Phalangopsis ferratilis, Junta & Castro-Souza & Ferreira, 2020

Junta, Vitor Gabriel Pereira, Castro-Souza, Rodrigo Antônio & Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes, 2020, Five new species of Phalangopsis Serville, 1831 (Orthoptera: Phalangopsidae) from Brazilian caves in the Amazon Forest, Zootaxa 4859 (2), pp. 151-194: 167-173

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4859.2.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7DFF87BA-9A4A-4773-AA2E-66A72505BC3F

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4539032

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DFCA0A-5B7D-5968-FF7F-FD0EFDB44753

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Phalangopsis ferratilis
status

n. sp.

Phalangopsis ferratilis   n. sp.

( Figures 57–62 View FIGURES 57–62 , 63–69 View FIGURES 63–69 , 70–73 View FIGURES 70–73 , 74–78 View FIGURES 74–78 , 79–82 View FIGURES 79–82 , 148 View FIGURE 148 ; Table 2 and 3 View TABLE 3 )

Material examined. Holotype ♂, code ISLA 65756, Brazil, Pará , municipality of Canaã dos Carajás, ST-0041 cave (6°18’48.14”S; 50°5’34.91”O), 23.i.2016, BioEspeleo leg. GoogleMaps   Holotype condition: integrate, legs detached and stored in microtubes. Paratypes, municipality of Canaã dos Carajás, ST-0041 cave (6°18’48.14”S; 50°5’34.91”O), 23.i.2016, 1 ♂ (ISLA 65757) and 1 ♀ ( ISLA 65758), BioEspeleo; 19.vii.2016, 3 ♀ ♀ (ISLA 65755; 65759; 65760), BioEspeleo; ST-0042 cave (6°18’48.37”S; 50° 5’33.09”O), 01.ii.2016, 2 ♂ ♂ ( ISLA 65761; 65762) and 1 ♀ (ISLA 65763), BioEspeleo; 14.vii.2016, 2 ♂ ♂ ( ISLA 65766; 65767), BioEspeleo. Individuals examined, municipality of Canaã dos Carajás, S 11C-0179 cave (6°22’47.87”S; 50°22’51.01”O), 03.vii.2015, BioEspeleo, 1 ♂ (ISLA 65768); Canaã dos Carajás, S 11C-0096 cave (6°24’16.99”S; 50°23’10.04”O), 26.viii.2015, BioEspeleo, 1 ♂ ( ISLA 65769); Canaã dos Carajás, S 11C-0111 cave (6°24’4.22”S; 50°23’34.21”O), 31.viii.2015, BioEspeleo, 1 ♂ (ISLA 65770); Canaã dos Carajás, S 11C-0170 cave (6°21’56.36”S; 50°22’58.78”O), 05.iv.2016, BioEspeleo, 1 ♂ ( ISLA 65771); Canaã dos Carajás, S 11C-0184 cave (6°24’35.34”S; 50°23’48.79”O), 09.iv.2016, BioEspeleo, 1 ♂ (ISLA 65772); Canaã dos Carajás, S 11C-0108 cave (6°23’54.14”S; 50°23’20.16”O), 08.iv.2016, BioEspeleo , 1 ♂ ( ISLA 65773) and 1 ♀ (ISLA 65774); municipality of Curionópolis , Pará , Brazil, SL063 cave (5°58’43.90”S; 49°37’16.40”O), 2011, BioEspeleo , 1 ♂ (ISLA 65775); Curionópolis, SL 037 cave (5°58’39.49”S; 49°37’53.12”O), 2011, BioEspe- leo, 1 ♂ ( ISLA 65776); Curionópolis, SL 002 cave (5°57’50.36”S; 49°38’57.37”O), 2011, BioEspeleo , 1 ♂ (ISLA 65777); Curionópolis, SL 075 cave (5°57’54.21”S; 49°37’54.70”O), 2011, BioEspeleo , 1 ♂ ( ISLA 65778) and 2 ju- venile (ISLA 65779; 65780); Curionópolis, SL 001 (5°57’56.94”S; 49°38’56.48”O), 2011, BioEspeleo , 2 ♂ ♂ ( ISLA 65781; 65783) and 1 ♀ (ISLA 65782); municipality of Parauapebas , Pará , Brazil, N5 SM1-006 cave(6°6’33.10”S; 50°8’5.69”O), BioEspeleo 1 ♂ (ISLA 65784) and 1 ♀ ( ISLA 65785); Parauapebas, N 5 SM2-045 cave (6°8’0.30”S; 50°8’4.15”O), BioEspeleo, 1 ♂ (ISLA 65786) and 1 ♀ ( ISLA 65787); Parauapebas, N 5 SM2-037 cave (6°7’57.24”S; 50°8’3.57”O), BioEspeleo, 1 ♂ (ISLA 65788) and 1 ♀ ( ISLA 65789) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Subterranean environments in the municipalities of Canaã dos Carajás, Curionópolis and Parauapebas, Pará, Brazil.

Etimology. The specific name “ ferratilis   ” from the latin ferrâtus “made of iron”, refers to the iron caves where the individuals of this species were found.

Diagnosis. Combination of the following characteristics: pseudepiphallic dorsal branch, thin and developed, projecting for the interior of the sclerite, the apex presents a visible dilation in frontal and lateral view ( Figs 57–60 View FIGURES 57–62 , Pd.db); pseudepiphallic paramere 1 developed, proportion similar to pseudepiphallic paramere 2 (lateral and dorsal view) ( Figs 58–60 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ps.P1); pseudepiphallic paramere 2 developed, projecting dorsally, discoidal and sub-linear in the distal portion (dorsal view) ( Figs 57–60 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ps.P2); pseudepiphallic arm elongated and externally tilted (dorsal view) ( Fig. 57 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ps.arm); pseudepiphallic medium lobes developed, elongated lobes projecting towards the endophallus (frontal view) and distended U-shaped in dorsal view ( Figs 57, 59–60 View FIGURES 57–62 ; Ps.m.l); upper central and lower part of ectophallic arc horizontally curved in opposite directions ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ect. arc); endophallic distal portion not developed in thickness (dorsal view) ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 57–62 , a, End.d).

Description, male holotype. Body Color: general body coloration uniformly brownish, dorsal head yellowish brown ( Fig. 63 View FIGURES 63–69 ); pronotum strong yellowish brown, with some whitish discoloration spots ( Figs 63 and 65 View FIGURES 63–69 ); abdomen white and translucent ventrally and brown dorsally; legs dark yellowish brown, whitish at the start of the femur ( Figs 70–73 View FIGURES 70–73 ); cerci uniformly whitish brown. Head: slightly pubescent; elongated in frontal view (4.166 and 3.016 mm, length and width respectively); vertex marked with two dark vertical stripes starting in the eye’s region and reaching the occiput and two dark vertical stripes starting at the antenna base and sharpening while reach the occiput ( Fig. 63 View FIGURES 63–69 ); gena whitish yellow, clypeus and labrum whitish, mandibles yellowish brown, whitish near the labrum; all maxilary palpomeres slightly pubescent, first and second shorter than the others and whitish, third and fourth palpomeres whitish yellow and same size, fifth palpomere a little longer than the forth, curved, claviform, yellowish and whitish at the tip ( Fig. 63 View FIGURES 63–69 ); all labial palpomeres whitish, pubescent and increasing in size, third palpomere claviform ( Fig. 63 View FIGURES 63–69 ); scape pubescent, dark yellowish brown at the base and whitish at the proximal region, pedicel yellowish brown, antennomeres uniformly yellowish brown ( Figs 63 and 65 View FIGURES 63–69 ); compound eyes black with a small depigmented area near the scape insertion; ocelli reduced ( Figs 63 and 65 View FIGURES 63–69 ). Thorax: pronotum yellowish brown; anterior, medial and posterior regions with whitish spots distributed along the sagittal axis in dorsal view ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 63–69 ); dorsal disk broader than long, lateral lobes rounded, anterior and posterior margins sub-straight and with long bristles ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 63–69 ). Legs. Generally, femur, tibia and tarsus pubescent; first tarsomere serrulated; femur always smaller than tibia (μ= 15.080 ± 1.974 mm; μ= 17.472 ± 1.964 mm, femur and tibia respectively, Leg III, n=7) ( Figs 70–73 View FIGURES 70–73 ). Leg I ( Figs 70 and 71 View FIGURES 70–73 ): tibia serrulated, with two apical ventral spurs, tympanum absent; first tarsomere thrice longer than the third and second together. Leg II ( Figs 70 and 71 View FIGURES 70–73 ): tibia ventrally serrulated, with two same-sized apical ventral spurs; first tarsomere ventrally serrated and three times longer than the second and third together. Leg III ( Figs 73–75 View FIGURES 70–73 View FIGURES 74–78 ): femur dilated; tibia serrulated, armed with four subapical spurs on outer side ( Fig. 73 View FIGURES 70–73 ) and three on inner side ( Fig. 74 View FIGURES 74–78 ), three apical spurs on outer ( Fig. 73 View FIGURES 70–73 ; a, b, c) and four on the inner side ( Fig. 74 View FIGURES 74–78 ; d, e, f, g), the inner being the longest; first tarsomere about thrice longer than the second and third together, armed with two apical spurs ( Figs 73 View FIGURES 70–73 and 74 View FIGURES 74–78 ). Right Tegmen: little pubescent, undeveloped, stridulatory file absent, few sclerotized with little glandular thickness and poorly marked veins ( Fig. 66 View FIGURES 63–69 ). Abdomen: cerci pubescent and elongated; supra-anal plate sub-quadrangular, presenting long bristles at its distal portion and two reduced lateral projections at its base, apex lightly rounded and base curved inside ( Figs 67 and 68 View FIGURES 63–69 ); sub-genital plate sub-quadrangular, broad, apex substraight with a small center sharp projection and base slightly rounded ( Figs 68 and 69 View FIGURES 63–69 ).

Observations in Paratypes. Male phallic sclerites (paratype ISLA 65757, Fig. 57–61 View FIGURES 57–62 ) Pseudepiphallus: dorsal branch well sclerotized, developed and thin, projecting to the interior of the sclerite, the apex presents a dilatation visible in frontal and lateral view ( Figs 57–60 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ps.db.), the structure is similar to the Ps.db of Phalangopsis quartzitica   n. sp.; paramere 1 cambered triangular, developed, proportion similar to pseudepiphallic paramere 2 at dorsal and lateral view, connecting to A sclerite and paramere 2 by a membranous tissue ( Figs 58–60 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ps.P1); paramere 2 developed, shape discoidal, sub-linear in the distal portion (dorsal view) and projecting dorsally ( Figs 57–60 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ps.P2); pseudepiphallic arm elongated and externally tilted ( Fig. 57 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ps.arm); A sclerite vestigial and fused to Ps. arm, reaching the paramere 1 and visible at ventral view ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 57–62 , A); pseudepiphallic medium lobes developed, projecting dorsally, elongated lobes projecting towards the endophallus at frontal view and distended U-shaped in dorsal view ( Figs 57, 58–59 View FIGURES 57–62 ; Ps.m.1); pseudepiphallic branch projected dorsally, covering part of the proximal portion of the ectophallic apodemes ( Figs 57, 59–60 View FIGURES 57–62 ; Ps.b). Ectophallic invagination: apodemes thin and curved towards the interior of the sclerite, apex little sclerotized and dilated ( Figs 57–59 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ect.ap.); lateral bar well developed, elongated in all its extension ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ect.lb); median projection undeveloped ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ect.mp); upper central and lower part of ectophallic arc horizontally curved in opposite directions ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 57–62 , Ect.arc). Endophallus: endophallus partially projected dorsally in lateral view ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 57–62 , b); endophallic distal portion not developed in thickness, with a small vertical groove ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 57–62 , a–c, End.d); median portion narrow ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 57–62 , a–c, End.mp); apodeme reduced ( Fig 61 View FIGURES 57–62 , a–c, End.ap).

Female: body size larger than male (♀ µ=19.607 ± 3.278mm, n=3); apterous; femur always smaller than tibia; supra-anal plate pubescent and slightly elongated, distal portion rounded and bearing long bristles and base curved inside, lateral projections reduced ( Fig. 74 View FIGURES 74–78 ); sub-genital plate short, slightly pubescent, V-shaped, showing a clear indentation at the distal portion (Fig, 75); ovipositor elongated, yellowish brown, sword-shaped with sharp apex (µ=13.941 ± 0.580mm, n=3) ( Figs 76–78 View FIGURES 74–78 ). Female genitalia. Copulatory papilla triangular shaped, slightly flattened dorsoventrally ( Fig. 62 View FIGURES 57–62 , a and b), edges of the middle part straight (dorsal and ventral view) ( Fig. 62 View FIGURES 57–62 , a and c); presents a dorsal opening of triangular shape in the proximal portion and a small rounded orifice in the distal portion ( Fig. 62 View FIGURES 57–62 , a–c).

Ecological Remarks: The area where Phalangopsis ferratilis   n. sp. occurs is known as Carajás region and is located in eastern Pará state, in the Amazon forest. This area is of outstanding relevance in Brazil (both environmental and economic), due to its huge iron ore reserves. The area can be divided in distinct regions, locally known as “morros” (meaning “hills”) which, in fact, comprises sets of ferruginous outcrops. In the region, considering a set of 360 sampled iron ore caves, specimens of P. ferratilis   were observed in 292 caves (which corresponds to approximately 81% of the caves in the area). The average horizontal projection of the caves is 30 meters (but the cave sizes were quite variable, from 5 to 205 meters) ( Fig. 79 View FIGURES 79–82 ). Specimens of P. ferratilis   were rarely observed in the entrance zones, but are abundant in deeper areas within the caves (usually aphotic). They seem to prefer moist areas inside the caves. For one of the areas in the Carajás region (locally known as “Morro I” and “Morro II”), we tested if there was any correlation between the population abundances within the caves and the respective cave size (horizontal projections, given in meters). The regression test showed a strong positive and significant relation between those variables, for a sample considering 144 caves (F (1,142) =256.77; R= 0.802; R²= 0.644; p<0.0000) ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ). Therefore, the cave size seems to be an important factor determining the population size of this species. Given that they are mostly abundant in aphotic zones, bigger caves may shelter more individuals probably due to its most extensive aphotic areas. Potential organic resources include especially bat guano ( Figs 80 and 82 View FIGURES 79–82 ) that may constitute one of the motives why bigger populations are preferentially found in larger caves (in addition to the moister conditions). Larger caves may shelter bigger bat colonies, which produces higher amounts of guano. Specimens of P. ferratilis   are mainly observed in the cave walls ( Fig. 81 View FIGURES 79–82 ), although, when foraging, they can be found in the floor. It is important to note that samplings where not performed in the external environments, so the actual distribution of this species remains largely unknown.