. Mazza & M. Vincenti leg., pitfall trap (CNBFVR); 1 3, id., 15.X – 29.X. 2005, pitfall trap (CNBFVR); 1 Ƥ, Talamone, Monti dell’Uccellina, 1.XII. 1990, L. Latella & S. Zoia leg. Tuscany: Livorno Prov. — 9 3 1 Ƥ, Collesalvetti, 13.V. 1980, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, id., Colognole, 28.V. 1980, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, near Livorno, 28.V. 1980, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 4 Ƥ, Nugola, 8.VIII. 1984, S. Vit leg., bottom of damp channel (MHNG); 1 3 1 Ƥ (C. (E.) nanus   , det. Beier), Piombino, Promontorio di Piombino, 29.IV. 1973, R. Poggi leg., sieved; 1 Ƥ, id., IV. 1977, G. Castellini leg. Tuscany: Lucca Prov. — 1 3, slope of Monte Altissimo, 1200 m a.s.l., 13.VI. 1977, G. Parodi & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, eastern slope of Monte Altissimo, 1200 m a.s.l., 15.VII. 1984, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Camaiore, VIII. 1986, G. Castellini leg.; 11 3 6 Ƥ 3 T, SE Massaciuccoli, 26.IV. 1997, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 1 T, Ponte Stazzemese, 8.II. 1987, R. Benelli, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3, San Martino in Freddana, 14.IV. 1988, P. Magrini leg.; 1 Ƥ, Vergemoli, near Fornovolasco, 21 / 22.VI. 1983, S. Zoia leg. Tuscany: Massa and Carrara Prov. — 2 Ƥ, Aulla, Masero, 9.V. 1984, S. Zoia & C. Torti leg.; 2 3 7 Ƥ 2 T, Codolo, Valle Torrente Gordana, 7.II. 1976, L. Briganti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Comano, Camporaghena, 9.V. 1984, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Pontremoli, near Caprio, 26.X. 1983, L. Ansaldo, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 3 3 6 Ƥ 4 D, id., Grondola, 30.IX. 1984, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Ostrya   and Castanea   ; 1 Ƥ, Terrarossa, Fiume Magra, 18.II. 1973, R. Poggi leg., sieved. Tuscany: Pistoia Prov. — 1 3, Acquerino, 800 m a.s.l., 7.V. 1977, G. Castellini leg. Tuscany: Prato Prov.— 1 3 ( C. elbanus, G. Callaini   det.), Monti della Calvana, Monte il Prataccio, 5.IX. 1978, P. Magrini leg. (MSNV); 10 3 4 Ƥ 2 T 2 D, id., Poggio Cocolla, 400 m a.s.l. ca, 9.IV. 1984, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Ostrya   ; 1 3 2 Ƥ, near Prato, 9.IV. 1984, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg. Tuscany: Siena Prov. — 1 3, Siena, Orgia, 1.VI. 1977, G. Castellini leg. Tuscany Archipelago — 10 3 34 Ƥ, Grosseto, Isola del Giglio, Giglio Isola, 25.III. 1991, P. Magrini leg.; 1 3 5 Ƥ, id., Promontorio del Franco, 9–17.IV. 1974, G. Gardini, sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 71 3 26 Ƥ 11 T, Isola di Giannutri, 14–20.V. 1978, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood and garigue; 1 Ƥ, Livorno, Isola d’Elba, Biodola, 60–80 m a.s.l., 12.III. 1994, F. Gasparo leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., Capoliveri, 19.X. 1983, M. Bodon leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Carpani, 27.II. 1990, P. Magrini leg.; 4 3 5 Ƥ 5 T, id., Cavo, Capo Castello, 3.XI. 2007, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 4 3 9 Ƥ 4 T 1 D, id., Lacona, Colle alle Vacche, 250 m a.s.l., 4.XI. 2007, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., south of Marciana, 350 m a.s.l., 5.XII. 1999, S. Zoia & F. Polese leg.; 6 3 8 Ƥ 1 T, id., northwestern slope of Monte Orello, 8.XII. 1999, S. Zoia & F. Polese leg., leaf litter and base of cork-oak; 7 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., Portoferraio, Villa di Napoleone, 23.XII. 1975, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 2 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., Rio Marina, 27.II. 1990, P. Magrini leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Isola di Capraia, 18–25.IV. 1973, G. Gardini leg., sieved under holmoaks; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 250 m a.s.l., 20.V. 1990, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 17–20.IV. 1995, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Mediterranean wood. Marche: Macerata Prov. — 1 3, Civitanova Marche, Fosso Caronte, 12.II. 2007, M. Mori leg. Umbria: Perugia Prov. — 1 3, Castiglione del Lago, near Pozzuolo, 2.V. 1986, S. Zoia leg., oak wood. Latium: Frosinone Prov. — 1 Ƥ, near Filettino, 1050 m a.s.l., 9.VI. 1990, S. Zoia leg. Latium: prov. Rome— 1 3, Roma, Villa Ada, 24.VI – 4.IX. 1991, L. Latella leg., pitfall traps. Sicily: prov. Messina— 2 3 3 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), Caronia, slope of Monte Pagano, 350 m a.s.l., IX. 1987, G. Sabella leg., Quercus suber   wood; 2 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., X. 1987; 3 3 1 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., XI. 1987; 2 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., VI. 1988; 2 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., VIII. 1988; 2 3 3 Ƥ 1 T ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., IX. 1988; 2 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., X. 1988; 1 Ƥ ( C. gibbus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., X. 1988; 1 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., slope of Monte Pagano, 500 m a.s.l., IX. 1987, G. Sabella leg., mixed wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., X. 1987; 1 Ƥ ( C. gibbus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., X. 1987; 3 3 5 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., VI. 1988; 1 3 ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., VII. 1988; 1 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., Case Crocitti, 750 m a.s.l., X. 1987, G. Sabella leg., Q. pubescens   ; 1 Ƥ ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., XI. 1987; 1 3 ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., VI. 1988; 1 3 ( C. elbanus, G. Gardini   det., 1994), id., VIII. 1988. Sardinia: Cagliari Prov. — 2 3 1 Ƥ, Cagliari, Giara di Siddi, 2.XII. 1989, P. Leo leg. Sardinia: Nuoro Prov.— 1 3, Nuoro, near Aritzo, 20.VI. 1980, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 3 Ƥ, Aritzo, Parco Comunale, 28.V. 1974, L. Briganti leg., stump of Castanea   ; 1 3, Belvì, 29.V. 1974, L. Briganti leg., sieved in Quercus suber   wood; 1 Ƥ, Dorgali, Monte Coazza, 12.V. 1991, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 28.IV. 1992, P. Leo leg.; 1 3, Dorgali, La Traversa, 9.X. 1992, P. Leo leg.; 1 3, id., 24.XI. 1992, P. Leo leg.; 1 3, Dorgali, Cala Gonone, 23.V. 1980, G. Gardini leg., Mediterranean scrub; 1 3 1 T, Elini, Bosco del Carmine, 1.IV. 2008, C. Torti leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 2 3 4 Ƥ 2 T, Fonni, Monte Spada, 1350 m a.s.l., 3.IV. 1997, S. Vit leg.; 5 3 2 Ƥ, Gairo, road to Lanusei, 22.VI. 1985, C. Torti leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 3 3 3 Ƥ, Gairo, Valle del Riu Pardu, 7.VII. 1984, C. Torti leg., Quercus ilex   wood on limestone; 1 3, Galtellì, Monte Tuttavista, Pozzo 4 Tres Puntas 1153 Sa/NU, 16.III. 2008, P. Marcia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Gennargentu, eastern slope of Monte d’Iscudu, 1300 m a.s.l., 22.V. 1997, S. Zoia & F. Polese leg., hollow in oak; 1 3 2 Ƥ, Isili, 7.I. 1993, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg.; 1 3, near Lanusei, 12.V. 1980, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Lula, Monte Albo, path to Punta Ferulargiu, 850 m a.s.l., 29.IV. 2008, G. Gardini leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Marghine, Badde Salighes, 29.XII. 1990, P. Leo leg.; 1 T, Orani, Grotta di San Francesco 202 Sa/NU, 560 m a.s.l., 10.XII. 1995, G. Grafitti leg., under stone, 20 m from entrance; 1 Ƥ, id., 25.VI. 2007, P. Marcia & A. Casale leg.; 1 Ƥ, Perdasdefogu, 18.VI. 1983, C. Torti leg.; 1 3, Sadali, Foresta di Addoli, 13.XII. 1993, P. Leo leg.; 2 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., 19.I. 1996, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Serri, 27.X. 1992, P. Leo leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ 2 T, Seui, northern slope of Monte Tonneri, 975 m a.s.l., 20.VII. 1984, C. Torti leg., Quercus ilex   wood on limestone; 1 3, Siniscola, southern slope of Monte Albo, 4.IV. 1997, S. Vit leg., leaf litter Quercus   ; 1 Ƥ, Siniscola, Monte Albo, Grotta Su Lizzu n.c. Sa/NU, 12.X. 2006, P. Marcia leg.; 1 Ƥ, south of Sorgono, 650 m a.s.l., 3.IV. 1997, S. Vit leg., sieved under Corylus   ; 1 Ƥ, Tertenia, 23.IV. 1992, P. Leo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Tonara, 27.X. 1992, P. Leo leg.; 1 Ƥ, near Ulassai, 850 m a.s.l., 2.XII. 1987, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Ulassai, from Ulassai to Osini, 19.VII. 1984, C. Torti leg., Quercus ilex   wood on limestone. Sardinia: Oristano Prov. — 1 Ƥ, Oristano, Ardauli, 15.XII. 1990, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg.; 2 3 4 Ƥ, Asuni, 23.II. 1990, P. Leo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Bauladu, 1.III. 1989, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg.; 2 3 3 Ƥ, Morgongiori, 27.XII. 1989, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg. Sardinia: Sassari Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Aggius, 21.IV. 1993, P. Leo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Golfo Aranci, Isola di Figarolo, 28.VII. 1986, R. Poggi leg. (MSNG); 2 Ƥ, Isola La Maddalena, Case Fangotto, 14.X. 1989, R. Poggi leg. (MSNG); 1 Ƥ, Monti, 23.V. 1976, R. Poggi leg., sieved under Quercus   and Cistus   ; 1 Ƥ, Olbia, Isola Tavolara, slope NW, 16.X. 1989, R. Poggi leg. (MSNG); 1 Ƥ, id., Isola Molara, 9.IV. 1986, R. Poggi leg. under Quercus ilex   (MSNG); 1 Ƥ, Porto Cervo, Isola Li Nibani 1, 11.XI. 1986, R. Poggi leg. (MSNG); 1 3, id., Isola Soffi, 10.IV. 1986, N. Baccetti leg. (MSNG); id., 1 3, Isola delle Rocche, 11.XI. 1986, R. Poggi leg., sieved (MSNG); 3 3, Sassari, Chiaramonti, 30.XII. 1994, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Golfo Aranci, 19.I. 1994, L. Fancello & P. Leo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Ussassai, near Rio San Girolamo, 3.VII. 1995, C. Torti leg., Quercus ilex   wood.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Integument pigmented, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps brown; hispid granulation on lateral surface of carapace, on cheliceral palm, on ventrodistal surface of chelal hand and on the base of movable chelal finger. Carapace 1.0– 1.1, subquadrate; anterior margin (fig. 163–164) strongly dentate between median macrosetae, without epistome, sometimes weakly prominent; ocular area as in fig. 165, anterior eyes with convex lens (diameter 0.028–0.037 mm), posterior eyes reduced to a smooth cuticular area, all eyes with tapetum; distance from anterior eyes to anterior margin of carapace 0.02–0.03 mm; chaetotaxy mm 4mm: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), macrosetae thick; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.07–0.09 mm. Chaetotaxy tergites I – X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy sternites II –X 10:(3) 8 (3):(2) 7 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternite II rarely with 9 or 11 setae, st. III rarely with (3) 6–7 (3) setae, st. IV rarely with (2) 6 (2) setae; genital opening of males flanked by 6–7 (rarely 5 or 8) setae on each side. Chelicerae (figs 166–167) 1.9–2.1 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 4–6 teeth proximally reduced in size and 5–7 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with a large isolated subapical tooth (di) at level with the spinneret, 3–5 teeth (the first distal two teeth fused together and prominent) and 3–4 proximal tubercles; gl ratio 0.53–0.60; spinneret prominent and apically rounded in both sexes; rallum with 11 blades; serrulae interior and exterior respectively with 12 and 14 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 5–12 (mostly 5–7) coxal spines, coxa III with 2–5 (mostly 3–4) coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 5.1 –6.0 (3), 4.8–5.7 (Ƥ) times as long as broad; chela (figs 168–170) 4.6–5.9 (3), 4.1 – 5.0 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.1–2.5 (3), 1.8–2.4 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, weakly depressed at level of ib-isb; fixed chelal finger with 10–13 large triangular teeth with dental canals: the first 1–2 proximal teeth with tip rounded, the others weakly reclined, with pointed tip, rarely with one subdistal very small tooth; base of fixed finger with 5–10 microtubercles; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 5 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.026– 0.031 mm); distal half of movable chelal finger with 5–7 upright, triangular teeth with dental canals, rarely with one subdistal very small tooth; proximal half of movable chelal finger with thick, straight or weakly undulated marginal lamina and few microtubercles at level of sb; coupled sensilla pc halfway between b and sb, mostly nearer sb (rarely distad of sb); trichobothria as in figs 169–170, eb-esb-ist mostly placed in a straight line; basal apodeme of movable finger strongly sclerotized, rectangular, straight or bent, apically truncated and crenellated; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.2–1.4 (3), 1.1–1.3 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2–1.3 (rarely 1.4) (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.15–1.3 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.0– 1.3 (3), 1.1–1.3 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.31–0.37 × 0.29–0.35 (0.25–0.31 anteriorly) (3), 0.33–0.40 × 0.32–0.37 (0.28–0.32 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.24–0.285 × 0.12–0.135 (3), 0.28– 0.31 × 0.13–0.15 (Ƥ), movable finger length 0.12–0.15 (3), 0.135–0.16 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.36–0.45 × 0.06– 0.08 (3), 0.39–0.52 × 0.075–0.095 (Ƥ); chela 0.52–0.65 × 0.095–0.13 (3), 0.56–0.73 × 0.12–0.175 (Ƥ); hand length 0.21–0.28 (3), 0.24–0.35 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.29–0.37 (3), 0.31–0.40 (Ƥ).

Description of tritonymph. Integument with weak pigmentation and hispid granulation, less marked than in adults. Carapace 1.0 times longer than broad, anterior margin and eyes as in adults; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.055 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 5:(2) 6 (2):(1) 6 (1): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7. Chelicerae 2.0 times as long as broad, palm with 5 setae and 1 lateral microseta; fixed finger with 4 teeth, movable finger with an isolated subapical tooth (di) and 3–4 contiguous teeth; gl ratio 0.60. Pedipalp: femur 4.4 –5.0 times as long as broad; chela 4.5–5.1 times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.0– 2.2 times as long as deep; fixed finger with 10–11 large, triangular teeth, the first proximal one apically rounded; base of fixed finger with few microtubercles; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; distal half of movable chelal finger with 6–7 triangular teeth (rarely with one very small subdistal tooth), proximal half with thick marginal lamina weakly undulated; base of movable finger with few microtubercles; coupled sensilla pc a little distad of b; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.2–1.3; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.0– 1.1.

Measurements (in mm). Carapace 0.27–0.28 × 0.26–0.27 (0.22–0.24 anteriorly). Chelicerae 0.20 × 0.10, movable finger length 0.095. Pedipalp: femur 0.265–0.30 × 0.057–0.06; chela 0.41–0.46 × 0.085–0.095; hand length 0.17–0.20; movable finger length 0.22–0.25.

Remarks. Beier (1953 c) described Chthonius   (E.) austriacus nanus   from a male and a female from the cave Tann-a da Reixe near Torriglia (Genoa Prov.) and subsequently (Beier 1963 a) raised it to specific status. Gardini (1980 c) examined the types of C. nanus   and found that they belong to two different species. The male type was selected as the lectotype (“ holotype ” in Gardini 1980 c) and the female paralectotype was identified as C. cfr. gibbus   (see Remarks under C. tyrrhenicus   ).

Beier (1963 b) described Chthonius   (E.) elbanus   from a single female from Chiessi (Elba Island) and compared it with C. gibbus   , C. siculus   and C. pyrenaicus (Beier, 1934)   . Later authors have recorded C. elbanus   from many, chiefly Italian, localities (Gardini 2000, Harvey 2011).

Comparison between the male lectotype of C. nanus   and the female holotype of C. elbanus   , together with the examination of the above listed material, reveals that differences between the two are only due to sexual dimorphism, hence Chthonius   (E.) elbanus Beier, 1963   is here considered a junior subjective synonym of C. (E.) nanus Beier, 1953   (n. syn.).

Among the species of the Chthonius fuscimanus   group, C. nanus   is related to C. tyrrhenicus   , an epigean species common and widespread over a large portion of the same geographical area, to C. intemelius   from western Liguria and to C. aeneae   from eastern Liguria. C. nanus   differs from C. tyrrhenicus   chiefly in the shape of pedipalpal hand (with a more rectangular profile in C. nanus   , with a more square profile in C. tyrrhenicus   ) and the larger size (length of chela 0.52–0.65 (3) 0.56–0.73 (Ƥ) mm in C. nanus   , 0.435–0.54 (3) 0.47–0.60 (Ƥ) mm in C. tyrrhenicus   ). Many syntopic occurrences of C. nanus   and C. tyrrhenicus   have been detected in Liguria (Genoa and Savona Provinces: see Material examined).

For comparisons between C. nanus   , C. aeneae   and C. intemelius   see Remarks under the latter two species.

The above description of C. nanus   corresponds to those published by Gardini (1975) and Callaini (1979, 1984), except that only some specimens from Sardinia (Oddastru and Oliena) and Corsica (Oletta) (Callaini 1984) are slightly smaller dimensions than those reported here. Three specimens (1 3 2 Ƥ) from, respectively, three islets of NE Sardinia (Is. Li Nibani 1, Is. delle Rocche, Is. Soffi), previously referred to Chthonius   sp. prope elbanus   by Gardini (2008 b), are now considered conspecific with C. nanus   , in spite of being smaller than normal (length of chela 0.46–0.48 mm); the dimensions given in the description above do not take these specimens into account.

Many Italian records of C. nanus   reported by Gardini (2000) (as C. elbanus   ) remain to be verified.