Disholcaspis bettyannae Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey

Medianero, Enrique & Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis, 2011, First record of the genus Disholcaspis Dalla Torre & Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) in the Neotropics, with description of two new species from Panama, Zootaxa 2802, pp. 23-33 : 24-28

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.277048


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Disholcaspis bettyannae Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey

sp. nov.

Disholcaspis bettyannae Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey sp. nov.

( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 , 5 View FIGURE 5 A–B & 6 A–C)

Type material. Holotype Ƥ ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 A) (in Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain ( MNCN), cardmounted. Cat. nº 2108). PANAMA, Chiriquí, Volcan Baru 8 º 47 ' 50 08” N, 82 º 29 ' 35 9 ” W, 1800 m; ex gall on stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. ( Fagaceae ), gall collected 30.i. 2008, insect emerged ii.08, E. Medianero leg. Paratypes: 3 Ƥ same data as holotype, but collected 22.xii. 2008, insect emerged i.09. Two paratypes in MNCN, one paratype in Maestría en Entomología, Universidad de Panamá ( MEUP).

Additionally, 1 Ƥ paratype of the type series was dissected for SEM observation (in MNCN). Etymology. Named after Dra. Betty Ann Rowe Catsambanis Vice-Rector Research/Graduate Programs, University of Panama.

Diagnosis and comments. T he species is closely allied to D. quercusvirens Ashmead from Florida, being similar in color and a majority of morphological characteristics. The species differ in the length of the notauli, the scutellar foveae, leg coloration and, mainly, in the gall that is induced. Disholcaspis bettyannae has the notauli distinct posteriorly and medially, indistinct anteriorly, smooth, broad and convergent posteriorly, whereas D. quercusvirens has notauli weakly impressed also posteriorly. The new species has scutellar foveae ellipsoidal, shallow but distinct, whereas the scutellar foveae are indistinct in D. quercusvirens . Disholcaspis bettyannae has legs yellowish brown, whereas D. quercusvirens has legs light reddish-brown. The new species induces a small globular gall (6– 11 mm diameter) that does not secrete nectar. Internally, it is of a compact, rather hard, corky texture and contains a free, oval yellowish larval cell ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 C), whereas D. quercusvirens induces similar small, globular galls, internally spongy, which exude a sticky substance that attracts ants. In coloration, Disholcaspis bettyannae also resembles D. unicolor Kinsey from Mexico and D. mamillana Weld from California ( USA) but differs from them mainly in the type of gall that it induces and host plant. The galls of D. unicolor and D. mamillana are large globular bullets (21 mm in diameter) with a nipple at the apex. Additionally, the anteroadmedian signa are not visible in D. unicolor , whereas they are discernible in D. bettyannae . A few more Disholcaspis species described from Mexico by Kinsey (Kinsey 1937) namely, Disholcaspis laetae Kinsey , D. purlans Kinsey , D. purpurea Kinsey and D. regina Kinsey 1937 seems also closely similar to the Panamanian species here described. However the Mexican species differ from them in the general brightly cherry rufous coloration and the smaller size of adults, as well as for the smooth and shining gall surface and the different oak hosts, being associated mainly to dwarf oaks as Q. laeta , Q. reticulata and Q. repanda .

Description. Body length 3.94 mm (range 3.64–4.19; N = 4) for females. Body uniformly amber and shiny with distal segment of antenna, anteroadmedian signa area, parapsidal signa, propodeal area (except by spiracular area), posteromedial area of metasoma, sternum, stipes, last segment of maxillary palp, labial palp and claws dark brown to black. Legs yellowish brown. Forewing hyaline with some very light infumation, veins dark brown to black.

Female. Head rugose, moderately pubescent with piliferous punctures, in dorsal view about 3.4 x wider than long. POL 1.5 x longer than OOL, posterior ocellus separated from inner orbit of eye by 2.2 x its longest diameter. Head in anterior view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A) transversely ovate, 1.3 x wider than high, gena moderately broadened behind eyes, 0.26 x diameter of compound eye. Vertex, frons and occiput more rugose; face, gena with piliferous punctures, short delicate irradiating carinae from clypeus present, not reaching ventral margin of compound eye, absent medially above clypeus; head moderately pubescent, with relatively long golden setae, except vertex, frons with sparse, shorter setae. Clypeus more or less trapezoidal, 1.8 x wider than high, mostly smooth and moderately pubescent, ventral margin sinuate, slightly projecting over mandibles. Anterior tentorial pits visible; epistomal sulcus not indicated, clypeo-pleurostomal lines visible. Malar space 0.4 x height of compound eye, without malar sulcus. Toruli situated slightly above mid-height of compound eye; distance between antennal rim and compound eye 1.1 x width of antennal socket including rim. Ocellar plate not raised. Head, posterior view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B) without occipital carina. Gula short; distance between occipital and oral foramina 1.5 x height of occipital foramen ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B). Hypostomal sulci well separate at oral fossa.

Mouthparts ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 A, 1 B): mandibles strong, exposed, with dense setae in base, right mandible with three teeth, left with two teeth. Cardo of maxilla not visible, maxillary stipes relatively short, broad, about 2.2 x longer than wide. Maxillary palp five-segmented. Labial palp three-segmented.

Antenna ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C) of moderate length, as long as 1 / 2 body length, with 13 flagellomeres; flagellum not broadening towards apex; with relatively long, erect setae, and elongate placodeal sensilla not well visible ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 D). Relative lengths of antennal segments: 18: 11: 40: 37: 28: 26: 21: 19: 14: 12: 12: 11: 22. Pedicel sub-globose, small, 0.6 x as long as scape; F 1 -F 6 long, slender, gradually decreasing in length. F 1 1.08 x as long as F 2. F 7 -F 10 short and wide, F 11 2.7 x longer than wide, 2.0 x as long as F 10 ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 D). Placodeal sensillae on F 3 -F 11 disposed in one row of 8–10 sensillae in half dorsal area of each flagellomere.

Mesosoma. Smooth to finely rugose, very densely pubescent with piliferous punctures, in lateral view 1.3 x as long as high, slightly convex dorsally. Pronotum, densely pubescent; lateral surface of pronotum with some longitudinal wrinkles dorsally; with long and dense setae ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 F). Pronotum short medially, ratio of length of pronotum medially/laterally = 0.18. Pronotal plate indistinct dorsally ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E).

Mesonotum ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A). Mesoscutum finely rugose, densely pubescent with piliferous punctures, slightly broader than long in dorsal view. Notauli distinct posteriorly, medially, faint anteriorly, smooth and convergent posteriorly, with an indistinct median mesoscutal impression. Anteroadmedian signa clearly visible. Parapsidal signa broad, smooth. Transscutal fissure narrow, clearly visible, deeply impressed, slightly sinuate. Scutellar foveae ellipsoidal, shallow, almost smooth, indistinctly separated medially, anterior and posterior margins relatively well marked, about 1 / 8 x as long as scutellum. Scutellum ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A) rounded from above, about 0.8 x length of mesoscutum, strongly reticulate-rugose, in lateral view extended posteriorly over dorsellum. Axillula densely pubescent, anterior, posterior margins marked. Mesopleuron smooth, densely pubescent with piliferous punctures ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 F).

Metanotum ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B). Metapectal-propodeal complex. Metapleural sulcus reaching posterior margin of mesopectus at about mid-height of metapectal-propodeal complex ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 F). Lateral propodeal carinae arched, poorly defined, with some secondary strong rugae laterally and dorsally on bare median propodeal area ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B), lateral propodeal area densely pubescent; nucha rugose.

Legs. Densely pubescent; metatarsal claws with strong triangular basal lobe or teeth ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C).

Forewing ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 B) as long as body, radial cell 3.2 x longer than wide; open along anterior margin; areolet small, triangular, closed, distinct. R 1 and M nearly straight, not reaching wing margin. R 1 and Rs weakly pigmented. Rs slightly bowed. Rs+M not reaching basalis. 2 r well pigmented, slightly projected medially. Apical margin of wing with short hair fringe.

Metasoma ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 D) large, as long as head and mesosoma combined, in lateral view as wide as high. Second metasomal tergite covering about 2 / 3 of metasoma, with patch of dense setae in its anteromedial area. Projecting part of hypopygial spine ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 E) about 2.5 x as long as wide in ventral view ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 F); laterally with long setae, longer than spine width, but not forming an apical patch.

Gall ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 A–C). Globose or bud-shaped, with broad base, monothalamic, densely pubescent with velvet or felt-like surface, growing singly or in clusters of two to six galls. Pale yellowish, sometimes tinged with pink or red when fresh ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 A) and light brown when mature ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 B). Internally with compact, rather hard, corky texture, containing free oval yellowish larval cell, ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 C). Diameter of gall 6 to 11 mm, formed in stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. , closely resembling that of D. simulata Kinsey, 1922 , D. canescens Bassett, 1890 and D. quercussuccinipes Ashmead, 1881 known from USA, but, these galls are induced in different oak species.

Distribution. Disholcaspis bettyannae was found between 1431–2400 m a.s.l. at Chiriqui, Panama.

Biology. Only the asexual generation is known, inducing galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (section Quercus ). The galls are found between October and May during the dry season in Panama. The insects studied emerged in December and February.


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