Chthonius

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 26-29

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FC302AA5-49CC-41B0-9A66-23C11AB4EBAE

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FFF2-F97F-6B99-F9D01BBAA26F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chthonius
status

 

Chthonius   (E.) cassolai   Beier, 1973

( Figs 36–41 View FIGURES 36 – 41 , 286 View FIGURES 286 – 289 )

Chthonius   (E.) cassolai   Beier 1973: 164, fig. 1.

Chthonius   (E.) cfr. cassolai: Callaini 1983 b: 414   , fig. IIc. Chthonius   (E.) cassolai   : Gardini 2008 a: 5, figs 1–6.

Type locality: Italy, Sardinia, Cagliari Prov., Villasalto, Grotta Rutta ‘e Scusi 602 Sa/CA (39 ° 29 ʹ 54 ʺN 9 ° 24 ʹ 20 ʺE). Distribution. Sardinia.

Diagnosis (Ƥ). An anophthalmic (rarely microphthalmic) hypogean Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) from Sardinia that differs from other species of the C. fuscimanus   group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger with isolated subapical tooth (di); posterior margin of carapace with 4 subequal macrosetae, ocular series with 6 macrosetae; pedipalpal hand (in lateral view) with a rounded hump distad of trichobothria ib-isb; fixed chelal finger with 17–21 triangular teeth; proximal half of movable chelal finger with rounded teeth on thick marginal lamina; length of chela 0.89–1.12 (3), 0.84–1.37 (Ƥ) mm, length of movable chelal finger 0.54–0.68 (3), 0.50–0.78 (Ƥ); chela 5.7–5.9 (3), 5.0– 5.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.4–1.6.

Type material examined. ITALY — Sardinia: Cagliari Prov.— 1 3 “ Chthonius   (E.) cassolai   n. sp. Typen, M. Beier det.”, “Sardegna (Gerrei) Villasalto / Grutta ‘e Scusi [Grotta Rutta ‘e Scusi 602 Sa/CA (39 ° 29 ʹ 54 ʺN 9 ° 24 ʹ 20 ʺE), 525 m a.s.l.] loc. Pardu / 27.X. 67 Leg. F. Cassola” (NMW); 1 3 1 Ƥ “ Chthonius   (E.) cassolai   n. sp. Paratypen ” (M. Beier det.), “Sardinien, Villasalto / Grotte ‘e Scusi [Grotta Rutta ‘e Scusi 602 Sa/CA, 525 m a.s.l.] 27.10. 67, Cassola” (NMW); 1 Ƥ “ Chthonius   (E.) cassolai   n. sp. Paratypen ” (M. Beier det.), “Sardegna, Villasalto / Grutta ‘e Scusi (Loc. Pardu) [Grotta Rutta ‘e Scusi 602 Sa/CA, 525 m a.s.l.] / 17.XII. 1967 / Leg. F. Cassola” (NMW).

Other material examined. ITALY — Sardinia: Cagliari Prov. – 1 Ƥ, Villasalto, Pardu, Grotta Rutta ‘e Scusi 602 Sa/CA, 525 m a.s.l., 14.III. 2010, P. Marcia & C. Onnis leg. Sardinia: Nuoro Prov.— 2 Ƥ, Dorgali, Monte Coazza, 28.IV. 1992, P. Leo leg.; 1 D, Dorgali, Monte S’Ospile, Grotta di Ispinigoli 212 Sa/NU, 300 m a.s.l., 4.IV. 1993, G. Grafitti leg., on dried stalagmitic flows at entrance of Pozzo Saracco; 1 3, Nurri, Crabarida, Grotta Asutta ‘e Scraccas 5 Sa/NU, 490 m a.s.l., 9.VIII. 1998, J. De Waele & D. Deidda leg., under stone; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Corroga, Grotta Su Fossu ‘e Corroga 761 Sa/NU, 590 m a.s.l., 5.VIII. 1999, J. De Waele & A. Muntoni leg., on mud.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Facies weakly troglomorphic, integument depigmented or with weak pigmentation, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps pale testaceous; lateral surfaces of carapace and cheliceral palm with marked hispid granulation. Carapace 1.0– 1.1 times longer than broad, posteriorly constricted; anterior margin (figs 36–37) strongly dentate between median macrosetae, weakly rounded and prominent (3) or with epistome (Ƥ); ocular area as in fig. 37, no eyes, or anterior ones reduced to a smooth cuticular area; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2: 4 (20), rarely 2 preocular microsetae, macrosetae fine, length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.115–0.12 mm; posterolateral macrosetae shorter than the posteromedian ones. Chaetotaxy of tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 10:(3) 8 (3):(2) 7 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternite II rarely with 9 setae, st. IV rarely with (2) 8 (2) setae; genital opening of males flanked by 6–8 setae on each side; genital opening with straight, slightly opened sides. Chelicerae (figs 38–39) 2.15–2.3 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 1 lateral microseta; fixed finger with 8–11 teeth proximally reduced in size and 7–10 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with an isolated subapical tooth a little proximad of the spinneret, 6–8 teeth proximally reduced in size and 4–5 proximal microtubercles; gl ratio 0.59–0.66; spinneret weakly raised in males, prominent and apically rounded in females; rallum with 11 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 6–13 coxal spines, coxa III with 4–6 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp (figs 40–41): femur 6.0– 7.3 (3), 5.7–6.4 (Ƥ) times as long as broad, with moderate hispid granulation basally; chela 5.7–5.9 (3), 5.0– 5.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.15–2.3 (3), 2.0– 2.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, with an evident rounded hump distad of ib-isb and a weak hollow—with thicker cuticle—just before the base of the movable finger; fixed chelal finger with 17–21 triangular teeth: the 1–3 distal teeth small, the following ones—with dental canals—larger, faintly reclined, gradually reduced proximally back to level of sb; base of fixed finger with 8–12 tubercles; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 4–5 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.023–0.028 mm); distal half of movable chelal finger with 9–11 upright, triangular teeth, with dental canals; proximal half of movable finger with 9–15 rounded teeth without (?) dental canals, on high marginal lamina at level of sb; base of movable finger between b-sb with 8–10 microtubercles; coupled sensilla pc distad of sb; trichobothria as in figs 40–41, ist very distad of the line eb-esb; apodeme of movable finger sclerotized, mostly curved and apically truncate; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.5–1.6 (3), 1.4–1.5 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.15–1.2 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.4–1.6 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.5–2.2 (3 Ƥ). Carapace 0.47–0.50 × 045– 0.48 (0.43–0.45 anteriorly) (3), 0.44–0.57 × 0.45–0.57 (0.43–0.54 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.41–0.45 × 0.185–0.20 (3), 0.39–0.55 × 0.18– 0.25 (Ƥ), movable finger length 0.21–0.23 (3), 0.20–0.28 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.66–0.80 × 0.11–0.12 (3), 0.60– 0.90 × 0.105–0.14 (Ƥ); chela 0.89–1.12 × 0.15–0.195 (3), 0.84–1.37 × 0.17–0.27 (Ƥ); hand length 0.35–0.42 (3), 0.34–0.55 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.54–0.68 (3), 0.50–0.78 (Ƥ).

Remarks. Among the species of the C. fuscimanus   group, C. cassolai   is closely related to the epigean C. berninii   from Sardinia because of the number of macrosetae on the posterior margin of carapace, the shape of chelal hand and the marginal lamina; it differs from C. berninii   by the absence (or reduction) of eyes (four eyes in C. berninii   ), by the arrangement of setae along the genital opening of males (genital opening flanked by 5–8 partly scattered setae on each side in C. berninii   ) and by the troglomorphic facies, with greater size and more elongate appendages (length of chela 0.89–1.12 (3) 0.84–1.37 (Ƥ) mm, chela 5.7–5.9 (3) 5.0– 5.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.4–1.6 in C. cassolai   ; length of chela 0.45–0.57 (3) 0.51–0.66 (Ƥ), chela 4.0– 5.3 (3) 3.6–4.6 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.0– 1.2 in C. berninii   ). For comparisons between C. cassolai   and the epigean C. parmensis   , see Remarks under the latter species.

The species is known from subterranean habitats of central and southeastern Sardinia (fig. 286): comparisons between populations of isolated karstic systems are made in Gardini (2008).