Khoikhoiinae Mason, 1983

Sharkey, Michael, van Noort, Simon & Whitfield, James, 2009, Revision of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), ZooKeys 20 (20), pp. 299-348 : 310-311

publication ID 10.3897/zookeys.20.108

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Khoikhoiinae Mason, 1983


Khoikhoiinae Mason, 1983

Description. Head. Number of flagellomeres variable within species ranging from about 20–40, antenna often sexually dimorphic, female flagellum compressed apically with flagellomeres shorter and wider than males, sometimes flagellomeres transverse in females, though usually slightly to 3× longer than wide; flagellomeres sometimes sexually dimorphic with flagellum of females tapering strongly towards apex, males tapering slightly as in most other microgastroids; (this type of dimorphism is also found in a number of species of Cheloninae , e.g., Ascogaster abdominator (Dahlbom, 1833)) ; flagellar placodes short, about 1/3 to 1/4 length of flagellomeres in males, not arranged into two rows; antennal scrobe present, though weak in most species of Sania ; frons with elevated, coarsely sculptured, protuberance laterad antennal scrobe, effectively increasing functional depth of scrobe, protuberance variously developed from weak to strong depending on species and generally more developed in members of Khoikhoia ; malar suture distinct; mandible thick and long, not greatly twisted to function as scissors; temple large, presumably to hold large mandibular muscles; maxillary palpus 5-segmented, basal two segments fused; labial palpus 4-segmented; labrum setose, semicircular, usually exposed but capable of folding behind the clypeus, clypeus weakly concave ( Sania ) or with median and sometimes lateral teeth ( Khoikhoia ).

Mesosoma. Propleuron lacking carina on posterolateral margin and lacking ventral flange overlapping ventral corner of pronotum; subalar region of mesopleuron with a smooth glabrous area posteriorly, more pronounced in species of Khoikhoia ; notauli impressed, crenulate and meeting posteriorly where they generally extend to the transscutal articulation; transscutal articulation complete and depressed; postscutellar depression well developed, more so in Khoikhoia ; propodeum mostly rugose with median longitudinal carina; epicnemial carina absent; tarsal claws simple; hind tarsomeres lacking longitudinal ridge of setae; hind basitarsus and to a lesser degree some other hind tarsomeres laterally compressed; apical abscissa of Rs of forewing decurved and not tracheated; forewing 1a crossvein long and strong; forewing 2a crossvein absent; forewing 1cu-a far apical to M; forewing 2cu-a absent; forewing 2nd submarginal cell quadrate, tapering apically with r-m crossvein mostly unsclerotized; hindwing crossvein r long but not tubular; hindwing r-m absent.

Metasoma. Median tergite 1 with a median longitudinal groove; laterotergite 1 membranous (or absent according to Mason’s 1983 interpretation) and with microstriae, spiracle on laterotergite 1; hypopygium size variable from more than half length of metasoma to approximately 1/5 length of metasoma; ovipositor length variable from barely exserted to almost as long as the metasoma; setae of ovipositor sheath sometimes restricted to apex where they can be very long, e.g., K. anthelion .

Distribution. Restricted to the Western, Eastern and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa, in localities varying from sea level to 1000 meters. Distribution map is available at inae&subfamily= Khoikhoiinae .

Biodiversity. Including the new species proposed here, there are 13 species of Khoikhoiinae . Based on morphological evidence, most of these seem quite distinct, although K. turneri and K. townesi may constitute one species. Nonetheless, there are undoubtedly many more species. Of the seven species of Khoikhoia , all but two are represented by one specimen, and the two exceptions are known from two specimens. Two of these species were collected during intensive programs of Malaise trap sampling at two localities spanning a couple of years suggesting that in contrast to Sania , Khoikhoia species may be rare. Malaise traps seem effective in capturing specimens, and further intensive Malaise trap sampling targeting under-collected habitats in the Cape and perhaps other areas of southern Africa will undoubtedly result in the discovery of many more species.

Hosts. Unknown, probably larval Lepidoptera (See Life History section above).











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