Chthonius

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 40-45

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

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scientific name

Chthonius
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Chthonius   (E.) fuscimanus   Simon, 1900

( Figs 68–75 View FIGURES 68 – 73 View FIGURES 74 – 75 , 289 View FIGURES 286 – 289 )

Chthonius   (E.) tetrachelatus   (not Preyssler, 1790): Lazzeroni 1969 b: 395 (misidentification, in part). Chthonius   (E.) austriacus   austriacus   (not Beier, 1931): Lazzeroni 1969 b: 396 (in part, see C. boldorii   ). Chthonius tetrachelatus fuscimanus: Gardini 1980 c: 261   , figs 1–7.

Chthonius   (E.) austriacus   (not Beier, 1931): Mahnert 1981: 96, 99, fig. 1.

Chthonius   (E.) austriacus   (not Beier, 1931): Gardini 1991: 177 (misidentification, see C. boldorii   ). Chthonius   (E.) fuscimanus   : Muster et al. 2004: 300, figs 1, 3, 5, 7– 12.

Not C. (E.) fuscimanus   : Gardini 2004: 129 (misidentification, see C. boldorii   ).

Type locality: Italy, Trentino, Trento Prov., Lavarone (45 ° 56 ʹN 11 ° 16 ʹE).

Distribution. Austria, Czech Republic, Georgia (?), Germany, NE Italy, Turkey (?).

Diagnosis (Ƥ). An oculated epigean Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) from northeastern Alps that differs from other species of the C. fuscimanus   group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger with isolated subapical tooth (di); pedipalpal hand (in lateral view) without a rounded hump distad of trichobothria ibisb, weakly depressed at level of ib-isb; pedipalpal fixed finger at level of est-it with 3–4 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.043–0.050); pedipalpal movable finger with 5–7 triangular teeth; proximal half of pedipalpal movable finger with straight, thick marginal lamina; length of chela 1.0– 1.12 (3), 1.13–1.25 (Ƥ) mm, length of movable chelal finger 0.52–0.58 (3), 0.58–0.63 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.3–1.7.

Type material examined. ITALY — Trentino: Trento Prov.— 1 Ƥ (holotype), “ Chthonius tetrachelatus fuscimanus   subsp. n. typus! / Lavarone (Trentino) A. Dodero [leg.], Ag. 99 [VIII. 1899]” (MSNG).

Other material examined. ITALY — Friuli: Pordenone Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Aviano, towards Piancavallo, 350–450 m a.s.l., no date, M. Seriani leg., chestnut wood; 1 3 1 T, id., Piancavallo, no date, M. Seriani, leaf litter in Fagus sylvatica   wood and under stone; 1 Ƥ, Aviano, 1.XII. 1986, M. Seriani leg., chestnut wood; 1 3, id., Piancavallo, 1250 m a.s.l., 23.VI. 1996, F. Gasparo leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 Ƥ, Barcis, near Ponte Molassa, 400 m a.s.l., 6.XI. 2004 / 20.VIII. 2005, G. Governatori leg., buried baits in broad-leaved wood; 1 Ƥ 1 D, Claut, Alta Val Cellina, Val Margons, 870 m a.s.l., 3.V. 2002, A. Dall’Asta leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 2 Ƥ, id., Alta Val Cellina, Pian de Cea, road to Casera Casavento, 930 m a.s.l., 1.VII – 13.VII. 2002, A. Dall’Asta leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 3 2 Ƥ 1 D, id., Val Settimana, between Stalle Parigina and Stalla Pustrin, 650 m a.s.l., 2.V – 16.V. 2002, A. Dall’Asta leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 D, id., 3.V. 2002 (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., 16.V – 30.V. 2002 (MFNB); 3 Ƥ, id., 30.V – 17.VI. 2002 (MFNB); 4 Ƥ, id., 17.VI – 1.VII. 2002 (MFNB); 1 3 3 Ƥ 1 D, id., 1.VII – 13.VII. 2002 (MFNB); 4 3 7 Ƥ 4 T, id., 13.VII – 29.VII. 2002 (MFNB); 5 3 2 Ƥ, Montereale Valcellina, 360 m a.s.l., 23.III – 27.VII. 1995, F. Gasparo leg., traps in coppice; 2 Ƥ 1 T, Sequals, Torbiera di Sequals, 200 m a.s.l., 14.X. 2001, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps (MFNB); 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., 29.X. 2001, G. Tomasin leg., tuft of Carex   sp. (MFNB); 2 3 3 Ƥ, Torrate, Bosco near Torrate, 23.I. 1982, M. Seriani leg., Quercus   and Carpinus   ; 1 Ƥ 1 T, Tramonti di Sotto, near Campone, 2.X. 1985, S. Zoia leg.; 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., Bosco Selvàz, 21.VI. 1987, L. Dreon leg.; 2 Ƥ, Vito d'Asio, Pielungo, 12.V. 1985, M. Seriani leg., oak wood. Friuli: Udine Prov.— 1 3 1 Ƥ, Amaro, 350 m a.s.l., 10.I – 8.V. 1991, F. Gasparo leg.; 4 3, Artegna, 250 m a.s.l., 4.III – 11.VIII. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., traps; 1 Ƥ, Bertiolo, Risorgive di Virco, 23 m a.s.l., 31.III. 2001, A. Zanetti, A. Tagliapietra, G. Tomasin & G. Governatori leg., basic peat, base of Alnus glutinosa   (MFNB); 1 3, id., Risorgive di Virco, 23 m a.s.l., 19.VI. 2001, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in wet wood (MFNB); 2 Ƥ 1 T, id., 19.VI. 2001 (MFNB); 1 Ƥ 1 D, id., 16.X. 2001 (MFNB); 1 D, id., 16.X. 2001, pitfall traps in wet wood (MFNB); 1 3 1 D, id., 26.XI. 2001, G. Tomasin & F. Stoch leg., basic peat, tuft of Carex   sp. (MFNB); 1 3, Bordano, north of Bordano, 450 m a.s.l., 13.V. 1992, F. Gasparo leg.; 3 3 2 Ƥ, Carlino, 22.XI. 1989, M. Seriani leg., Querco-Carpinetum; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Cavazzo Carnico, 290 m a.s.l., 16.IV – 23.IX. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., traps in Picea   wood; 2 3 5 Ƥ, id., 290 m a.s.l., 16.IV. 1992, F. Gasparo leg.; 4 3 2 Ƥ, Cervignano, Bosco Pradiziolo, 16.I. 1983, M. Seriani leg., oak wood (together with 1 3 5 Ƥ of C. boldorii   ); 4 3 5 Ƥ 1 T, id., 4.III. 1983, M. Seriani leg. (together with 1 3 1 Ƥ of C. boldorii   ); 1 T, Chiusaforte, Raunis, 560 m a.s.l., 6.VIII. 1995, G. Governatori leg., under stone; 1 3, Forni di Sotto, 800–850 m a.s.l., 13.IV. 1996, F. Gasparo leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 5 3 7 Ƥ, Lusevera, Alta Val Torre, near Case Tacia, 840 m a.s.l., 26.VIII. 1992, M. M. Giovannelli leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., near Casere Tanatcason, 740 m a.s.l., 6.VIII – 4.IX. 2006, G. Colombetta & L. Dorigo leg., scree slope (together with 2 3 of C. boldorii   ) (MFNB); 1 3 1 T, id., 29.VIII – 16.X. 2007, P. Glerean & L. Dorigo leg., scree slope (MFNB); 2 3 4 Ƥ, id., Isola Torrente Mea, 700 m a.s.l., 5.VIII. 1992, M. Governatori leg., shrubs (MFNB); 2 3 2 Ƥ, id., 5.VIII – 2.IX. 1992, G. Governatori & C. Luppi leg., shrubs (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., 7.X – 7.XI. 1992, G. Governatori leg., shrubs (MFNB); 4 Ƥ, id., 7.XI. 1992, G. Governatori leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Valle Torrente Mea, 19.XI. 2000, G. Governatori leg., pitfall trap (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., Passo di Tanamea, 1000 m a.s.l., 5.VIII. 1992, G. Governatori leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 3 3 6 Ƥ, id., Pian di Tapou, 900 m a.s.l., 7.XI. 1992, G. Governatori & C. Luppi leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 3, id., 4.IX – 5.X. 2006, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 2 Ƥ, id., 21.VI – 13.VII. 2007 (MFNB); 3 Ƥ, id., Torrente Vedronza, 330 m a.s.l., 5.VIII. 1992, G. Governatori leg., mixed wood (MFNB); 1 Ƥ 1 T, Moggio Udinese, Stavoli Cuel Lung Alto, slope of Monte Zovet, 700 m a.s.l., 19.VI – 16.VII. 2001, A. Dall’Asta leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 3 4 Ƥ 2 T, id., 16.VII – 20.VIII. 2001, G. Governatori leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 3, id., 20.VIII. 26.IX. 2001, G. Governatori leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 D, id., 30.X. 2001, G. Governatori leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 3, id., Stavoli Tugliezzo, Rio Lavarie, 470 m a.s.l., 19.VI – 16.VII. 2001, A. Dall’Asta leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 6 3 7 Ƥ 10 T 22 D, id., 26.IX – 30.X. 2001, G. Governatori & A. Dall’Asta leg., cone traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (together with 2 3 1 Ƥ of C. boldorii   ) (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, Musi, 14.XI. 1980, M. Seriani leg., moss; 2 3, Muzzana, 15.X. 1982, M. Seriani leg., Querco-Carpinetum; 2 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Callaini   det.), Pradis, 10.IV. 1983, M. Seriani leg. (MSNV); 1 3 2 Ƥ, Prestento, Torreano, 190 m a.s.l., 6.IV – 10.VII. 1993, F. Gasparo leg., traps in Carpinus betulus   wood; 3 Ƥ, Ragogna, San Giorgio, 150 m a.s.l., 2.XI. 2003, D. Bianco leg. (EPV); 3 Ƥ, Resia, near Uccea, 780 m a.s.l., 1.VI. 1986, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 Ƥ, id., Val Uccea, near Casera Malicuc, 760 m a.s.l., 20.VII – 20.VIII. 2001, G. Governatori leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., Val Uccea, near Torrente Uccea, 650 m a.s.l. ca, 17.IV – 6.VI. 2006, G. Colombetta & L. Dorigo leg., pitfall traps (MFNB); 1 3, id., 12.VII – 14.VIII. 2007 (MFNB); 1 3, id., 14.VIII – 16.X. 2007, P. Glerean & L. Dorigo leg. (MFNB); 1 D, Rivignano, Risorgive Zarnicco, 13 m a.s.l., 31.III. 2001, A. Zanetti, A. Tagliapietra, G. Tomasin & G. Governatori leg., riparian wood, base of Alnus glutinosa   (MFNB); 1 T 1 D, id., 19.VI. 2001, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in riparian wood (MFNB); 1 D, id., 16.X. 2001 (MFNB); 2 3, Sezza, Zuglio, 670 m a.s.l., 20.II – 3.VIII. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., traps; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Taipana, Monteaperta, southern slope of Gran Monte, 700 m a.s.l. ca, 10.IX – 10.X. 1994, G. Governatori leg., secondary lawn (MFNB); 1 3, Tolmezzo, Caneva, 360 m a.s.l., 10.VI. 1993, F. Gasparo leg., mixed wood; 1 3, Trasaghis, 250 m a.s.l., 5.V. 1992, F. Gasparo leg. (together with 1 3 2 Ƥ of C. boldorii   ); 2 3 3 Ƥ 7 T 4 D, Trasaghis, Peonis, 180 m a.s.l., 29.VIII – 13.XI. 1991, F. Gasparo leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   ; 14 3 15 Ƥ 2 T, Venzone, Pioverno, 250 m a.s.l., 11.II – 14.VII. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., traps in Ostrya carpinifolia   wood (together with 1 3 2 ƤƤ of C. boldorii   ); 1 T, id., Monte Plauris group, near Casera Ungarina, 1325 m a.s.l., 2.VIII – 1.IX. 2006, G. Colombetta & L. Dorigo leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., Monte Plauris group, near Malga Confin, 1315 m a.s.l. ca, 19.VI – 25.VII. 2007, G. Colombetta & L. Dorigo leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 3 3 1 T, id., Valle Venzonassa, Borgo Prabunello, 765 m a.s.l., 20.VI – 2.VIII. 2006, G. Colombetta & L. Dorigo leg. (MFNB); 1 3 1 T, id., 2.VIII – 1.IX. 2006, wood (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., 1.IX – 30.IX. 2006 (MFNB); 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., 30.IV – 19.VI. 2007, pitfall traps in Ostryo-Fagetum (MFNB); 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 19.VI – 25.VII. 2007 (MFNB); 2 T, id., 30.IX – 1.XI. 2007, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in Ostryo-Fagetum (MFNB); 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., Val Venzonassa, near Casera Frassin near Rio Bruschie, 630 m a.s.l. ca, 25.VII – 6.IX. 2007, P. Glerean & L. Dorigo leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 T, id., 6.IX – 9.X. 2007, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in Fagus sylvatica   wood (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, Verzegnis, Pozzis, 31.X. 1982, M. Seriani leg.; 1 3, Villa Santina, 400 m a.s.l., 11.II – 29.IV. 1994, F. Gasparo leg., Carpinus betulus   wood; 2 Ƥ, id., 29.IV – 5.VII. 1994, F. Gasparo leg., traps in Carpinus betulus   wood; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 30.IV. 1991, F. Gasparo leg., Carpinus   ; 1 Ƥ, Villa Santina, near Avaglio, 420 m a.s.l., 14.VII. 1993, M. Bodon leg. Veneto: Belluno Prov.— 2 3 2 T, near Piano del Cansiglio, 1000 m a.s.l., 4.X. 1985, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3 ( C. austriacus, G. Callaini   det.), Agordo, [no date], S. Ruffo leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., 4.V. 1967, Riggio & R. Gioco leg. (MSNV); 3 3 3 Ƥ, id., La Muda, 550 m a.s.l., 2.VII. 1985, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 1 3, Sovramonte, small valley near Grotta Faller 3189 V/BL, 650 m a.s.l., 4.VI. 2006, D. Bianco & E. Piva leg. (EPV). Ve n e to: Treviso Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Cansiglio, 6.VI. 1974, A. Minelli leg.; 1 3, Passo Sant’Ubaldo, northern slope, 16.VI. 1973, A. Minelli leg.; 1 3, Cison di Valmarino, 3.VII. 1975, A. Minelli leg.; 1 Ƥ 1 T, Crespano del Grappa, Beata Vergine del Covolo, 400 m a.s.l., 11.I. 1998, A. Zanetti leg.; 1 3, Fadalto, 2.VIII. 1972, A. Minelli leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 8.X. 1972; 1 3 3 Ƥ, id., 12.X. 1972; 2 Ƥ, id., Sella di Fadalto, 500 m a.s.l., 3.VIII. 1991, F. Gasparo leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   ; 2 3 1 Ƥ, Miane, Combai, 450 m a.s.l., 8.IV. 1972, A. Minelli leg.; 1 3, Susegana, Castello San Salvatore, Ricovero difensivo 74 V /TV, 150 m a.s.l., 8.VI. 2002, Forte & S. Vanin leg. (SVP); 1 Ƥ, Vittorio Veneto, Monte Pizzoc, 1200 m a.s.l., 18.V. 1972, A. Minelli leg. Veneto: Vicenza Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Arcugnano, Lago di Fimon, 31.VIII. 1987, R. Rizzerio & G. Gardini leg.; 1 3, Asiago, Cima Fonte, 400 m a.s.l., 14.VI. 1992, L. Latella leg.; 1 3, id., Cima Echar, 1200 m a.s.l., 23.IX. 1999, R. Monguzzi leg. (RMM); 1 Ƥ, Cornedo Vicentino, Cereda, small valley near Grotta del Cameron, 350 m a.s.l., 14.IX. 2005, D. Bianco leg. (EPV); 1 3, Enego, between Enego and Primolano, 500 m a.s.l., 8.VIII. 1991, F. Gasparo leg.; 1 Ƥ, Valdagno, Passo Zovo, Grotta Sette Fé, 630 m a.s.l., 4.V. 2003, D. Bianco leg. (EPV); 1 Ƥ, Zovencedo, 8.III. 1982, M. Seriani leg. Veneto: Verona Prov.— 1 3 1 T, Bussolengo, Parco Natura Viva, 14.VI. 2002, Marzotto & S. Vanin leg. (SVP); 1 3 ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Giazza, Tregnago, 8.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, Monteforte d’Alpone, Sant’Ilario, 8.III. 1982, M. Seriani leg.; 4 3 ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Monti Lessini, Rifugio Rivolto, 9.VII. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 3 ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Velo Veronese, 8.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV).

Description of adults (Ƥ). Integument pigmented, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps brown; pedipalpal hand mostly darker than chelal fingers; hispid granulation on lateral surface of carapace and on cheliceral palm. Carapace 0.9–1.1 times longer than broad, subquadrate; anterior margin (figs 68–69) strongly dentate between median macrosetae, sometimes weakly prominent, without epistome; ocular area as in fig. 70, four well-developed eyes: anterior pair with convex lens (diameter 0.048–0.058 mm) and tapetum; posterior eyes with flat lens or reduced to ocular spot; distance from anterior eyes to anterior margin of carapace 0.034–0.054 mm; chaetotaxy mm 4mm: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), macrosetae thick; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.08–0.15 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 9–12:(3) 9–11 (3):(2) 7 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternite IV rarely with (2) 8 (2) setae, sternite V rarely with 7 or 9 setae; genital opening of males mostly flanked by 7–8 (rarely 9 or 11) setae on each side. Chelicerae (figs 71–72) 2.1–2.2 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 6–9 subequal teeth and 5–9 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with a large isolated subapical tooth (di), at level with the spinneret, 4 (rarely 5) teeth proximally reduced in size and 4–5 proximal microtubercles; gl ratio 0.56–0.62; spinneret large and prominent, apically rounded, slightly smaller in males; rallum with 11 blades; serrulae interior and exterior respectively with 12 and 14 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 7–11 (rarely 12–13) coxal spines, coxa III with 3–5 (rarely 2, 6 or 7) coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 6.5 –7.0 (3), 6.3–6.7 (Ƥ) times as long as broad, ventrobasally with weakly hispid granulation; chela (figs 73–75) 5.4–5.8 (3), 4.4 –5.0 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.4–2.5 (3), 2.05–2.3 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, weakly depressed at level of ib-isb, without hump distad of ib-isb; fixed chelal finger mostly with 11–12 (rarely 9, 10 or 13) large triangular teeth, with dental canals, slightly reclined; the first distal triangular tooth sometimes very small; the first two proximal teeth mostly brought close together and prominent, the first one mostly apically rounded, sometimes rudimentary but always with dental canal; base of fixed finger with a variable number of microtubercles or without microtubercles; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 3–4 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.043–0.050 mm); distal half of movable finger with 6–7 (rarely 5) upright, large, triangular teeth with dental canals; first proximal tooth of movable finger at middle or slightly distad of middle finger (ratio 0.50–0.55); proximal half of movable finger with straight, thick marginal lamina; coupled sensilla pc mostly between b and sb, rarely nearer sb; trichobothria as in figs 74–75, eb-esb-ist mostly in a straight line; basal apodeme of movable finger strongly sclerotized, rectangular, slightly bent and apically truncated; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.2 (3), 1.1 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.3–1.4 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.3– 1.7 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.5 –2.0 (3), 1.9–2.4 (Ƥ).Carapace 0.40–0.51 × 0.40–0.50 (0.42–0.49 anteriorly) (3), 0.48–0.61 × 0.48–0.58 (0.44–0.54 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.40–0.43 × 0.18–0.20 (3), 0.45– 0.51 × 0.21–0.24 (Ƥ), movable finger length 0.20–0.22 (3), 0.23–0.26 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.71–0.80 × 0.11–0.12 (3), 0.82–0.88 × 0.125–0.14 (Ƥ); chela 1.0– 1.12 × 0.18–0.19 (3), 1.13–1.25 × 0.23–0.265 (Ƥ); hand length 0.43– 0.48 (3), 0.51–0.58 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.52–0.58 (3), 0.58–0.63 (Ƥ).

Description of tritonymph. Integument with weak pigmentation, hispid granulation less marked than in adults. Carapace 1.1 times longer than broad, without epistome; eyes as in adults; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18); length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.08 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 5:(2) 8 (2):(1) 6 (1): 7: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7. Chelicerae 2.2 times as long as broad, palm with 5 setae and 1 lateral microseta; fixed finger with 6 teeth, movable finger with an isolated subapical tooth (di) and 3–4 teeth; gl ratio 0.56. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 2 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 5; coxa II with 6–7 coxal spines, coxa III with 3 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 5.7 times as long as broad; chela 5.6–5.8 times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.5 times as long as deep; fixed chelal finger with 10 teeth; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; distal half of movable finger with 7 teeth, proximal half of movable finger with straight, thick marginal lamina; coupled sensilla pc distad of b; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.2; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.3; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.3.

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.3. Carapace 0.40 × 0.36 (0.31 anteriorly). Chelicerae 0.31 × 0.135, movable finger length 0.16. Pedipalp: femur 0.52 × 0.09; chela 0.71–0.73 × 0.125; hand length 0.32; movable finger length 0.38–0.39.

Remarks. Among the species of the Chthonius fuscimanus   group, C. fuscimanus   is related to the epigean C. boldorii   , from which it differs solely by the presence of the isolated subapical tooth (di) on the cheliceral movable finger (Muster et al., 2004: see Remarks under C. boldorii   ).

Italian populations of C. fuscimanus   show morphological features and dimensional ranges in agreement with those reported in Gardini (1980 c) and Muster et al. (2004), apart from the lower length of pedipalpal femur: 0.54– 0.68 (3) 0.60–0.78 (Ƥ) according to the latter authors.

C. fuscimanus   is distributed in Italy continuously from the Dolomites and Venetian pre-Alps in the West (East of Lake Garda, as also stated by Muster et al., 2004) to the Julian Alps and pre-Alps in the East, with scattered occurrences in the plane of Friuli.

Beier (1963 b) recorded C. boldorii   (1 3 2 Ƥ) from Ponte Strambo near Bedonia ( Emilia   ) and Muster et al. (2004, p. 311, fig. 20) refer to C. fuscimanus   a “juv.” from Bedonia; the presence of both species in the Northern Apennines needs to be confirmed, as do and many other Italian records of C. fuscimanus   reported by Gardini (2000).