Chthonius

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 88-93

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FC302AA5-49CC-41B0-9A66-23C11AB4EBAE

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FFBC-F93F-6B99-FB201B83A3DC

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Plazi

scientific name

Chthonius
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Chthonius   (E.) parmensis   Beier, 1963

( Figs 171–178 View FIGURES 171 – 176 View FIGURES 177 – 178 , 286 View FIGURES 286 – 289 )

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) parmensis Beier 1963 b: 152   , fig. 3.

Chthonius   (E.) cfr. parmensis: Callaini 1984: 142   , fig. IVF (misidentification).

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) parmensis: DeVore-Scribante 1999: 19   , 137, 225, 265, figs 13 a –k.

Type locality: Italy, Emilia   , prov. Parma, Neviano degli Arduini, Sasso di Neviano (44 ° 31 ʹ 34 ʺN 10 ° 17 ʹ 19 ʺE).

Distribution. Croatia, Slovenia, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy (mainland).

Diagnosis (Ƥ). An eyed epigean Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) that differs from other species of the C. fuscimanus   group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger with isolated subapical tooth (di); carapace with 2 preocular microsetae on each side and 6 macrosetae in ocular series; posterior margin of carapace with 2 macrosetae and 2 lateral macro- or microsetae; pedipalpal hand (in lateral view) with a rounded hump distad of trichobothria ib-isb and a marked hollow just before the base of the movable finger; proximal half of movable chelal finger with thick marginal lamina, and with 2–5 rounded teeth fused in an evident rise of the marginal lamina; length of chela 0.45–0.55 (3), 0.50–0.61 (Ƥ), length of movable chelal finger 0.27–0.33 (3), 0.28–0.35 (Ƥ); chela 4.3–4.8 (3), 3.8–4.5 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.0– 1.2 (3 Ƥ).

Material examined. SLOVENIA— 1 3 1 Ƥ, Skadanščina, Podgrajsko Podolje, 530 m a.s.l., 2.VI. 2012, G. Gardini, C. Giusto & S. Zoia leg.; 5 3 2 Ƥ, near Vrhovlje, 340 m a.s.l., 3.VI. 2012, G. Gardini, C. Giusto & S. Zoia leg.

CROATIA— 1 3, Rijeka (= Fiume), Bakar, SE of Rijeka, 50 m a.s.l., 16.III – 25.V. 1991, F. Gasparo leg., pitfall trap; 1 3, Umag (= Umago), 2 m a.s.l., 3–6.IX. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., pinewood.

ITALY— Venezia Giulia: Trieste Prov. — 4 3, Trieste, Orto Lapidario, 30.VI – 31.VII. 1994, Gruppo Entomologico Museo Trieste leg., pitfall traps in woodland; 1 Ƥ, Prosecco, 240 m a.s.l., 1.VII. 1991 – 1.VIII. 1991, F. Gasparo leg., pitfall traps; 1 Ƥ, Sgonico, Baratro dei Cavalli, 4.V. 1980, M. Seriani leg.; 1 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., Borgo Grotta Gigante, 280 m a.s.l., 30.IX. 2007, L. Galli leg., leaf litter under Fraxinus ornus   and oak wood. Friuli: Udine Prov. — 1 3, Bordano, 260 m a.s.l., 21.II – 12.VI. 1991, F. Gasparo leg., pitfall trap; 4 3, Carlino, 29.XII. 1980, M. Seriani leg., Quercus   and Carpinus   ; 10 3 3 Ƥ, id., 22.XI. 1989; 1 Ƥ 1 T, Majano, Torbiera di Casasola, 162 m a.s.l., 13.IV. 2001. A. & M. Zanetti, G. Tomasin, A. Tagliapietra & G. Governatori leg., base of Salix   sp. and Alnus glutinosa   (MFNB); 2 Ƥ, id., 14.VI. 2001, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall trap in woodland (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, Rivignano, Risorgive Zarnicco, 13 m a.s.l., 31.III. 2001, A. Zanetti, A. Tagliapietra, G. Tomasin & G. Governatori leg., basic peat, base of Alnus glutinosa   (MFNB); 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 19.VI. 2001, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in riparian woodland (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, Torreano, Prestento, 190 m a.s.l., 6.IV – 10.VII. 1993, F. Gasparo leg., carpinetum; 2 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Sacile, Carlino, 10.VIII 1980, M. G. Paoletti leg., leaf litter. Veneto: Belluno Prov.— 3 Ƥ, Arsiè, small quarry on the road beyond the Ristorante Cima Campo, 1380 m a.s.l. ca, 9.X. 2005, E.Piva leg. (EPV). Veneto: Venice Prov. — 2 3 2 Ƥ, Portogruaro, Bosco di Lison, 9.XI. 1986, M. R. Favretto leg. Ve neto: Ve ron a P rov   . – 1 3 ( C. parmensis, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Verona, Villa Bartolomea, 11.IX. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 2 Ƥ, id., Giardino Giusti, 24.V – 28.VI. 2005, F. Ballarin leg., pitfall trap (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, id., 29.IX. 2005, leaf litter (MSNV). Lombardy: Bergamo Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Endine Gaiano, Perlisa, 550 m a.s.l., 9.V – 19.VI. 1996, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg., scree (MBCG); 1 Ƥ, Sovere, Valle Sandina, 500 m a.s.l., 2.IV – 9.V. 1996, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg. (MBCG). Piedmont: Alessandria Prov.— 2 Ƥ 5 T, Alessandria, Valmadonna, 29.X. 1978, C. Torti leg.; 1 3, Montecastello, 29.X. 1978, C. Torti leg., sieved under Robinia   ; 1 Ƥ, Predosa, 10.III. 1981, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Talpa   burrow; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Serralunga di Crea, Sacro Monte SW slope, 250 m a.s.l., 17.V. 1998, G. B. Delmastro leg. (MCCI); 1 3 1 Ƥ, Spigno Monferrato, 22.IV. 1979, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Vignale Monferrato, 11.V. 2009, Priarone & Ferrara leg., vineyard. Piedmont: Asti Prov.— 3 3 2 Ƥ, Albugnano, 1.V. 1984, C. Torti leg., oak wood; 1 T, Grazzano Badoglio, 250 m a.s.l., 1.X. 1982, C. Torti leg.; 3 Ƥ 1 T, Roatto, Valle Reale, 200 m a.s.l., 23.III. 1993, G. B. Delmastro leg. Piedmont: Cuneo Prov. — 2 3 3 Ƥ, Cuneo, Sommariva Perno, Castello, 330 m a.s.l., 24.V. 1992, G. B. Delmastro leg. (MCCI). Piedmont: Turin Prov.— 2 ex., Torino, Poirino, boschi c/o Cascina Buonavalle, 277 m a.s.l., 23.IV. 1991, G. B. Delmastro leg. (MCCI). Liguria: Genoa Prov.— 4 3 8 Ƥ 3 T, Arenzano, 19.IV. 1981, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3, id., Pineta di Arenzano, 16.IX. 1976, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., 22.VI. 1986; 3 3 6 Ƥ 2 T, id., Val Lerone, 26.XI. 1972, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3, id., 7.I. 1989, Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., 550 m a.s.l., 12.X. 1997, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Castiglione Chiavarese, 21.XII. 1975, L. Briganti & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3, Cogoleto, Lerca, Rio Loaga, 15.XI. 1995, G. Gardini leg.; 6 3 1 Ƥ, id., Sciarborasca, 14.V. 1974, G. Gardini leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Genova Pegli, Villa Doria, 28.I. 1973, G. Gardini leg, sieved; 1 Ƥ, id., 11.II. 1973, G. Bartoli leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 24.27. II. 1981, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 8.X. 1981, R. Rizzerio leg.; 3 3 7 Ƥ 5 T 3 D, id., Villa Pallavicini, 27.II. 1981, R. Rizzerio & G. Gardini leg.; 1 Ƥ, Genova, Premanico, 17.XII. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., sieved; 4 3 2 Ƥ 2 T, id., Sestri Ponente, near the cemetery, 23.I. 1975, G. Gardini leg., chestnut-wood and Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Vesima, 16.II. 1988, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3, San Colombano Certenoli, La Pozza, 50 m a.s.l., 6.II. 2004, G. Gardini leg., chestnut-wood. Liguria: La Spezia Prov.— 1 3 3 Ƥ 1 T, near Biassa, 150 m a.s.l., 21.II. 1982, G. Gardini, C. Giusto & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., 24.V. 1988, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ 2 T, Bolano, Il Poggio, 500 m a.s.l., 19.V. 2002, G. Gardini, sieved under Ulmus   ; 1 3, near Bonassola, 22.XII. 1984, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, near Cassana, 200 m a.s.l., 2.X. 80, G. Gardini, S. Zoia & R. Rizzerio, Ostrya   and Castanea   wood; 3 3 6 Ƥ 3 T, id., 30.X. 1982, L. Briganti & S. Zoia; 1 3, id., Grotta di Cassana 65 Li/SP, 7 –IX – 1983, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, Castagnola, 550 m a.s.l.; 22 – X – 1980, S. Vit leg., leaf litter (MHNG); 3 3, Deiva Marina, 22.X. 1972, G. Bartoli & G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus suber   wood; 2 3 2 Ƥ, id., 26.X. 1972; 5 3 4 Ƥ, id., 4.XI. 1972, G. Gardini & R. Poggi leg., sieved in Quercus suber   wood; 1 Ƥ, id., 26.XI. 1972, R. Poggi leg., sieved; 1 3 3 Ƥ, id., 14.XII. 1972, G. Bartoli leg., sieved in Quercus suber   wood; 2 Ƥ, id., 13.IV. 1975, R. Poggi & L. Briganti leg., sieved in Quercus suber   wood; 2 3 7 Ƥ, id., 21.XI. 1976, L. Briganti, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Quercus suber   wood and Olea   hollow; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Case Mirò, 2.II. 1992, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus suber   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., near Piazza, 200 m a.s.l., 22.XII. 1984, S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3 6 Ƥ 4 T, La Spezia, Foce, 2.X. 1980, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia leg., Quercus ilex   wood; 1 3, Monterosso al Mare, Punta Mesco, 4.II. 1973, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Mediterranean scrub; 3 3 5 Ƥ, id., western coast, 18.III. 1975, G. Gardini leg., sieved in Quercus ilex   wood; 3 3 5 Ƥ 3 T, Pignone, 7.IX. 1983, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., doline; 11 3 13 Ƥ, Riccò del Golfo, Quaratica, 350 m a.s.l., 18.IV. 2003, G. Gardini leg., mixed wood. Liguria: Savona Prov. — 1 3 6 Ƥ, Albisola Marina, Torrente Sansobbia   , 15.XII. 1974, M. Benedetti & S. Zoia leg., river bed. Emilia: Bologna Prov.   — 1 Ƥ, Sasso Marconi, Palazzo Rossi, III. 2010, L. Colacurcio leg. Emilia: Modena Prov.   — 4 3 4 Ƥ, Castelvetro, 9.XI. 1983, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg., Fraxinus   and Quercus   ; 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., 9.IV. 1984, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg. Tuscany: Arezzo Prov. — 1 3 2 Ƥ, Alpe della Luna, Passo di Viamaggio, 950 m a.s.l., 26.VI. 1986, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood. Tuscany: Massa & Carrara Prov. — 1 3, Aulla, Masero, 9.V. 1984, S. Zoia & C. Torti leg. Marche: Macerata Prov. — 1 T, Castelsantangelo, north of Rapegna, 850 m a.s.l., VI –IX. 1992, M. Valle leg. (MBCG). Marche: Pesaro Prov. — 2 3, Cagli, Monte Catria, 650 m a.s.l., 4.X. 1992, L. Latella leg. Marche: Urbino Prov. — 1 3, Urbino centre, 17.IX. 1992, L. Latella leg. Umbria: Perugia Prov. — 1 T, San Giustino, Parnacciano, 700 m a.s.l., I –VI. 1992, M. Valle leg. (MBCG); 1 3, id., Parnacciano, 700 m a.s.l., VI –X. 1991, M. Valle leg. (MBCG). Umbria: Terni Prov. — 1 3, Orvieto, 300 m a.s.l., 12.X. 1986, G. Gardini, R. Rizzerio & S. Zoia; 1 3, id., Titignano, entrance cave n. 56 U/ TR, 260 m a.s.l., 6.VI. 2004, P. Magrini leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, near Fabro, 22.II. 1990, S. Zoia leg. Latium: Latina Prov.   — 1 Ƥ, near Itri, 320 m a.s.l., 30.IX. 1982, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 4 Ƥ 3 T, id., San Nicola, 620 m a.s.l., 30.IX. 1982, G. Gardini & S. Zoia leg., Ostrya   . Latium: Rome Prov. — 1 3, Mazzano Romano, Valle del Treja, 22.IX. 1992, L. Latella leg.; 1 Ƥ, Roma, Monte Mario, 17.XII. 1990, L. Latella leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 18.VI. 1991; 1 3, id., Valle della Insugherata, 1.XI. 1993, L. Latella leg. Abruzzo: Teramo Prov. — 3 Ƥ, Gran Sasso, Prati di Tivo, 1500 m a.s.l., 12.VI. 1988, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Integument pigmented, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps yellowbrown; hispid granulation on lateral surfaces of carapace, on cheliceral palm, on ventrodistal surface of chelal hand and on base of movable chelal finger. Carapace 0.9–1.1 times as long as broad, subquadrate; anterior margin (fig. 171–172) strongly dentate between median macrosetae, sometimes weakly prominent, without epistome; ocular area as in fig. 173, anterior eyes with convex lens (diameter 0.03–0.035 mm), posterior ones with flat lens or reduced to ocular spot, all eyes with tapetum; distance from anterior eyes to anterior margin of carapace 0.02–0.03 mm; chaetotaxy mm 4mm: 6: 4: 2:m 2m (18), macrosetae thick; lateral microsetae on posterior margin of carapace very variable in length, even within the same population (e.g. specimens from Deiva Marina); length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.07–0.09 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 10:(3) 8 (3):(2) 7 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternite III rarely with (3) 6 or 7 (3) setae, st. IV rarely with (2) 6 or 8 (2) setae; genital opening of males flanked by 6–7 (rarely 5 or 8) setae on each side. Chelicerae (figs 174–175) 2.0– 2.1 times as long as broad, palm with 5–6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 5–7 teeth proximally reduced in size and 4–6 proximal tubercles; movable finger with a large isolated subapical tooth (di) at level with the spinneret, 3–6 teeth proximally reduced in size and 3–4 proximal microtubercles; gl ratio 0.54–0.57; spinneret prominent, apically rounded, similar in both sexes; rallum with 11 blades; serrulae interior and exterior respectively with about 12 and 14 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 5–9 coxal spines, coxa III with 2–5 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 4.7–5.4 (3), 4.4–5.5 (Ƥ) times as long as broad, basally with hispid granulation; chela (figs 176–178) 4.3–4.8 (3), 3.8–4.5 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 1.7–1.9 (3), 1.6–1.8 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, with a rounded hump distad of ib-isb and a marked hollow—with thicker cuticle—just before the base of the movable finger; fixed finger with 13–16 teeth: 2 distal small, triangular, upright teeth, 9–11 large, triangular, upright and pointed teeth, weakly reclined, with dental canals, and 2–5 basal teeth deeply rounded and mostly fused in an evident elevation of marginal lamina; base of fixed finger with 7–10 microtubercles; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 5–6 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.021–0.022 mm); distal two third of movable chelal finger with 7–9 large, triangular, upright teeth with dental canals and proximally with 4–7 rounded teeth, 3–5 of which mostly fused in an evident elevation of marginal lamina opposite that of fixed finger; base of movable finger with 4–10 microtubercles; coupled sensilla pc mostly at level of elevation of marginal lamina; trichobothria as in figs 177– 178; ist mostly distad of the line eb-esb; basal apodeme of movable finger strongly sclerotized, short and mostly squat; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.4–1.5 (3), 1.3 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.1–1.2 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.0– 1.2 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 0.84–1.15 (3), 0.94–1.2 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.29–0.34 × 0.27–0.32 (0.24–0.29 anteriorly) (3), 0.33–0.38 × 0.31–0.38 (0.28–0.33 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.22–0.265 × 0.11–0.13 (3), 0.24– 0.30 × 0.12–0.15 (Ƥ), movable finger length 0.115–0.135 (3), 0.13–0.16 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.31–0.38 × 0.065– 0.08 (3), 0.34–0.42 × 0.07–0.09 (Ƥ); chela 0.45–0.55 × 0.10–0.12 (3), 0.50–0.61 × 0.13–0.15 (Ƥ); hand length 0.18–0.22 (3), 0.20–0.27 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.27–0.33 (3), 0.28–0.35 (Ƥ).

Description of tritonymph. Integument with weak pigmentation and weak hispid granulation. Carapace 1.0– 1.1 times longer than broad; eyes as in adults; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2:m 2m (18); length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.05–0.06 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 5:(2) 6 (2):(1) 6 (1): 6 o 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7. Chelicerae 1.9 –2.0 times as long as broad, palm with 4 setae and 1 or 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 4–6 teeth, movable finger with an isolated subapical tooth (di) and 4 contiguous teeth; gl ratio 0.53–0.57; rallum with 9 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 2 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 5; coxa II with 3–6 coxal spines, coxa III with 1–3 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 4.2–4.8 times as long as broad; chela 4.0– 4.1 times as long as deep; hand of chela 1.7–1.8 times as long as deep; fixed chelal finger with 12–13 teeth: 2 small distal teeth, 6–8 large, triangular and pointed teeth, and 2–4 basal teeth rounded and mostly fused in an evident elevation of marginal lamina; base of fixed finger with 7–10 microtubercles; tip of fixed finger with a modified tooth td on antiaxial face; movable chelal finger with 6 large, triangular and pointed teeth and 3–4 rounded teeth, 2–4 of which mostly fused in an evident elevation of marginal lamina, base of movable finger with a few microtubercles; coupled sensilla pc just proximad of the laminal elevation; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.1; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 0.9 –1.0.

Measurements (in mm). Body length 0.78–0.81. Carapace 0.24–0.27 × 0.24–0.26 (0.21–0.24 anteriorly). Chelicerae 0.18–0.21 × 0.09–0.11, movable finger length 0.095–0.11. Pedipalp: femur 0.24–0.25 × 0.05–0.06; chela 0.36–0.41 × 0.09–0.10; hand length 0.155–0.18; movable finger length 0.21–0.23.

Remarks. Among the species of the C. fuscimanus   group, C. parmensis   is closely related to the endogean C. thaleri   from Veneto, with which it shares the presence of an isolated subdistal tooth (di) on the movable cheliceral finger, the shape of chelal hand (with a distinct dorsal hump distad of ib-isb) and the peculiar dentition of the chelal fingers (with raised lamina at level of sb). C. parmensis   differs from C. thaleri   by the number of setae on posterior margin of carapace (2 macro- and 2 microsetae in C. parmensis   , 2 macrosetae in C. thaleri   ), the number of setae of ocular series (6 macrosetae in C. parmensis   , 4 macro- and 2 microsetae in C. thaleri   ), the presence of eyes (no eyes in C. thaleri   ) and the epigean facies, with smaller size and less elongated appendages (length of chela 0.45–0.55 (3) 0.50–0.61 (Ƥ) mm, chela 4.3–4.8 (3) 3.8–4.5 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.0– 1.2 in C. parmensis   ; length of chela 0.78 (3) 0.82–0.86 (Ƥ), chela 6.0 (3) 5.5 (Ƥ), ratio of pedipalpal femur/ carapace 1.3–1.4 in C. thaleri   ).

C. parmensis   is also related to the Sardinian C. cassolai   and C. berninii   . It differs from the hypogean C. cassolai   by the presence of eyes (without eyes or only with reduced anterior eyes in C. cassolai   ), the number of triangular teeth on the chelal fingers (fixed chelal finger with 11–13 teeth in C. parmensis   , 17–21 teeth in C. cassolai   ), the epigean facies, with smaller size and less elongated appendages (length of chela 0.89–1.12 (3) 0.84–1.37 (Ƥ) mm, chela 5.7–5.9 (3) 5.0– 5.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.4– 1.6 in C. cassolai   ). C. parmensis   differs by the epigean C. berninii   by the form of the chelal dentition (proximal half of fingers with rounded and spaced teeth, with marginal lamina slightly prominent in C. berninii   ), by the presence of a prominent spinneret in both sexes (spinneret mostly absent in males of C. berninii   ) and by the arrangement of setae flanking the genital opening of males (along sides in C. parmensis   , partly scattered in C. berninii   ).

The above description of C. parmensis   incorporates those of Beier (1963 b), Callaini (1984) and DeVore- Scribante (1999). The species is newly recorded for Slovenia and Croatia.