Chthonius,

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 29-33

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FFF7-F943-6B99-FDE0197AA2FC

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scientific name

Chthonius
status

 

Chthonius  (E.) concii  Beier, 1953

( Figs 42–49View FIGURES 42 – 47View FIGURES 48 – 49, 284View FIGURES 282 – 285)

Chthonius  (E.) tetrachelatus  concii  Beier 1953 b: 36, fig. 2.

Chthonius  (E.) siculus  (not Beier, 1961): Beier 1973: 163; Gardini 1980 a: 103; Callaini 1983 b: 405 (misidentifications). Chthonius  (E.) apulicus  (not Beier, 1958): Beier 1975: 55 (misidentification).

Chthonius  (E.) maltensis  Mahnert 1975: 186, figs 2–11 (n. syn.).

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) bartolii Gardini 1976: 93  , figs 1–9 (n. syn.).

Chthonius  (E.) concii  : Gardini 1980 b: 196, figs 10–18; Gardini 1990: 240, 251; Gardini, 2008 a: 8, 26, figs 17–21. Chthonius  (E.) cfr. concii: Callaini 1984: 139  , figs IVA –E.

Chthonius  (E.) maltensis  (not Mahnert, 1975): Gardini 1995 a: 3 (misidentification). Chthonius  (E.) tetrachelatus  (not Preyssler, 1790): Gardini 2008 a: 13 (misidentification, in part).

Type locality: Italy, Liguria, Savona Prov., Finale Ligure, Arma delle Arene Candide 34 Li/SV (44 °09ʹ 55 ʺN 8 ° 19 ʹ 57 ʺE).

Distribution. Italy: Liguria, Sicily, Sardinia; Maltese Archipelago.

Diagnosis (Ƥ). A well-eyed or microphthalmic, endo- or hypogean Chthonius  ( Ephippiochthonius  ) that differs from other species of the C. tetrachelatus  group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger without isolated subapical tooth (di) and with prominent spinneret in both sexes; fixed and movable chelal fingers respectively with 18–25 and 5–11 triangular teeth (proximal rounded teeth excepted); pedipalpal fixed finger at level of est-it mostly with 3–4 teeth occupying 0.1 mm; length of chela 0.94–1.22 (3), 1.01–1.54 (Ƥ) mm, length of movable chelal finger 0.55–0.72 (3), 0.56–0.90 (Ƥ) mm; chela 4.9–6.1 (3), 4.5 –6.0 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.5–1.7 (3 Ƥ).

Type material examined. ITALY — Liguria: La Spezia Prov.— 1 3 (holotype of Chthonius  (E.) bartolii  Gardini) 1 3 1 Ƥ (paratypes of Chthonius  (E.) bartolii  Gardini), Monterosso al Mare, cliff under Semaforo di Punta Mesco (44 °08ʹ0 6 ʺN 9 ° 38 ʹ 10 ʺE), 0—5 m a.s.l., 23.II. 1975, G. Gardini leg.; 2 Ƥ (paratypes of Chthonius  (E.) bartolii  Gardini), “ Chthonius  (E.) n. sp. vic. concii  , det. Beier”, id., 6.III. 1973, G. Gardini leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ (paratypes of Chthonius  (E.) bartolii  Gardini), id., 11.XI. 1974, G. Gardini leg., under stones deeply hollowed near the seashore, together with 3 3, 6 Ƥ of C. tetrachelatus  . Liguria: Savona Prov.— 1 Ƥ (holotype of “ Chthonius (Eph.)  tetrach. ssp. concii  nov. Ƥ, det. Beier”), “Arene Candide [Arma delle Arene Candide 34 Li/SV], Finale Ligure, 26.II. 1950, Legit Conci”.

MALTA — 1 3 (paratype of Chthonius  (E.) maltensis  Mahnert), Is. Malta, Ghajn Tuffieha Bay, Il Karraba, 5.V. 1974, V. & A. Mahnert leg. (MHNG); 1 Ƥ (paratype of Chthonius  (E.) maltensis  Mahnert), Is. Malta, Fomm ir- Rih, 13.V. 1974, V. & A. Mahnert leg. (MHNG); 1 3 1 Ƥ (paratypes of Chthonius  (E.) maltensis  Mahnert), Is. Gozo, Dwejra Point, 8.V. 1974, V. & A. Mahnert leg. (MHNG).

Other material examined. ITALY — Liguria: Savona Prov.— 1 3, Finale Ligure, Caprazoppa, 29.X. 1982, G. Gardini, C. Giusto & G. Troiano, Quercus ilex  wood; 1 Ƥ, id., Finalborgo, Castel Gavone, 30.IV. 1995, C. Giusto leg.; 1 Ƥ, Loano, Grotta di Verzi 91 Li/SV, 27.X. 1984, G. Gardini leg., entrance of the cave; 2 3 2 Ƥ, Orco Feglino, Arma dello Strapatente 210 Li/SV, 300 m a.s.l., 20.IV. 1998, C. Giusto leg.; 1 3, Toirano, Tana Taragnina 105 Li/ SV, 31.X. 1985, G. Gardini & R. Rizzerio leg.; 1 Ƥ, Vendone, Monte Castell’Ermo, 1050 m a.s.l., 15.V. 1976, G. Gardini leg., under stone. Sicily: Agrigento Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Licata, Grotta Grangela n.c. Si/AG, 23.V. 1974, D. Caruso leg. Sicily: Catania Prov.— 1 Ƥ ( C. apulicus, M. Beier  det.), Catania, 14.X. 1966, Coll. La Greca (MBAC). Sicily: prov. Palermo Prov.— 2 3 1 Ƥ, Carini, Grotta dei Puntali 113 Si/PA, 90 m a.s.l., 6.I. 1973, M. Romano leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Grotta dei Puntali 113 Si/PA, 90 m a.s.l., 30.IV. 1974, M. Romano leg. Sicily: Siracusa Prov.— 1 T, Siracusa, Grotta Pellegrino 7002 Si/SR, 27 m a.s.l., 24.X. 1974, D. Caruso leg.; 2 Ƥ, id., Grotta Pellegrino 7002 Si/SR, 27 m a.s.l., II. 1976, D. Caruso leg. Sardinia: Cagliari Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Armungia, Baccu Gospuru, Grotta Gospuru 148 Sa/CA, 100 m a.s.l., 21.IX. 1997, J. De Waele & N. Cabboi leg., entrance, under stone; 1 Ƥ 2 T, id., 14.VIII. 2007, C. Onnis & N. Ibba leg.; 1 T, Domusnovas, Grotta di San Giovanni Su Anzu 81 Sa/CA, 206 m a.s.l., 21.III. 2004, M. Mucedda leg., under stone inside Sala Pipistrelli, SW branch; 1 Ƥ, Nuxis, Grotta di Sa Folla 519 Sa/CA, 220 m a.s.l., 15.XI. 2000, J. De Waele leg., sotto pietra; 3 3 1 Ƥ ( C. siculus, M. Beier  det.), Nuxis, Tattinu, Grotta Cava Romana 601 Sa/CA, 10.VII. 1967, F. Cassola leg. (NMW); 1 3 ( C. siculus, M. Beier  det.), id., 28.VII. 1971, F. Cassola leg. (NMW); 1 Ƥ ( C. siculus, M. Beier  det.), id., 28.VII. 1971, F. Cassola leg. (NMW); 1 3, id., 23.IX. 2007, G. Grafitti, G. Merella & F. Sirigu leg. Sardinia: Nuoro Prov.— 1 Ƥ, Ulassai, Tacco di Ulassai, Grotta Trodori 674 Sa/NU, 793 m a.s.l., 9.VII. 1994, D. Deidda & J. De Waele leg., under stone near the entrance; 1 3, id., Grotta Sa Foxi ‘e S’Abba 728 Sa/NU, 875 m a.s.l., 2.VII. 1994, D. Deidda & J. De Waele leg., sotto pietra; 1 Ƥ, id., Grotta di Lecorci 660 Sa/NU, 800 m a.s.l., 17.IX. 1994, J. De Waele leg., under stone inside first hall; 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., Iscala su Istressi, Grotta di Orroli 70 Sa/NU, 902 m a.s.l., 13.VIII. 1994, D. Deidda & J. De Waele leg., under stones. Sardinia: Oristano Prov.— 1 Ƥ ( C. tetrachelatus, G. Gardini  det.), Cuglieri, Tegas, Grotta di Cappas 181 Sa/OR, 193 m a.s.l., 2.IV. 2005, G. Grafitti & C. Logias leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 2.IV. 2005, G. Grafitti leg.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Integument with weak pigmentation, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps pale testaceous; marked hispid granulation on lateral surfaces of carapace, on cheliceral palm and on base of pedipalpal femur. Carapace 1.0– 1.1, subquadrate, posteriorly slightly constricted; anterior margin (figs 42–43) strongly dentate between median macrosetae, sometimes weakly rounded and prominent, rarely with evident epistome (3 from Ulassai: Gr. Sa Foxi ‘e S’Abba and Ƥ from Gr. di Orroli; 3 from Nuxis: Gr. Cava Romana); ocular area as in fig. 44, anterior eyes (diameter 0.04–0.06 mm) mostly with convex lens and tapetum, sometimes with fairly flat lens (specimens from Monterosso al Mare: Punta Mesco; Armungia: Gr. Gospuru; Nuxis: Gr. Cava Romana and Gr. di Sa Folla; Ulassai: Gr. di Orroli, Gr. Trodori and Gr. Sa Foxi); posterior eyes mostly with fairly convex lens and tapetum (absent or reduced to ocular spot in specimens from Monterosso al Mare and from the above mentioned caves); distance from anterior eyes to anterior margin of carapace 0.03–0.05 mm; chaetotaxy mm(or m) 4mm (or m): 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), macrosetae thick (more slender in specimens from Monterosso al Mare: Punta Mesco; Ulassai: Gr. di Lecorci and Gr. di Orroli) (1 Ƥ from Monterosso al Mare with 2 macrosetae and 1 microseta on posterior margin); length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.08–0.16 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Normal chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 10:(3) 8 (3):(2) 7 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternite II sometimes with 9, 11 or 12 setae, st. III sometimes with 9–10 setae; genital opening of males flanked by 6–8 (mostly 7) setae (10 setae in 3 from Ulassai: Gr. di Orroli and Gr. Sa Foxi ‘e S’Abba). Chelicerae (figs 45–46) 2.1–2.3 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 2 (rarely 1) microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 6–10 teeth mostly proximally reduced in size and 4–5 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with 5–9 teeth proximally reduced in size and 3– 4 proximal microtubercles, isolated subapical tooth (di) absent; gl ratio 0.53–0.62; spinneret mostly prominent and apically rounded, weakly reduced in males; rallum with 11 blades; serrulae interior and exterior respectively with 11–12 and 14–15 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4 (rarely 3 or 5), III 5 (rarely 6), IV 6; coxa II with 8–18 (mostly 12–14) coxal spines, coxa III with 4–10 (mostly 5–7) coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp (figs 47–49): femur 6.1–6.9 (3), 5.8–7.6 (Ƥ) times as long as broad; chela 4.9–6.1 (3), 4.5 –6.0 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.0– 2.55 (3), 2.0– 2.5 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, weakly depressed at level of ib-isb (rarely with a weak hump distad of ib-isb), with a flat dorsolateral area between isb and eb; fixed chelal finger with 18–25 upright triangular teeth, with dental canals, proximally reduced in size (3 from Ulassai, Gr. di Orroli, and Ƥ from Armungia, Gr. Gospuru, with 1– 3 intercalary microdenticles, without dental canals, in distal half of finger); sometimes the first 1–3 proximal teeth apically rounded; base of fixed finger often with 2–8 microtubercles; tip of the fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 3–4 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.026–0.049 mm) (specimens from Armungia and Ulassai caves with 3 teeth occupying 0.1 mm, distanced 0.038–0.049 mm); distal third of movable chelal finger with 6–10 (rarely 5 or 11) upright triangular teeth with dental canals (rarely with one very small distal tooth); proximal 2 / 3 of movable chelal finger with 8–13 vestigial teeth, with dental canals, gradually reduced back to level of sb or to halfway between b and sb; coupled sensilla pc mostly at level of sb, rarely distad of sb; trichobothria as in figs 48–49, eb-esb-ist mostly placed in a straight line, rarely ist distad of the line eb-esb; basal apodeme of movable finger strongly sclerotized, rectangular, apically truncate; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.3–1.5 (3), 1.2–1.5 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/ movable finger 1.2–1.4 (3 Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.5–1.7 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.5 –2.0 (3), 1.6–2.6 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.44–0.58 × 0.44–0.55 (0.41–0.51 anteriorly) (3), 0.50–0.66 × 0.52–0.65 (0.46–0.60 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.39–0.51 × 0.18–0.22 (3), 0.455– 0.58 × 0.21–0.27 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.20–0.25 (3), 0.23–0.29 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.69–0.90 × 0.11–0.13 (3), 0.74–1.14 × 0.12–0.15 (Ƥ); chela 0.94–1.22 × 0.16–0.22 (3), 1.01–1.54 × 0.18–0.26 (Ƥ); hand length 0.39– 0.52 (3), 0.44–0.63 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.55–0.72 (3), 0.56–0.90 (Ƥ).

Remarks. The type of Chthonius concii  was redescribed by Gardini (1980 b) and remarks on morphological features of Sardinian populations (mainly subterranean) of the species, with related taxonomic problems, were made by Gardini (2008). He emphasized that shortage of specimens from populations of isolated karstic systems, showing different degrees of troglomorphy, makes impossible a reliable valuation of their taxonomic status: Sardinian specimens from Nuxis are identical to those from western Liguria, whereas specimens from the caves of Armungia and Ulassai show different degrees of troglomorphic specialization (see Gardini, 2008, table 2).

Comparisons of type material of C. maltensis  ( Malta and Gozo Is.) and C. bartolii  (eastern Liguria: Monterosso al Mare) with specimens of C. concii  from western Liguria and Sicily reveal that there are no objective morphological differences that allow them to be considered heterospecific. The following synonymies are therefore proposed: Chthonius  (E.) maltensis Mahnert, 1975  and C. (E.) bartolii Gardini, 1976  are junior subjective synonyms of Chthonius  (E.) concii Beier, 1953  (n. syn.).

Among the species of the C. tetrachelatus  group, C. concii  is a subterranean species, with a weak degree of troglomorphy, probably related to the epigean C. tetrachelatus  because of the shape of chelal hand and the form of the dentition.