Chthonius

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 57-59

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FC302AA5-49CC-41B0-9A66-23C11AB4EBAE

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FFD3-F959-6B99-FB901967A557

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chthonius
status

 

Chthonius   (E.) grafittii   Gardini, 1981

( Figs 106–111 View FIGURES 106 – 111 , 285 View FIGURES 282 – 285 )

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) grafittii Gardini 1981: 102   , figs 1–22. Chthonius   (E.) grafittii   : Gardini 2008 a: 7.

Type locality: Italy, Sardinia, Sassari Prov., Sassari, Grotta di Molafà 937 Sa/SS (40 ° 42 ʹ0 4 ʺN 8 ° 31 ʹ 25 ʺE).

Distribution. Italy: Sardinia.

Diagnosis (Ƥ). An anophthalmic hypogean Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) from Sardinia that differs from other species of the C. tetrachelatus   group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger without isolated subapical tooth (di) and with spinneret in both sexes; carapace with 2 preocular microsetae on each side; posterior margin of carapace with 2 macrosetae; fixed and movable chelal fingers respectively with 18–22 and 10–12 triangular teeth (proximal rounded teeth excepted); pedipalpal fixed finger at level of est-it with 3 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.040 mm); length of chela 1.405 (3), 1.33–1.55 (Ƥ) mm, length of movable finger 0.853 (3), 0.805–0.916 (Ƥ) mm; chela 6.85 (3), 6.1–6.5 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.8 (3), 1.7–1.9 (Ƥ).

Type material examined. ITALY — Sardinia: Sassari Prov.— 1 3 (holotype), Sassari, Molafà, Grotta di Molafà 937 Sa/SS, 120 m a.s.l., 26.VI. 1978, G. Grafitti leg.; 1 Ƥ 2 D (paratypes), id., 19.IX. 1974, G. Grafitti & A. Virgilio leg.; 1 Ƥ (paratype), id., 29.VII. 1975, G. Grafitti leg.; 1 Ƥ (paratype), Muros, Monte Tudurighe, Grotta del Diavolo o dell’Inferno 48 Sa/SS, 320 m a.s.l., 19.X. 1975, M. Pintus & M. Mucedda leg; 1 Ƥ (paratype), Cargeghe, Giorrè, Grotta Sa Corona ‘e S’Abba (= Grotta prima di Giorrè) 951 Sa/SS, 455 m a.s.l., 11.VI. 1978, G. Grafitti leg.; 1 T (paratype), Usini, Monte Tanarighes, Grotta di Santa Caterina 2547 Sa/SS, 110 m a.s.l., 7.V. 1978, G. Grafitti leg.

Other material examined. ITALY — Sardinia: Sassari Prov. – 1 Ƥ 1 T, Cargeghe, Giorrè, Grotta Sa Corona ‘e S’Abba (= Grotta prima di Giorrè) 951 Sa/SS, 455 m a.s.l., 10.I. 1993, M. Mucedda leg., under stones in the terminal hall; 1 T, Usini, Monte Tanarighes, Grotta di Santa Caterina 2547 Sa/SS, 110 m a.s.l., 24.III. 1991, G. Grafitti leg., under stone on moist soil.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Troglomorphic facies. Integument depigmented, carapace, chelicerae and pedipalps pale testaceous. Carapace 1.03 (3), 1.4 – 1.16 (Ƥ) times longer than broad, constricted posteriorly; anterior margin (figs 106–107) closely dentate between median macrosetae, with a weakly prominent epistome; no eyes or eye-spots; chaetotaxy mm 4mm: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), macrosetae fine; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.16 mm. Chaetotaxy tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy sternites II –X 10:(3) 10 (3):(2) 7–9 (2): 8–9: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternite II rarely with 9 setae; genital opening of male flanked by 9 or 10 on setae on each side. Chelicerae (fig. 108) 2.3 (3), 2.2–2.4 (Ƥ) times as long as broad, palm with 5 or 6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 9–10 teeth proximally reduced in size; movable finger with 7–9 teeth, without isolated subapical tooth (di); galeal seta (gl) just after the middle finger; spinneret large and prominent, apically rounded. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 11–17 coxal spines, coxa III with 5–8 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 7.8 (3), 7.5–8.26 (Ƥ) times as long as broad; chela (figs 109–111) 6.85 (3), 6.1–6.5 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.7 (3), 2.4–2.6 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, weakly depressed at level of ib-isb and with a plane dorsolateral area between isb and eb; fixed chelal finger with 25–27 teeth with dental canals: the first distal 2 teeth small, followed by 18–22 upright, triangular, pointed teeth, the others proximally reduced in size to the finger base; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 3 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.040 mm); distal half of movable finger with 10–12 upright, large, triangular teeth with dental canals; proximal half of movable finger with small rounded teeth gradually reduced proximally back to sb; trichobothria as in figs 110–111, eb-esb-ist placed in a straight line; basal apodeme of movable finger strongly sclerotized, rectangular, apically truncate; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.53 (3), 1.47–1.56 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2–1.3 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.8 (3), 1.7–1.9 (Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.9 (3), 1.9–2.4 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.57 × 0.55 (3), 0.58–0.63 × 0.535–0.59 (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.54 × 0.23 (3), 0.525–0.60 × 0.225–0.27 (Ƥ), movable finger length 0.268 (3), 0.274–0.315 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 1.04 × 0.133 (3), 0.976–1.24 × 0.13–0.15 (Ƥ); chela 1.405 × 0.205 (3), 1.33–1.55 × 0.207–0.255 (Ƥ); hand length 0.556 (3), 0.515–0.62 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.853 (3), 0.805–0.916 (Ƥ).

Description of tritonymph. Integument depigmented. Carapace 1.0 times longer than broad, weakly constricted basally; anterior margin between median macrosetae dentate, without epistome; anterior eyes reduced, posterior ones absent; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18). Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy of sternites II – X 4:(2) 6 (2):(1) 6 (1): 7: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6. Chelicerae 2.16 times as long as broad, palm with 5 setae and 1 lateral microseta; fixed finger with 6–7 teeth; movable finger with 4 teeth, without isolated subapical tooth (di); spinneret more slender than in adults; rallum with 9 blades; serrula exterior with about 12 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 2 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 5; coxa II with 8–9 coxal spines, coxa III with 5–6 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 6.4 times as long as broad; chela 6.1 times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.46 times as long as deep; fixed finger with 19 triangular teeth proximally reduced in size back to the finger base; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; distal half of movable finger with 8 triangular teeth and, in the proximal half, with teeth trace more marked than in adults; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.5; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.5.

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.47. Carapace 0.45 × 0.43. Chelicerae 0.39 × 0.18, movable finger length 0.20. Pedipalp: femur 0.67 × 0.105; chela 0.915 × 0.15; hand length 0.37; movable finger length 0.545.

Remarks. Among the species of the Chthonius tetrachelatus   group, C. grafittii   is closely related to the hypogean C. poseidonis   from NW Sardinia, from which it differs in the more strongly marked troglomorphic facies: chela 6.85 (3) 6.1–6.5 (Ƥ) times as long as deep in C. grafittii   , 6.4–6.7 (3) 5.6–6.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep in C. poseidonis   ; fixed chelal finger with 18–22 triangular teeth in C. grafittii   , with 21-25 triangular teeth in C. poseidonis   .