CANOPIDAE Amyot and Serville

Grazia, Jocelia, Schuh, Randall T. & Wheeler, Ward C., 2008, Phylogenetic relationships of family groups in Pentatomoidea based on morphology and DNA sequences (Insecta: Heteroptera), Cladistics 24, pp. 932-976 : 968

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00224.x


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CANOPIDAE Amyot and Serville


CANOPIDAE Amyot and Serville

Historical: This exclusively Neotropical taxon, containing a single genus and eight species, was most recently revised by McAtee and Malloch (1928). Its

association with the Scutelleridae , as proposed by Gapud (1991), was discussed in Schuh and Slater (1995), who continued to maintain the family status of the group. The two defining characters for the group, presence of a prosternal sulcus and strongly laminate prosternal carinae, are shared with two other families of Pentatomoidea , the Megarididae , and Corimelaenidae , a situation that has resulting in ambiguity concerning its relationships with other members of the Pentatomoidea .

Analytical result: The position of the monogeneric Canopidae in our morphological analyses ( Figs 42–44 View Fig View Fig View Fig ) shows little agreement with that derived from combined molecular analysis ( Figs 45 and 46 View Figs 45–48. 45 ) and total evidence analysis of both 52 ( Figs 51 and 52 View Figs 49–52. 49 ) and 92 taxa

( Figs 53–55 View Fig View Fig View Fig ). Canopus is allied with Megaris and the Plataspididae in the first and with the phloeid–cydniddinidorid–tessaratomid clade in the last three. Although Canopus resembles Megaris Stål and members of the

Plataspididae in body form and the expansion of the scutellum, our phylogenetic results indicate that these similarities are almost certainly superficial, as most past classifications have implied. The biology of the group is novel within the Pentatomoidea and uncommon in the Heteroptera more broadly, showing an apparently obligate association with fungi. We continue to maintain family status for Canopus , in light of the somewhat ambiguous nature of relationships in the present analyses.