Bothynus entellus ( LePeletier & Serville, 1828 )

Duarte, Paulo R. M. & Grossi, Paschoal C., 2020, Bothynus entellus (LePeletier & Serville) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) species group: taxonomic revision and description of two new species, Zootaxa 4750 (1), pp. 101-121: 102-105

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4750.1.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1A3B7CFF-292B-46AB-82E8-C78BA34618EC

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3706201

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E31B7A-5903-FFA0-FF6C-F8A3BB4EFD6C

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bothynus entellus ( LePeletier & Serville, 1828 )
status

 

Bothynus entellus ( LePeletier & Serville, 1828)  

( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 A–E; 7A; 8A; 9A; 10A, E; 11A; 12A)

Scarabaeus entellus LePeletier & Serville, 1828: 347   (original description).

Scarabaeus glaucon Perty, 1830: 45   (original description, synonym).

Scarabaeus glycon Perty, 1830: 214   (original description, synonym).

Strategus montesuma Hope, 1837: 88   (original description, synonym).

Diagnosis. Bothynus entellus   is distinguished from other species of the group by the following combination of characters: major and median males with two pronotal horns directed forward ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A–B); two or one lateral tubercles instead of horns in minor males ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 ). Minor males of B. entellus   without lateral tubercles are similar to B. araya   but B. entellus   differs by the stridulatory apparatus with weakly marked carinae ( Fig 7A View FIGURE 7 ); basal half of parameres with outer sides gradually constricted toward middle area; apical half of parameres with lateral “flaps” rounded and broader than basal half in caudal view ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ). Female of B. entellus   differs from other females of the group by the pronotal surface nearly completely punctate, with the concavity moderately and disc finely punctate ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 ); proventrite with two small furrows at anterolateral angles ( Fig. 10E View FIGURE 10 ); tergite VIII with weakly emarginate and transverse apical invagination (about 4.4 times wider than long) ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 ).

Type material. Not examined.

Additional material examined. 147 males and 50 females. Brasil: Bahia: Camacan, RPPN Serra Bonita , 27–29.II.2012   , M.L. Monné— 1♂ ( MNRJ); Una, (10 km SE San José), Mata Atlântica , luz, 7–25.X.1986   2♂ 2♀ ( MNRJ). Espírito Santo: Santa Teresa , 830 m, 8.I.1966   1♂ ( DZUP), 12.XI.1966   1♀ ( DZUP), 15.XI.1966   1♂ 1♀ ( DZUP), 20.XI.1966   2♂ ( DZUP), 9.XI.1967   2♀ ( DZUP), 15.XI.1967   8♂ 1♀ ( DZUP), 16.XI.1967   49♂ 11♀ ( DZUP), 30.XI.1967   1♀ ( DZUP), 9.XII.1967   2♂ ( DZUP), 22.XII.1967   1♂ ( DZUP), 16.VII.1967   1♂ ( DZUP), 17.VII.1967   2♀ ( DZUP), 8.I.1966   1♂ ( DZUP), 2.XI.1967   1♂ ( DZUP), 13.XI.1955   , Santos, Mach- ado, & Barros— 1♂ ( MNRJ), XII.1965   , Paviote— 3♂ ( MNRJ). Rio Bonito , X–XI.1965   6♂ 1♀ ( DZUP). Tijuco Preto , XI.1931   , Campos Seabra— 13♂ ( MNRJ), X–XI.1937, M. Alvarenga—   3♂ 1♀ ( DZUP). Minas Gerais: Ibiá , X.1965   1♂ ( DZUP). Belo Horizonte , XI.1951   , F. Justus Jorge— 1♂ ( DZUP). Lavras , 15.II.1999   1♂ ( DZUP). Águas Vermelhas , XI.1991   1♂ ( DZUP). Maria da Fé , XI.1980   , G.S. Andrade— 1♂ ( MNRJ). Paraná: Colombo, Embrapa, BR 476— Km 20, (25°19’19.92”S, 49°9’25.60”W), 952 m, 31.X.1986 GoogleMaps   1♂ ( DZUP), (25°19’20.52”S, 49°9’24.42”W), 952 m, 4.XI.1986 GoogleMaps   1♂ 4♀ ( DZUP), XI.2014   , M. Savaris— 1♂ ( CERPE). Morretes, Marumbí , 15–16.X.1966   1♂ ( DZUP). Piraquara , X.2010   3♂ ( CERPE), XI.2009   2♂ ( CERPE). Ponta Grossa , IV.1943   , F. Justus Jorge— 1♂ ( DZUP). São José dos Pinhais, Serra do Mar, BR 277— Km 54, (25°34’2.74”S, 48°59’2.27”W), 966 m, 4.XI.1987 GoogleMaps   1♀ ( DZUP). Três Portões , 5.XI.1967   1♂ 1♀ ( MZUSP). Londrina , XII.1936   1♂ ( MZUSP). Tapejara , I.1953   , F. Justus Jorge— 1♂ ( DZUP). Pernambuco: São Lourenço da Mata, Estação Ecológica de Tapacurá , 6.X.1982   , J.C. Barros— 2♂ ( CERPE). Rio de Janeiro: Angra dos Reis, Jussaral , IX.1935   , D. Mendes— 1♀ ( MNRJ). Cabo Frio—   1♂ ( MNRJ). Rio de Janeiro, Corcovado , X.1961   1♂ ( DZUP), IX.1934   , Travassos— 1♂ ( MNRJ), 5.XI.1959   , Zajciw— 1♂ ( MNRJ), 9.X.1975   , Campos Seabra— 1♂ ( MNRJ). Itatiaia, Instituto Biológi- co, Entomologia Agrícola , XI.1929   , Dario Mendes— 1♂ ( MNRJ). Parque Nacional do Itatiaia , (22°27’56.95”S, 44°33’52.86”W), (409 m), 6–8.XI.2009 GoogleMaps   , M.L. & M.A. Monné— 1♂ ( MNRJ), (22°29’9.46”S, 44°36’52.79”W), 568 m, 11–13.XI.2011 GoogleMaps   , Cupelo, Machado, Souza, Simões, & Carell— 1♂ ( MNRJ), 21.XI.1929   , Zikán— 1♂ ( MNRJ), 7.XI.1957   , W. Zikán— 1♀ ( MNRJ). Nova Friburgo, Sans Souci , (22°16’50.61”S, 42°30’45.49”W), 1039 m, 6.XI.2005 GoogleMaps   , E. & P. Grossi— 1♂ ( EPGC), (22°16’50.06”S, 42°30’45.20”W), 1068 m, I.1995 GoogleMaps   , E. & P. Grossi— 2♂ ( EPGC), (22°16’50.84”S, 42°30’45.17”W), 1068, XII.1999 GoogleMaps   , E. & P. Grossi— 1♀ ( EPGC), XI. 2009   2♀ ( CERPE), XI.2014   1♂ 2♀ ( CERPE). Petrópolis , 23. VIII.1962   1♂ ( DZUP); Petrópolis. Independência , X.1920   , Mario Rosa— 4♀ ( MNRJ). Rio de Janeiro, 8.II.1950   , 1♀ ( DZUP), XI.1965   , 1♀ ( DZUP). Teresópolis , IX.1956   , Campos Seabra— 1♂ ( DZUP), XI.1946   , V.M. de Ribeiro— 1♂ 1♀ ( MNRJ), IX.1956   , P.R. Teles— 1♂ ( MNRJ). Vassouras , 12.XII.1955   , Santos Barros— 1♀ ( MNRJ). Santa Catarina: Água Clara, Rio Negrinho , XI.1925   , A. Maller— 1♀ ( MNRJ). Campos Novos , (27°13’50.10”S, 51° 7’14.53”W), 940 m, II.2011 GoogleMaps   4♂ ( DZUP). Corupá , X.1952   1♀ ( DZUP), 14.XII.1956   1♂ ( DZUP), XII.1937   , A. Maller— 1♂ ( MNRJ). Rio Vermelho , 14.XII.1960   1♂ ( DZUP), 14.X.1958   2♂ 1♀ ( DZUP), (26°16’31.38”S, 49°22’31.89”W), X.1952 GoogleMaps   1♀ ( DZUP). São Paulo: Barueri , 16.XI.1955   , K. Lenko— 1♂ ( MNRJ). Cantareira , XII.1923   1♂ ( MZUSP). Itú , Fazenda Pau d’ Alho, 28–29.X.1965   , M. Alvarenga— 1♀ ( DZUP). Parque Mathias , II.1936   1♂ ( MZUSP). Rio Grande , X.1900   1♂ ( MZUSP). Salesópolis, Estrada Biológica da Boracéia , (23°35’9.32”S, 45°51’24.37”W), 984 m, 23–29.XI.2008 GoogleMaps   , E. & P. Grossi— 1♀ ( EPGC), I.1950   , M. Alvarenga— 1♂ ( DZUP)   .

Redescription. Male. Body length: 24.0– 35.1 mm. Body width: 13.0–20.0 mm. Color: From black to dark reddish brown ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A–D). Head: Clypeus subpentagonal, 1.6 times wider than long, transversely rugose or rugopunctate, slightly arched at middle, weakly setose on sides; apex bidentate, teeth conic, reflexed; apical half constricted laterally, basal half with subparallel sides. Frontoclypeal suture with 2 strong tubercles in major male, or a weak ridge in medium and minor males. Interocular width equals 2.0 transverse eye diameters, frontal surface rugose, with few setae confined on sides, posterior area between eyes usually smooth. Eye canthus triangular with dorsoventrally scattered setae. Mouthparts: Mandibles bidentate, teeth conic. Maxillae usually with 5 teeth on galea; 2 teeth at apex (1 strong, 1 weak), 1 medial tooth (strong), 2 basal teeth (weak). Mentum subtriangular, moderately convex, with setose punctures confined to sides, basal half subparallel laterally, sometimes with a triangular pit. Pronotum: Horned, anteriorly with a small, conical tubercle followed by a posterior, wide concavity. Horns variable in length; major male ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ) with 1 long horn on each side, directed forward, exceeding head length, apex bifurcated, with 2 upcurved prolongations, inner edge irregularly crenulate Medium male ( Fig. 2A View FIGURE 2 ) with horns not exceeding head length, internal edge not crenulated. Minor male with or without small tubercles ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C–D). Concavity broad, deep, usually U-shaped, occupying nearly 1/2 of pronotal area in major and medium males ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A–B), and 1/ 4 in minor males ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C–D). Pronotal surface inconspicuously punctate, with few scattered setae on anterior area. Scutellar shield: Subtriangular, smooth. Elytra: Surface nearly smooth, with fine punctures on disc, better observed under 90X magnification; lateral area below humerus with 3 or 4 incomplete rows of punctures observed under 25X magnification in major and median males, indistinct in minor males; striae usually barely marked. Legs: Protarsus thickened; tarsomere V wider than previous ones, slightly curved, with a ventro-basal tooth; inner claw enlarged, incised, parabolic on external edge; outer claw simple. Mesotibiae with 2 transverse carinae on external surface; external surface slightly concave between carinae, strongly concave just behind second carina; apex with outer spur obliquely truncated, inner spur acuminate; carinae and apex bordered by spinules. Metatibiae with spatulate inner spur. Abdomen: Ventrites I–II completelly setose, III–V with setose punctures confined to sides, VI bordered by setae on posterior margin, apex emarginated. Tergite VIII convex; surface with setae scattered laterally and anteriorly, sides rugopunctate, punctures usually absent on disc. Tergite VII with stridulatory apparatus situated on disc; stridulatory apparatus with barely marked, transverse carinae, only observed under high magnifications (90X) ( Fig. 7A View FIGURE 7 ). Aedeagus: Parameres in caudal view ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ), symmetric, basal half with outer sides constricted gradually toward to middle area, apical half expanded in shape of lateral “flaps”, lateral flaps with rounded outer margins, broader than basal half. Parameres in lateral view, apex downcurved ( Fig. 9A View FIGURE 9 ).

Female ( Fig. 1E View FIGURE 1 ). Body length: 22.5–32.0 mm. Body width: 12.0–18.0 mm. Differ from male in the following aspects: Pronotum: Simply convex, horns absent, concavity small, shallow, confined to anterior area near apex; surface almost completely punctate; anterior angles with dense, coalescent punctures, distinctly wider in size compared to punctures of concavity and disc; concavity moderately punctate; disc finely punctate ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 ). Legs: Inner proclaw similar to outer claw. Venter: Proventrite with 2 small furrows at lateroanterior angles ( Fig. 10E View FIGURE 10 ). Abdomen: Ventrite VI triangularly shaped, not emarginate at apex. Tergite VIII apically invaginated on posterior margin; invagination about 4.4 times wider than long, weakly emarginate ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 ).

Geographic distribution. Brazil: Pernambuco, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina ( Fig. 12A View FIGURE 12 ). Bothynus entellus   has the broadest distribution of species in the group although restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal rainforest. The records cited by Endrödi (1969, 1985) for B. entellus   from Honduras, Panama, Peru, and Pará state (northern Brazil) are erroneous. This mistake probably happened due to confusion with the females of B. complanus   or B. quadridens   , which are common species in the Central America and that have similarities with B. entellus   (smooth elytra). Moreover, these dubious records could be due to mislabeling.

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Dynastidae

Genus

Bothynus

Loc

Bothynus entellus ( LePeletier & Serville, 1828 )

Duarte, Paulo R. M. & Grossi, Paschoal C. 2020
2020
Loc

Strategus montesuma

Hope, F. W. 1837: 88
1837
Loc

Scarabaeus glaucon

Perty, M. 1830: 45
1830
Loc

Scarabaeus glycon

Perty, M. 1830: 214
1830
Loc

Scarabaeus entellus

LePeletier, A. L. M. & Serville, J. G. A. 1828: 347
1828