Grazia, Jocelia, Schuh, Randall T. & Wheeler, Ward C., 2008, Phylogenetic relationships of family groups in Pentatomoidea based on morphology and DNA sequences (Insecta: Heteroptera), Cladistics 24, pp. 932-976 : 967

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https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00224.x



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Historical: Durai (1987), in a world revision of the Dinidoridae , recognized the subfamilies Dinidorinae , with the two tribes Dinidorini and Thalmini , and

Megymeninae , also with two tribes, Megymenini and Eumenotini . Lis (1990) catalogued the Old World Dinidoridae . Rolston et al. (1996) summarized the current classification in their world catalogue of Dini-

doridae. Gapud (1991) considered Dinidoridae and Tessaratomidae to be sister groups with two synapomorphies supporting the grouping: partially exposed spiracles on the second abdominal segment (these

becoming completely exposed in Tessaratomidae ), and greatly enlarged ninth paratergites. The Dinidoridae , on the other hand, is separated from the Tessaratomidae by the reduced gonangulum and the enlarged and often reticulate hemelytral membrane, both of which characters are not found exclusively in this group. Kocorek and Lis (2000), in a cladistic revision of the Megymeninae , proposed anew tribe, Byrsodepsini , and established Eumenotini as a junior synonym of Megymenini sensu stricto.

Analytical result: After extensive searching, we were unable to secure, either through our own fieldwork or that of others, material adequate for sequencing other than for the genus Megymenum , leaving the Dinidorinae without molecular data. Our unweighted and successively weighted morphological analyses ( Figs 42 View Fig and 43 View Fig ) treat the broadly conceived Dinidoridae as paraphyletic; analysis of the morphological data under implied weights using PIWE ( Fig. 44 View Fig ) treats the Dinidoridae as a monophyletic subset of a paraphyletic Tessaratomidae . Megymenum is treated as the sister-group of Tessaratomidae in the 52-taxon molecular and combined analyses when using a 1: 1 cost ratio ( Figs 45 View Figs 45–48. 45 and 51 View Figs 49–52. 49 ). In the 92-taxon combined analyses, the Dinidoridae is paraphyletic within a larger Tessaratomidae using a 1: 1 cost ratio ( Fig. 53 View Fig ), is the monophyletic sister group of a monophyletic Tessaratomidae using a 1: 2 cost ratio ( Fig. 54 View Fig ), and also includes Urochela ( Urostylididae ) when applying a 2: 2 cost ratio ( Fig. 55 View Fig ). The close association of the Dinidoridae with the Tessaratomidae in our analyses is concordant with the conclusions of Gapud (1991), although there is no clearcut set of morphological characters that diagnoses that larger grouping. Future efforts should aim to produce a more broad-based taxon sample of sequence data for the group to test more rigorously its monophyly as well as its relationship with the Tessaratomidae as well as the remaining Pentatomoidea .