Chthonius

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 69-72

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FFAF-F924-6B99-FF1B1CB4A44C

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scientific name

Chthonius
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Chthonius   (E.) lucanus   Callaini, 1984

( Figs 138–145 View FIGURES 138 – 143 View FIGURES 144 – 145 , 284 View FIGURES 282 – 285 )

Chthonius   (E.) lucanus   Callaini 1984: 144, figs VA –E.

Type locality: Italy, Calabria, Cosenza Prov., Mormanno (39 ° 53 ʹ0 0ʺN 15 ° 59 ʹ0 0ʺE).

Distribution. Central and Southern Italy.

Diagnosis (Ƥ). An eyed epigean Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) from central and southern Italy that differs from other species of the C. tetrachelatus   group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger with isolated subapical tooth (di) and with prominent spinneret in both sexes; carapace without epistome, with 2 preocular microsetae on each side and, on posterior margin, with 2 macrosetae and one (rarely 2) lateral microseta on each side; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.080–0.090 mm; four eyes with convex lens; teeth of fixed chelal finger, at level of est-it, distanced between successive apices 0.028–0.034 mm; movable chelal finger with 11–14 teeth; length of chela 0.655–0.77 (3), 0.69–0.94 (Ƥ) mm.

Material examined. ITALY— Abruzzo: L’Aquila Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Maiella, Campo di Giove, 21.VII. 1977, R. Pace leg. (MSNV). Campania: Salerno Prov.— 2 Ƥ, Sanza, Bosco Centaurino, 500 m a.s.l., 1.VIII. 1989, F. Angelini leg., chestnut-wood. Basilicata: Matera Prov.— 2 3 1 Ƥ, Policoro, 27.VII. 1980, S. Vit leg., leaf litter; 1 3, id., 19.VII. 1984, S. Vit leg., stump of Populus alba   (MHNG); 1 T 2 D, id., 20.VII. 1984, S. Vit leg., rotten roots of Populus   (MHNG); 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 27.III. 1988, F. Angelini leg.; 12 3 8 Ƥ, id., 13.VIII. 1989, F. Angelini leg. Basilicata: Potenza Prov.— 3 3 6 Ƥ, Calvello, Monte Calvello, 600 m a.s.l., 29.VII. 1989, F. Angelini leg., oak wood; 3 Ƥ, near Lagonegro, 31.VII. 1984, S. Vit leg., humus (MHNG); 1 3, id., Fortino, 1.VIII. 1984, S. Vit leg., roots of Rubus   (MHNG); 2 3 1 Ƥ 2 T, Latronico, 27.V. 1995, L. Latella leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 Ƥ, Marina di Maratea, 16.IV. 1992, G. Gardini leg., oak wood; 2 3 3 Ƥ 2 T, Monticchio Bagni, 29.II. 1984, S. Vit leg., leaf litter Quercus   (MHNG); 5 3 2 Ƥ 1 T 1 D, id., Lago di Monticchio, 29.II. 1984, S. Vit leg., roots of Corylus   and rotten stump of Fagus   (MHNG); 2 Ƥ, Rifreddo, 22.V. 1984, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Rotonda, Monte Pollino, 23.VI. 1972, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., southern slope of Coppola di Paola, 1400 m a.s.l., 5.VI. 1985, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 3 1 Ƥ, San Severino Lucano, Bosco Magnano, 27.VII. 1989, F. Angelini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 3 2 Ƥ, id., Serra Cappellina, 1100 m a.s.l., 11.VIII. 1989, F. Angelini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 3 3, Viggianello, Piani di Ruggio, 1550 m a.s.l., 10.VIII. 1989, F. Angelini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, id., 1400 m a.s.l., IX. 1989 / V. 1990, M. Valle leg.; 2 Ƥ, Viggianello, Piano Visitone, 1400 m a.s.l., VI. 1990 / VI. 1991, M. Valle leg. Calabria: Catanzaro Prov.— 2 3 1 Ƥ, Sambiase, near Terme Caronte, 28.V. 1985, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg. Calabria: Cosenza Prov.— 2 3 3 Ƥ, Grisolia, Pantanelle, 700 m a.s.l., 4.VIII. 1989, F. Angelini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 3, S. Agata di Esaro, Passo Scalone, 700 m a.s.l., 6.VIII. 1989, F. Angelini leg., Alnus   . Calabria: Crotone Prov.— 3 3, near Cotronei, 300 m a.s.l., 10.VI. 1991, S. Zoia leg.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Integument pigmented, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps pale brown; lateral surface of carapace and cheliceral palm with marked hispid granulation. Carapace 1.0 times longer than broad, subquadrate, basally weakly constricted; anterior margin (figs 138–139) dentate between median macrosetae, without epistome; ocular area as in figs 140, anterior eyes with convex lens (diameter 0.04–0.05 mm), posterior eyes with weakly convex lens, all eyes mostly with tapetum; distance from anterior eyes to anterior margin of carapace 0.025–0.035 mm; standard chaetotaxy: mm 4mm: 6: 4: 2:m 2m (18), macrosetae short and thick, median preocular microsetae shorter; (posterior margin with 2 microsetae on each side in 3 Ƥ from Sambiase: Terme Caronte, Ƥ from Latronico and 3 from Grisolia: Pantanelle); length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.08–0.09 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 10:(3) 10 (3):(2) 7 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternites II and III rarely with 11 and (3) 9 (3) setae, sternite IV rarely with 6 setae; genital opening of males flanked by 6–7 (rarely 5, 8 or 9) setae on each side. Chelicerae (figs 141–142) 2.0– 2.15 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 5–7 teeth proximally reduced in size and 4–7 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with an isolated subapical tooth (di) at level of the spinneret, 4–6 teeth proximally reduced in size (the first distal two teeth prominent) and 3–6 proximal microtubercles; gl ratio 0.56–0.68; spinneret prominent in both sexes, apically rounded; rallum with 11 blades; serrulae interior and exterior respectively with 12 and 14 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 7–8 coxal spines (rarely 12), coxa III with 3–6 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 5.4–6.1 (3), 5.0– 5.9 (Ƥ) times as long as broad; chela (figs 143–145) 4.6–5.3 (3), 3.9–4.5 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.0– 2.3 (3), 1.7 –2.0 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, weakly depressed at level of ibisb and with a strong hump distad of ib-isb; dentition of chelal fingers similar to that of C. siculus   ; fixed chelal finger with 15–21 teeth: 12–16 large, triangular teeth, upright or weakly reclined, proximally reduced in size, and 1–5 proximal teeth with rounded tips, all with dental canals; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 3–5 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.028–0.034 mm); movable chelal finger with 11–14 teeth: 5–7 upright, triangular teeth, with dental canals, and 4–8 proximal vestigial teeth, with rounded tips, gradually reduced back to level of sb or a little proximad of sb; base of fixed finger with a variable number of microtubercles; coupled sensilla pc mostly at level of sb, rarely between b-sb; trichobothria as in figs 144–145, eb-esb-ist placed mostly in a straight line, or with ist a little distad of the line eb-esb; basal apodeme of movable finger strongly sclerotized, rectangular, apically truncated and crenellated; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3–1.4 (3), 1.1–1.2 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2–1.35 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.2–1.4 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.2–1.4 (3), 1.4–1.7 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.36–0.42 × 0.34–0.41 (0.31 –036 anteriorly) (3), 0.36–0.49 × 0.37–0.47 (0.35–0.45 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.29–0.335 × 0.135–0.16 (3), 0.315– 0.41 × 0.155–0.20 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.14–0.17 (3), 0.16–0.20 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.47–0.55 × 0.08– 0.10 (3), 0.49–0.66 × 0.09–0.12 (Ƥ); chela 0.655–0.77 × 0.12–0.155 (3), 0.69–0.94 × 0.15–0.22 (Ƥ); hand length 0.28–0.33 (3), 0.305–0.42 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.37–0.44 (3), 0.385–0.50 (Ƥ).

Description of tritonymph. Integument with weak pigmentation and hispid granulation less marked than in adults. Carapace 1.1 times longer than broad; anterior margin without epistome; anterior eyes with convex lens, posterior ones reduced; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2:m 2m (18); length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.07 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy sternites II –X 5:(2) 6 (2):(1) 6 (1): 7: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7. Chelicerae 2.0 times as long as broad, palm with 5 setae and one microseta laterally; fixed finger with 5–6 teeth and 5 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with an isolated subapical tooth (di) and 4 teeth; gl ratio 0.57–0.60. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 2 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 5; coxa II with 9 coxal spines, coxa III with 4–6 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 4.9 –5.0 times as long as broad; chela 4.5 times as long as deep; hand of chela 1.9 times as long as deep, weakly depressed at level of ib and weak hump distad of ib; fixed chelal finger with 15–16 teeth, the first 4 proximal ones with rounded tips; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; movable chelal finger with 6 upright triangular teeth and 5 proximal rounded teeth, more evident than in adults; coupled sensilla pc distad of b; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.25; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.15.

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.0– 1.2. Carapace 0.32–0.35 × 0.29–0.32 (0.27–0.30 anteriorly). Chelicerae 0.24–0.27 × 0.12–0.135, movable finger length 0.13–0.135. Pedipalp: femur 0.37–0.40 × 0.075–0.80; chela 0.52–0.58 × 0.115–0.13; hand length 0.22–0.25; movable finger length 0.295–0.32.

Remarks. Among the species of the Chthonius tetrachelatus   group, C. lucanus   is related to the epigean C. messapicus   from Apulia because of the presence of an isolated subapical tooth (di) on the movable cheliceral finger. It differs from C. messapicus   in the presence of spinneret in both sexes (absent in males of C. messapicus   ), the greater size (chela 0.655–0.70 (3) in C. lucanus   , 0.60–0.62 (3) in C. messapicus   ), the number of triangular teeth on chelal movable finger (11–14 in C. lucanus   , 8–9 in C. messapicus   ) and the length of the anteromedian macrosetae of the carapace (0.080–0.090 mm in C. lucanus   , 0.066–0.070 mm in C. messapicus   ).

The above redescription of C. lucanus   incorporates the original description of Callaini (1984).