Disholcaspis bisethiae Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey
Medianero, Enrique & Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis, 2011, First record of the genus Disholcaspis Dalla Torre & Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) in the Neotropics, with description of two new species from Panama, Zootaxa 2802, pp. 23-33 : 28-30
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|Disholcaspis bisethiae Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey|
Type material. Holotype Ƥ ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 C) (in Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain, card mounted. Cat nº 2109). PANAMA, Chiriquí, Renacimiento, 8 º 49 ' 58 7 ” N, 82 º 44 ' 44 5 ” W, 1270 m; ex gall on stems of Quercus lancifolia Schledl & Cham. ( Fagaceae ), gall collected 22.i. 2009, insect emerged 23.i. 2009, E. Medianero leg. Paratypes: 4 Ƥ, same data as holotype; 1 Ƥ same data as holotype, but collected 18.vi. 2008, insect emerged vii. 2008, E. Medianero leg. Four paratypes in MNCN, one paratype in Maestría en Entomología, Universidad de Panamá ( MEUP).
Additionally, 2 Ƥ paratype of the type series were dissected for SEM observation (in MNCN).
Etymology. Named after Biseth Araúz, wife of the first author.
Diagnosis and comments. Closely similar to D. bettyannae described above in color and a majority of morphological characteristics. The two species can be readily distinguished using the key for the identification of Disholcaspis of Panama provided in this article. Like D. bettyannae , D. bisethiae resembles in coloration D. quercusvirens Ashmead , D. unicolor Kinsey and D. mamillana Weld , but differs from them in the characteristics described in the diagnosis of the first described species.
Description. Female body length 3.58 mm (range 3.17–3.72; N = 6). Head, mesosoma, metasoma shining amber to brown, with two last segments of antenna, anteroadmedian signa area, parapsidal signa, median propodeal area, posteromedial metasoma area, sternum, last segment of maxillary palp, labial palp and claws dark brown to black. Legs yellowish brown. Forewing slightly yellowish brown, veins dark brown.
Female. Head rudely alutaceous, strongly pubescent, with piliferous punctures, in dorsal view about 3.0 x wider than long. POL 1.75 x longer than OOL, posterior ocellus separated from inner orbit of eye by 1.6 x its longest diameter. Head in anterior view 1.27 x wider than high ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A). Genae slightly expanded behind eyes. Vertex, frons, genae pubescent with sparse, shorter setae; face, occiput more heavenly pubescent, with relatively long setae. Clypeus trapezoidal, 1.6 x wider than high, shining alutaceous, with long setae ventrally, ventral margin slightly sinuate, projected over mandibles. Anterior tentorial pits conspicuous; epistomal sulcus indistinct, clypeopleurostomal lines distinct. Malar space 0.38 x height of compound eye, without malar sulcus and radiating striae from clypeus virtually absent. Distance between antennal rim of torulus and compound eye 1.07 x its width including rim. Ocellar plate slightly raised. Head, posterior view ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 B). Distance between occipital and oral foramina 1.27 x height of occipital foramen. Occiput without occipital carina, with some transversal rugae dorso-lateral to occipital foramen. Hypostomal sulci separated at hypostoma.
Mouthparts ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 B) as in diagnosis preceding species, but cardo of maxillae visible.
Antenna 0.6 x as long as body ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 C); with 12 flagellomeres, flagellum not broadening towards apex; with relatively long, erect setae and elongate placodeal sensilla visible only on F 4 –F 12. F 1 -F 6 long and slender, gradually decreasing in length. F 7 -F 12 short, wide. Relative lengths of antennal segments: 19: 13: 39: 39: 30: 29: 24: 20: 15: 18: 12: 12: 10: 17. Pedicel, globose, small, 0.7 as long as scape; F 1 as long as F 2 ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 D). F 12 1.9 x longer than wide, 1.7 x as long as F 11 ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 E).
Mesosoma. Smooth to finely alutaceous, densely pubescent with piliferous punctures, 1.23 x broader than long in dorsal view, 1.2 x as long as high in lateral view. Pronotum as D. bettyannae .
Mesonotum. Mesoscutum ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A), smooth to alutaceous, densely, uniformly pubescent, with piliferous punctures. Notauli distinct posteriorly, medially, faint anteriorly, crossed by transversal rugae, convergent posteriorly. Anteroadmedian signa and parapsidal signa visible. Median mesoscutal impression absent. Scutellum ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A), rounded, about 0.4 x as long as mesoscutum, strongly reticulate-rugose and moderately pubescent. Scutellar foveae ellipsoidal, confluent medially, with some longitudinal rugae, indistinctly margined posteriorly. Scutellum, in lateral view extended posteriorly over dorsellum. Mesopleuron ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 G) as in preceding species.
Metanotum ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B). Metapectal-propodeal complex. Metapleural sulcus reaching posterior margin of mesopectus at about mid-height of metapectal-propodeal complex ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 G). Lateral propodeal carinae arched, poorly defined, with some secondary strong rugae laterally and dorsally on bare median propodeal area ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B), lateral propodeal area densely pubescent; nucha rugose.
Legs. Metatarsal claw bearing a strong basal tooth ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 C).
Forewing ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 D). As long as body, radial cell 3.6 x longer than wide; open along anterior margin; areolet small, triangular. Rs well pigmented, slightly bowed, vein 2 r slightly angulated but not prolonged by stump into radial cell. Hair fringe on apical margin moderately long.
Metasoma ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 D). Smooth and shiny; large, as long as head and mesosoma combined; in lateral view 1.1 x as high as long. T 3 covering about 2 / 3 of metasoma; without micropunctures; with a patch of dense setae in its anteromedial area. Projecting part of hypopygial spine, ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 E); about 2.75 x as long as wide; lateral margins of hypopygial spine with long setae projecting over apical end of the spine, but not forming a terminal tuft.
Gall ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 D–F) Globular, monothalamic, with more or less distinct nipple at apex of some galls; hard, with felt-like covering, growing in clusters of two to ten galls ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 E). Brown when fresh and dark brown to black when old ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 D). Internally similar to gall of D. bettyannae ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 F). Diameter 8 to 14 mm. Formed in twigs of Quercus lancifolia . The gall most closely resembles that of D. mamma Walsh , known from USA.
Distribution. Disholcaspis bisethiae was found to 1270 m a.s.l. at Cotito, Finca Hill and Piedra de Candela, Renacimiento district, in western Panama, Chiriquí Province, near the border with Costa Rica.
Biology. Only the asexual generation of D. bisethiae is known, inducing detachable galls on stems of Q. lancifolia . Galls are found between December–April, during the dry season, and the insects emerge in the same season.
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