Chthonius

Gardini, Giulio, 2013, A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas, Zootaxa 3655 (1), pp. 1-151: 20-26

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3655.1.1

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87C1-FFF8-F97A-6B99-FB4119C0A67F

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scientific name

Chthonius
status

 

Chthonius   (E.) boldorii   Beier, 1934

( Figs 28–35 View FIGURES 28 – 33 View FIGURES 34 – 35 , 290 View FIGURES 290 – 293 )

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) austriacus boldorii Beier 1934: 56   , fig. 4.

Chthonius   (E.) austriacus   austriacus   (not Beier, 1931): Lazzeroni 1969 b: 396 (misidentification, in part).

Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) boldorii: Mahnert 1981: 95   , figs 2–3; DeVore-Scribante 1999: 17, 135, 224, 264, figs 11 a –g; Muster et al., 2004: 300, figs 2, 4, 6, 13– 18.

Chthonius   (E.) austriacus   (not Beier, 1931): Gardini 1991: 177 (misidentification).

C. (E.) fuscimanus   (not Simon, 1900): Gardini 2004: 129 (misidentification).

Type locality: Italy, Lombardy, Brescia Prov., Prevalle, Il Baratro di Monte Budellone 134 Lo/BS (45 ° 33 ʹ 52 ʺN 10 ° 25 ʹ 26 ʺE).

Distribution. Slovenia, Croatia, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, NE Italy.

Diagnosis (Ƥ). An eyed epigean Chthonius   ( Ephippiochthonius   ) from Northeastern Alps that differs from other species of the C. fuscimanus   group in the following combination of characters: movable cheliceral finger without isolated subapical tooth (di); fixed finger, at level of est-it with 3–4 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.032–0.035 mm); length of chela 0.63–1.03 (3), 0.69–1.22 (Ƥ) mm, length of movable chelal finger 0.35–0.56 (3), 0.37–0.62 (Ƥ) mm.

Material examined. SLOVENIA — 1 Ƥ, Ravne na Koroškem, cave Jama pri Votli peči n. 3263, 10.VII. 1977, Kuštor & T. Novak leg.

SWITZERLAND — Grisons— 1 Ƥ 1 T 1 D, Poschiavo, San Carlo, 1100 m a.s.l., 4.VIII. 1981, C. Torti leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 3 3 1 Ƥ, near Poschiavo, 1100 m a.s.l., 20.VII. 1980, C. Torti leg., mixed wood. Tessin— 4 3 1 Ƥ 7 T 3 D, Curio, Pura, 2.X. 1985, G. Cotti leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 3 1 Ƥ 3 T 3 D, Val Ruina, 26.VII. 1985, G.

Cotti leg., Ostrya carpinifolia   wood; 1 Ƥ, Gole below Beredino, 11.VI. 1986, G. Cotti leg.; 1 3 1 Ƥ, Gole della Breggia, 19.X. 1985, leg.?; 4 Ƥ 1 T 1 D, id., 5.XI. 1985, A. Fossati leg., cestnut wood and along the river; 7 3 12 Ƥ 4 T, Monte Generoso, Cribbietta, 350 m a.s.l., 6.V. 1987, leg.?, Ulmus   ; 3 3 2 Ƥ, id., Val Corta, 860 m a.s.l., 6.V. 1987, leg.?, Corylus   , Acer   and Tilia   ; 1 Ƥ, id., Grumo, 700 m a.s.l., 7.VII. 1987, leg.?, mixed wood; 3 3 4 Ƥ 1 T, id., Castellaccio, Val Molino, 420 m a.s.l., 14.V. 1987, leg.?, mixed elm wood; 1 3, id., Bosco del Trave, 980 m a.s.l., 6.VII. 1987, leg.?, mixed wood; 3 3 1 T, Madonna di Valmara, 860 m a.s.l., 5.V. 1987, leg.?, Fagus   .

ITALY— Friuli: Udine Prov.— 3 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, Cervignano, Bosco Pradiziolo, 9.I. 1982, M. Seriani leg., mixed oak wood; 1 3 5 Ƥ, id., 16.I. 1983, oak wood (together with 4 3 2 Ƥ of C. fuscimanus   ); 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 4.III. 1983 (together with 4 3 5 Ƥ 1 T of C. fuscimanus   ); 1 3, Cormons, Colle di Medea, Grotta II di Borgnano n.c., 11.V. 2002, F. Stoch & G. Tomasin leg.; 2 3 5 Ƥ, Losaz, south slope of Monte Matajur, 13.VI. 1993, S. Zoia leg.; 4 3 1 Ƥ, Lusevera, near Casere Tanatcason, 740 m a.s.l., 6.VII – 4.IX. 2006, G. Colombetta & L. Dorigo leg., scree slope (MFNB); 2 3, id., 6.VIII – 4.IX. 2006, G. Colombetta leg., pitfall traps in stable scree slope (together with a Ƥ of C. fuscimanus   ); 1 Ƥ, id., 7.XI. 2006 – 15.V. 2007, G. Colombetta & L. Dorigo leg., stable scree slope (MFNB); 4 3 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., 15.V – 21.VI. 2007, L. Dorigo leg., pitfall traps in stable scree slope; 1 3, id., 12.VII – 29.VIII. 2007, stable scree slope (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., 4.IX – 5.X. 2007, G. Colombetta leg., stable scree slope (MFNB); 1 Ƥ, id., 21.VI – 12.VII. 2007, stable scree slope (MFNB); 2 3 1 Ƥ, Moggio Udinese, Stavoli Tugliezzo, Rio Lavarie, 470 m a.s.l., 26.IX – 30.X. 2001, G. Governatori & A. Dall’Asta leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood (together with 6 3 7 Ƥ 10 T 22 D of C.

fuscimanus   ) (MFNB); 1 3 1 Ƥ, north of Savogna, 250 m a.s.l., 26.VI. 1994, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3 2 Ƥ, Trasaghis, 250 m a.s.l., 5.V. 1992, F. Gasparo leg. (together with a 3 of C. fuscimanus   ); 1 3 2 Ƥ, Venzone, Pioverno, 250 m a.s.l., 11.II – 14.VII. 1992, F. Gasparo leg., pitfall traps in Ostrya carpinifolia   wood (together with 14 3 15 Ƥ 2 T of C. fuscimanus   ). Veneto: Verona Prov.— 1 3 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Albisano, 4.VI. 1968, G. Lazzeroni, R. Gioco & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, Badia Calavena, near Grotta Damati, 11.VII. 2002, D. Avesani & L. Latella leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., 20.VII. 2002, D. Avesani & M. Rampini leg.; 2 3 4 Ƥ, id., 31.VII. 2002, D. Avesani leg.; 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Boscochiesanuova, Vajo dell’Anguilla, 2.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni, G. Osella & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 3 3 2 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Cerro Veronese, Vajo di Squaranto, 9.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., Vajo di Squaranto near Cerro, 11.VII. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 2 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Colognola ai Colli, 30.XI. 1967, G. Lazzeroni & G. Osella leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, Marano di Valpolicella, west of Marezzane, 550 m a.s.l., 5.XI – 22.XII. 2006, A. & M. Zanetti leg., mixed wood; 1 Ƥ, id., 25.IV – 3.VI. 2007; 1 3 ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det.), Monte Baldo, near Pra Alpesina, 1300 m a.s.l. ca, 31.V. 1987, C. Torti leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Eremo SS. Benigno e Caro, 800 m a.s.l., 2.III. 1997, A. Tagliapietra & A. Zanetti leg.; 1 Ƥ ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), Dolcè, Monte Pastello, 21.V. 1999, C. Manfrin leg. (MSNV); 1 T ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), id., 22.VI. 1999 (MSNV); 2 3 ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), id., 22.VII. 1999 (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), id., 20.VIII. 1999 (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Erbezzo, VI. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 2 Ƥ, id., Ponte dell’Anguillara, valletta delle Rane, 1050 m a.s.l., 3.X. 2010, D. Bianco & E. Piva leg. (EPV); 1 Ƥ ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), Fumane, Molane, Monte Pastello, 22.VI. 1999, C. Manfrin leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), id., 22.VII. 1999 (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ 1 T ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), id., 20.VIII. 1999 (MSNV); 1 Ƥ 1 T ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), id., 1.X. 1999 (MSNV); 2 3, Garda, Sengie, 23.II. 1983, M. Rizzotti Vlach leg. (MSNV); 9 3 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), between Giazza and Revolto, 10.VII. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 1 3 ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), summit of Monte Pastello, 1127 m a.s.l., 28.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni, R. Gioco & A. Montolli leg. (MSNV); 2 Ƥ ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det. 2000), id., 1120 m a.s.l., 24.IX. 1999, A. Zanetti leg., under Fagus   ; 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Montecchio, 2.V. 1968, G. Lazzeroni & G. Osella leg. (MSNV); 3 3 4 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., 29.IX. 1968, G. Osella leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), between Montecchio and Grezzana, Case Vecie, 6.XII. 1967, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, M. Beier   det.), between Montorio and Castagnè, hills, 19.III. 1969, A. Zanetti leg. (MSNV); 1 3 2 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Musella, 26.IV. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, M. Beier   det.), Prun, 15.IX. 1969, A. Zanetti leg. (MSNV); 1 Ƥ, between Rivoli and Caprino, Morena, 22.III. 1975, G. Osella & Laudanna leg. (MSNV); 3 3 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Sega di Ala, 20.VI. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 1 T (C. (E.) sp., G. Lazzeroni det.), id., 20.VI. 1968 (MSNV); 4 3 2 Ƥ, Trezzolano, 15.I. 1977, Guglielmi leg. (MSNV); 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., II. 1978, Guglielmi leg. (MSNV); 1 3 2 Ƥ 1 T ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Verona, Vajo del Paradiso, 27.III. 1968, G. Lazzeroni leg. (MSNV); 2 3 2 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), id., north slope of Vajo del Paradiso, 27.III. 1968, G. Osella leg. (MSNV); 2 3 4 Ƥ 2 T, id., Vajo del Paradiso, 27.II. 1973, leg.?. Veneto: Vicenza Prov. — 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Gardini   det. 1986), Cornedo Vicentino, Grotta del Covoletto 39 V /VI, 28.V. 1982, E. Piva & I. Ferrari leg. (MSNV); 1 3 ( C. austriacus, G. Gardini   det. 1986), Longare, Covolo del Tesoro 166 V/VI, 1.X. 1985, S. Zoia & R. Sciaky leg.; 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, M. Beier   det.), Pederiva, 18.III. 1972, A. Zanetti leg. (MSNV); 1 3, Sossano, Madonna della Croce, 13.III. 1997, A. Zanetti leg., mixed wood. Trentino: Trento Prov.— 1 3, Ala, Val Ronchi, 900 m a.s.l., 5.X. 1989, S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 2 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, M. Beier   det.), near Riva del Garda, Monte San Pietro, 900 m a.s.l., 12.X. 1969, A. Zanetti leg. (MSNV); 2 3 2 Ƥ, Val di Genova, 1000 m a.s.l., 10.VIII. 1976, G. Raffone leg., sieved under beech. Lombardy: Bergamo Prov.— 1 Ƥ 4 T 2 D, Brembilla, Catremerio, 1000 m a.s.l., 2.XI. 1991, G. Gardini leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, Endine Gaiano, Perlisa, 550 m a.s.l., 19.VI – 8.VIII. 1996, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg., scree (MBCG); 4 3 6 Ƥ 5 T, Fonteno, 7.V. 1978, G. Parodi & S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Gandellino, [no date], 800 m a.s.l., A. Focarile leg., Acer   and Corylus   ; 2 Ƥ, Mezzoldo, south of Mezzoldo, 770 m a.s.l., 26.IX. 1996, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3, Monasterolo, Val Torrezzo Fonta, 600 m a.s.l., 6.VII.1995, 3.VIII. 1995, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg. (MBCG); 3 Ƥ, id., 20.IX – 26.X. 1995 (MBCG); 2 Ƥ, id., 2.IV – 9.V. 1996 (MBCG); 1 3 2 Ƥ, id., 9.V – 19.VI. 1996 (MBCG); 1 3 5 Ƥ 1 T, id., 19.VI – 8.VIII. 1996 (MBCG); 1 3 3 Ƥ 2 T 1 D, id., 8.VIII – 10.X. 1996 (MBCG); 1 Ƥ, Orezzo, Gazzaniga, Val Dé, 9.III. 2000, R. Monguzzi leg. (RMM); 1 3 2 Ƥ 2 T, Parzanica, Valle dei Foppi, 550 m a.s.l., 19.VI – 8.VIII. 1996, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg. (MBCG); 10 3 8 Ƥ 8 T 4 D, north of Piazzolo, 700 m a.s.l., 26.IX. 1996, S. Zoia leg.; 2 Ƥ, Sovere, Monte Sovere, 1250 m a.s.l., 20.IX – 15.XI. 1995, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg., prairie (MBCG); 1 Ƥ, id., 19.VI – 8.VIII. 1996 (MBCG); 1 Ƥ, id., 8.VIII – 10.X. 1996 (MBCG); 1 Ƥ 1 T, id., Valle Sandina, 500 m a.s.l., 20.IX – 26.X. 1995, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg. (MBCG); 1 3, id., 27.X. 1995 – 20.II. 1996 (MBCG); 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 2.IV – 9.V. 1996 (MBCG); 2 3 5 Ƥ 2 T, id., 9.V – 19.VI. 1996 (MBCG); 2 3 5 Ƥ 1 D, id., 19.VI – 8.VIII. 1996 (MBCG); 2 3, id., 8.VIII – 10.X. 1996 (MBCG); 1 3 2 Ƥ, Vigolo, Ronchi della Bratta, 800m a.s.l., 2.IV – 9.V. 1996, P. Pantini & M. Valle leg., Norway spruce woods (MBCG); 1 3 1 Ƥ, id., 11.VIII – 19.IX. 1995 (MBCG); 2 3 1 Ƥ, id., 9.V – 19.VI. 1996 (MBCG); 1 Ƥ, id., 8.VIII – 10.X. 1996 (MBCG); 4 Ƥ, Taleggio, I Serrati, 500 m a.s.l., VIII. 1991, Bacchetta leg. Lombardy: Brescia Prov.— 5 3 4 Ƥ 2 T 1 D, near Bovegno, 900 m a.s.l., 17.X. 1982, C. Giusto, C. Torti & S. Zoia leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood; 1 3, Desenzano del Garda, Laghi Sovenigo, 2.XI. 1997, A. Tagliapietra & A. Zanetti leg., marsh; 14 3 13 Ƥ 8 T 6 D ( C. fuscimanus, G. Gardini   det.), near Incudine, upper Val Camonica, 5.IX. 1993, S. Zoia leg., sieved under Corylus   ; 1 Ƥ, Lumezzane, Val Porcino, 24.X. 1987, M. Grottolo leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ, near Polaveno, 9.VII. 1979, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, Tremosine, 2.II. 1997, A. Zanetti leg.; 2 T 3 D, Vobarno, Nalmase, 30.VI. 1991, M. Bodon leg. Lombardy: Como Prov.— 1 3 2 Ƥ, Cernobbio, Monte Bisbino, 1300 m a.s.l., 19.III. 2000, R. Monguzzi leg.; 1 3 5 T, Dasio, south slope of Cima della Noga, 1100 m a.s.l., 15.X. 1994, S. Zoia leg., hazel-wood; 1 Ƥ, Varenna, 4.VII. 1978, S. Vit leg., gravier/racines (MHNG). Lombardy: Lecco Prov.— 3 3 10 Ƥ 9 T 2 D, southwestern near Ballabio, 550 m a.s.l., 29.I. 1994, S. Zoia leg.; 1 3 2 Ƥ 1 T, Lecco, Monte Barro, 800 m a.s.l., 24.XI. 1990, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, id., Grigna meridionale, Piani Resinelli, Miniera del Coltignone, 1200 m a.s.l., 4.IV. 1996, R. Monguzzi leg. (RMM); 1 Ƥ, id., southwestern slope of Grigna settentrionale, 1100 m a.s.l. ca, 19.IV. 1997, S. Zoia leg., basis of Fagus   and Ilex   ; 2 3, Paderno d’Adda, cañon Fiume Adda, 200 m a.s.l., 1.V. 2010, S. Zoia leg.; 1 Ƥ, north of Valmadrera, 500 m a.s.l., 6.II. 2011, S. Zoia leg. Lombardy: Mantova Prov.— 1 Ƥ ( C. austriacus, G. Lazzeroni   det.), Solferino, 31.III. 1968, G. Osella leg. (MSNV). Lombardy: Varese Prov.— 2 3 2 Ƥ, Campo dei Fiori, 1100 m a.s.l., 1.XI. 1983, S. Zoia & R. Sciaky leg., Fagus sylvatica   wood on limestone.

Description of adults (Ƥ). Integument pigmented, carapace, tergites, chelicerae and pedipalps brown; pedipalpal hand mostly of the same colour of fingers, sometimes darker; lateral surface of carapace and cheliceral palm with strong hispid granulation. Carapace 0.9 –1.0 times longer than broad, subquadrate; anterior margin (figs 28–29) dentate between median macrosetae, sometimes weakly prominent but without epistome; ocular area as in fig. 30; four well-developed eyes, the anterior ones with convex lens (diameter 0.034–0.054 mm) and tapetum, posterior eyes with more or less flat lens with tapetum, or reduced to ocular spot without tapetum; distance from anterior eyes to anterior margin of carapace 0.034–0.054 mm; chaetotaxy mm 4mm: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), rarely 1 preocular microseta, macrosetae thick; length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.08–0.13 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites I –X 4: 4: 4: 4: 6: 6: 6: 6: 6: 4. Chaetotaxy of sternites II –X 9:(3) 10 (3):(2) 8 (2): 8: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7; sternite II rarely with 7–8 setae, st. III with (3) 11 (3) setae, st. IV –V with (2) 7 (2): 9 setae; genital opening of males mostly flanked by 7 (rarely 5, 6 or 8) setae on each side. Chelicerae (figs 31–32) 2.0– 2.2 times as long as broad, palm with 6 setae and 2 microsetae laterally; fixed finger with 6–8 subequal teeth and 5–9 proximal microtubercles; movable finger with 4–6 teeth proximally reduced in size and 4–5 proximal tubercles; movable finger without isolated subapical tooth (di); gl ratio 0.55–0.62; spinneret large and prominent, apically rounded, slightly smaller in males; rallum with 11 blades; serrulae interior and exterior respectively with 12 and 14 blades. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 3 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 6; coxa II with 7–11 (rarely 16–19) coxal spines, coxa III with 3–6 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp (figs 33–35): femur 5.6–7.1 (3), 5.5–7.3 (Ƥ) times as long as broad, basally with hispid granulation; chela 5.3–6.4 (3), 4.3–5.1 (Ƥ) times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.2–2.7 (3), 2.0– 2.3 (Ƥ) times as long as deep, weakly depressed at level of ib-isb, without hump distad of ib-isb; fixed chelal finger mostly with 11–12 (rarely 10 or 16) large triangular teeth, with dental canals, slightly reclined, the first two proximal teeth mostly brought close together and prominent, the first one mostly apically rounded; base of fixed finger with a variable number of microtubercles; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; fixed chelal finger at level of est-it with 3–4 teeth occupying 0.1 mm (distance between successive apices 0.032–0.035 mm); distal half of movable finger with 6 (rarely 5 or 7) upright, large, triangular teeth with dental canals; first proximal tooth of movable finger distad of the half of the finger (ratio 0.51–0.66); proximal half of movable finger with straight, thick marginal lamina; coupled sensilla pc mostly between b and sb; trichobothria as in figs 34–35, eb-esb-ist placed mostly in a straight line, or with ist a little distad of the line eb-esb; basal apodeme of movable finger strongly sclerotized, bent and apically truncated and crenellated; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.2–1.5 (3), 1.1–1.3 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.3 (3), 1.4 (Ƥ); ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.3–1.6 (3 Ƥ).

Measurements (in mm). Body length 1.2–1.9 (3), 1.3–2.2 (Ƥ). Carapace 0.35–0.49 × 0.34–0.47 (0.29–0.45 anteriorly) (3), 0.37–0.58 × 0.37–0.58 (0.33–0.55 anteriorly) (Ƥ). Chelicerae 0.285–0.40 × 0.13–0.19 (3), 0.31– 0.50 × 0.155–0.24 (Ƥ), movable finger length 0.14–0.20 (3), 0.17–0.25 (Ƥ). Pedipalp: femur 0.45–0.77 × 0.08– 0.115 (3), 0.50–0.89 × 0.09–0.14 (Ƥ); chela 0.63–1.03 × 0.115–0.16 (3), 0.69–1.22 × 0.15–0.26 (Ƥ); hand length 0.285–0.435 (3), 0.325–0.55 (Ƥ); movable finger length 0.35–0.56 (3), 0.37–0.62 (Ƥ).

Description of tritonymph. Integument with weak pigmentation, granulation less hispid than adults. Carapace 1.0 times longer than broad, without epistome; four developed eyes as in adults; chaetotaxy m 4m: 6: 4: 2: 2 (18), length of anteromedian macrosetae 0.06–0.075 mm. Chaetotaxy of tergites as in adults. Chaetotaxy of sternites II – X 5:(2) 8 (2):(1) 6–7 (1): 7: 6: 6: 6: 6: 7. Chelicerae 2.0– 2.1 times as long as broad, palm with 5 setae and 1 or 2 lateral microsetae; fixed finger with 6 teeth, movable finger with 3–4 teeth, without isolated subapical tooth (di); gl ratio 0.57–0.58. Coxal setae: pedipalp 5 (including 2 on manducatory process), I 3 + 2 marginal microsetae, II 4, III 5, IV 5; coxa II with 6–11 coxal spines, coxa III with 3–4 coxal spines; intercoxal tubercle bisetose. Pedipalp: femur 4.4–5.4 times as long as broad; chela 4.8–5.4 times as long as deep; hand of chela 2.2–2.4 times as long as deep; fixed finger with 10 teeth similar to those of adult; tip of fixed finger with a modified accessory tooth (td) on antiaxial face; distal half of movable finger with 6–7 teeth; proximal half of movable finger with straight, thick marginal lamina; coupled sensilla pc distad of b; ratio of movable finger/hand of chela 1.2; ratio of pedipalpal femur/movable finger 1.2–1.3; ratio of pedipalpal femur/carapace 1.0– 1.2.

Measurements (in mm). Body length 0.86–1.20. Carapace 0.30–0.38 × 0.30–0.37 (0.26–0.33 anteriorly). Chelicerae 0.23–0.285 × 0.11–0.14, movable finger length 0.115–0.14. Pedipalp: femur 0.31–0.455 × 0.07–0.09; chela 0.48–0.64 × 0.10–0.13; hand length 0.22–0.29; movable finger length 0.26–0.35.

Remarks. Among the species of the Chthonius fuscimanus   group, C. boldorii   is related to the epigean C. fuscimanus   , from which it chiefly differs by the absence of an isolated subapical tooth (di) on the movable cheliceral finger. Muster et al. (2004) thoroughly discuss taxonomic, biogeographical and evolutionary features of C. boldorii   and C. fuscimanus   , concluding that the sole objective meristic character to distinguish them is the respectively absence or presence of di and that their distributions are largely allopatric in central Europe, with a more complicated situation in the southern margins of the Alps.

Italian populations of C. boldorii   show morphological features according to those described by Mahnert (1981), DeVore-Scribante (1999) and Muster et al. (2004), and dimensional ranges overlap the measurements and ratios reported by the previous authors. I also attribute to C. boldorii   the disjunct eastern populations of Friuli (fig. 290), although they are smaller in comparison with specimens from Veneto and Lombardy: length of pedipalpal femur 0.41–0.45 (3) 0.43–0.50 (Ƥ) mm, length of chela 0.57–0.63 (3) 0.62–0.69 (Ƥ) mm; their features and dimensions are very similar to those of C. nanus   and the sole objective character to distinguish them from this species is the absence of the isolated subapical tooth (di) on the cheliceral movable finger (present in C. nanus   ).

C. boldorii   is distributed in Italy with continuity from Lugano pre-Alps westward to Dolomites and Venetian pre-Alps eastward, than in Carnic and Julian Alps and pre-Alps (fig. 284). Five syntopic occurrences of C. boldorii   and C. fuscimanus   were detected in Friuli (Cervignano: Bosco Pradiziolo; Lusevera: Casere Tanatcason; Moggio Udinese: Rio Lavarie; Trasaghis; Venzone: Pioverno).

Many Italian records of C. boldorii   reported by Gardini (2000) have yet to be verified. The species is newly recorded for Slovenia.