Pristomerus, Curtis, 1836

Rousse, Pascal & Noort, Simon van, 2015, Revision of the Afrotropical species of Pristomerus (Ichneumonidae: Cremastinae), with descriptions of 31 new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 124, pp. 1-129: 3-27

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.124

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8E33A9C0-0940-4EF8-8105-7B71D9282635

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E387CC-FFEB-AB7E-7E82-FBB7FA99EFE6

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Pristomerus
status

 

Key to females of Pristomerus  

1. Fore wing with abscissa of M between rs-m and 2m-cu short, less than 0.5× rs-m (A); female ocelli distinctly reduced (POL> 1.5) (B); ovipositor stout and evenly up-curved with apex down-curved (C); female femoral tooth absent (FFT = 0) (C); south-western South Africa.................................. 2

– Fore wing with abscissa of M between rs-m and 2m-cu longer, distinctly longer than 0.5× rs-m (a); female ocelli larger (POL <1.5) (b); ovipositor straight to slightly down-curved, usually more slender and apically unevenly sinuous (c); female femoral tooth present or absent (FFT various) (c) ............. 3

2. Face totally black, deeply and densely punctate, inter-puncture area smooth (A); area superomedia subquadrate (ASM <1) (B) ...................................................................................... P. protea   sp. nov. – Face mostly lighter, densely punctate-granulate (a); area superomedia longer than wide (ASM>1) (b) .......................................................................................................................................... P. restio   sp. nov. 3. Entire face black to dark brown, including orbits (A, B) .................................................................. 4

– At least facial orbits distinctly lighter, pale yellow to testaceous-orange; median face almost always similarly coloured though sometimes more or less infuscate (a, b) ................................................ 16

4. Frons with a strong mid-longitudinal flattened protuberance (A); femoral tooth nearly absent with minute following denticles (B); ovipositor short (OT <1.5)...................................... P. kuku   sp. nov.

– Frons without distinct mid-longitudinal protuberance (a); femoral tooth and ovipositor various, usually both longer (b)....................................................................................................................... 5

5. Female femoral tooth absent, femur without any distinct subapical protuberance ventrally (FFT = 0) (A, B); tropical rainforest of central mainland Africa ....................................................................... 6 – Female femoral tooth distinct, small to very strong (FFT> 0) (a, b) ................................................ 7 6. Female with tergites 3–6 bicoloured, black and yellowish-orange (A); propodeum polished with

punctures ( B) ............................................................................................................... P. tutsi   sp. nov.

– Female with tergites 3–6 entirely orange (a); propodeum rugose with punctures (b).........................

............................................................................................................................... P. yangere   sp. nov.

7. Scutellum smooth or nearly so, distinctly smoother than mesoscutum (A–C).................................. 8 – Scutellum distinctly punctate, punctation denser than on mesoscutum (a–c) ................................. 10

8. Small (fore wing length <3.5 mm); malar line very long ( ML > 1.2) ( A); ovipositor moderately long (OT> 1.5) ( B); South Africa................................................................................ P. khoikhoi   sp. nov.

– Larger (fore wing length> 3.5 mm); malar line short to very short ( ML <0.7) (a); ovipositor short (OT <1.5) (b); tropical rainforest of central mainland Africa........................................................... 9

9. Ovipositor very short (OT <1) and apically straight ( A); mesosoma rather stout, scutellum not unusually flat ( A) ..................................................................................................... P. mbaka   sp. nov.

– Ovipositor longer (OT> 1) and apically sinuous (a); mesosoma distinctly elongate with scutellum quite flat (b)................................................................................................................... P. teke   sp. nov.

10. Mesosoma partly to totally yellowish-orange ( A) to testaceous ( B); Southern Africa and Indian Ocean islands ....................................................................................................................................11 – Mesosoma entirely black (a, b); tropical mainland Africa .............................................................. 13

11. Speculum and pronotum entirely punctate ( A); ovipositor long (OT> 1.5) ( B); Réunion................. ..................................................................................................... P. rivier Rousse & Villemant, 2012  

– Pronotum centrally and ventral half of speculum smoother (a); ovipositor short (OT <1.5) (b) ....... ......................................................................................................................................................... 12 12. Female femoral tooth distinctly smaller than basally wide ( FFT = 1) ( A); malar line short ( ML <0.6) ( B); Madagascar............................................................ P. melissa Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

– Female femoral tooth longer than basally wide ( FFT = 2) (a); malar line long ( ML > 0.6) (b); Southern Africa.......................................................................................................... P. sotho   sp. nov. 13. Small (fore wing length <3.5 mm) ( A); mesoscutum coriaceous without punctures ( B)................... ...................................................................................................................................... P. aka   sp. nov. – Larger (fore wing length> 3.5 mm) (a); mesoscutum distinctly punctate (b)................................. 14

14. Speculum entirely punctate ( A); propodeum with area basalis strongly petiolate ( B); female femoral tooth much shorter than basally wide ( FFT = 1) ( C); antenna with less than 32 flagellomeres.......... ................................................................................................................................ P. mbama   sp. nov.

– Speculum distinctly smoother ventrally (a); propodeum with area basalis widely sessile (b); female femoral tooth much longer than basally wide ( FFT = 2) (c); antenna with more than 32 flagellomeres ............15

15. Notauli coarsely rugose and lateral lobes of mesoscutum apically nearly smooth ( A); ovipositor stout and apically straight ( B)................................................................................ P. nzakara   sp. nov.

– Notauli more finely sculptured and lateral lobes of mesoscutum apically more uniformly punctate (a); ovipositor slender and apically sinuous (b)...................................................... P. dikidiki   sp. nov. 16. Facial orbits, and most often entire face, whitish ( A, B); Madagascar and Southern Africa .......... 17 – Facial orbits, and most often entire face, yellow to testaceous orange (a, b) .................................. 22

17. Female femoral tooth present ( FFT > 0) ( A); metasoma mostly black with apical margins of most tergites white ( B); Madagascar and South Africa............................................................................ 18

– Female femoral tooth totally absent ( FFT = 0) (a); metasoma differently coloured, mostly orange with sometimes infuscate markings (b); Madagascar...................................................................... 19

18. Face entirely whitish, malar line moderately long ( ML > 0.5) ( A); hind femur uniformly orange, female femoral tooth nearly as long as basally wide ( FFT = 1–2) ( B); Madagascar.......................... ................................................................................... P. guinness Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

– Face medially testaceous, malar line short ( ML <0.5) (a); hind femur testaceous, apically pale, female femoral tooth distinctly longer than basally wide ( FFT = 2) (b); South Africa....................... ..................................................................................................................................... P. zulu   sp. nov.

19. Clypeus narrow (CT <1.7) ( A); ovipositor short (OT <1.5) ( B)........................................................ ...................................................................................... P. vahaza Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013   – Clypeus wider (CT> 1.7) (a); ovipositor longer (OT> 1.5) (b) ..................................................... 20

20. Ovipositor very long (OT> 2.5) ( A); pterostigma light testaceous, moderately enlarged ( B)............ .................................................................................... P. hansoni Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013   – Ovipositor shorter (OT <2.5) (a); pterostigma dark brown and strongly enlarged (b)................... 21

21. Fore wing with abscissa of M between rs-m and 2m-cu very long, far longer than rs-m ( A); ovipositor very long (OT> 2.0) ( B)...................................... P. ranomafana Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

– Fore wing with abscissa of M between rs-m and 2m-cu shorter, about as long as rs-m (a); ovipositor shorter, moderately long (OT <2.0) (b) .............................................................. P. caris Fitton, 1994  

22. Mesonotum usually entirely black ( A, B), sometimes mesoscutum partially lighter with scutellum totally black; female femoral tooth always distinct though sometimes reduced ( FFT > 0) ............ 23

– Mesonotum nearly always distinctly lighter, yellowish orange to partially testaceous (a, b); female femoral tooth variable; if, rarely, mesoscutum almost entirely dark testaceous (some P. moramora   ), then female femoral tooth absent ( FFT = 0).................................................................................... 24

23. Mesonotum densely punctate-granulate, punctures somewhat confluent along notaulus line ( A); femoral tooth weak ( B); tropical central Africa.......................................................... P. hutu   sp. nov. – Mesonotum coriaceous, without punctures (a); femoral tooth strong (b); Seychelles........................ ................................................................................................................. P. ruficaput ( Morley, 1912)   24. Malar line exceptionally long, longer than mandible base ( ML > 1) ( A, B); South Africa............. 25 – Malar line shorter, usually much shorter than mandible base ( ML <1) (a, b) ................................ 26

25. Femoral tooth reduced to a subapical point, followed by minute denticles ( A); mesosoma mottled black, orange and pale yellow ( B) ............................................................................ P. xhosa   sp. nov.

– Femoral tooth strong, followed by 5 strong denticles (a); mesosoma reddish-orange with black markings (b).............................................................................................................. P. kagga   sp. nov.

26. Ovipositor tip straight ( A); clypeus unusually narrow and long (CT = 1.5) with eyes slightly converging ventrally ( B); small (F ≤ 3.5); female femoral tooth present but often hardly distinct ( C); Madagascar, Eastern and Southern Africa............................................... P. albescens ( Morley, 1917)  

– Ovipositor most often at least slightly sinuous apically (a, b); if, rarely, ovipositor tip barely sinuous, then not fully agreeing with the above combination ....................................................................... 27

27. Female femoral tooth totally absent, not even distinct as a subapical protuberance, and never with following denticles ( FFT = 0) ( A, B)............................................................................................... 28

– Female femoral tooth weak to moderate, at least distinct as a subapical ventral protuberance (a) and distinctly shorter than basally wide, sometimes followed by secondary denticles ( FFT = 1) (b) ... 34

– Female femoral tooth strong, about as high as wide (aa) to strongly higher than basally wide (bb), always followed by secondary denticles ( FFT = 2) .................................................................................................42

28. Hind femur, and often other femora, with an obvious apical white patch ( A); anterior margin of pterostigma white ( B); tropical mainland Africa ............................................................................. 29

– Femora without distinct apical white patches, though often lighter apically (a); pterostigma uniformly dark (b); southern Africa and Madagascar....................................................................................... 30 29. Ovipositor short (OT <1.4) and apically nearly straight ( A); clypeus long (CT <2) ( B) .................. ................................................................................................................................... P. zande   sp. nov.

– Ovipositor moderately long (OT> 1.4), apically sinuous (a); clypeus shorter (CT> 2) (b)............... ..................................................................................................................................... P. sara   sp. nov. 30. Penultimate flagellomere distinctly wider than long (Fl n-1 ≤ 0.9) ( A); large (F> 5 mm); ovipositor very long (OT> 2.0) (b); Namibia............................................................. P. herero   sp. nov (in part)

– Penultimate flagellomere subquadrate to distinctly elongate (a); distinctly smaller (F <5 mm); ovipositor shorter (OT<2.0) (b) ...................................................................................................... 31

31. Malar line rather long ( ML > 0.5) ( A); pronotum almost entirely smooth with some punctures postero-dorsally ( B); ovipositor moderately short (OT <1.6); entire body without obvious dark markings except sometimes some infuscate markings around scutellum and on basal tergites; Southern Africa............................................................................................................. P. san   sp. nov.

– Malar line short ( ML <0.5) (a); pronotum more extensively punctate (b); ovipositor usually longer (OT> 1.5); colour various, often with large brown to black dorsal markings ................................ 32

32. Metasoma uniformly yellow to orange ( A); mesonotum almost smooth, only scutellum and apex of mesoscutum weakly punctate ( B); antenna with more than 30 flagellomeres; Madagascar.................................................................. P. kelikely Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

– Metasoma with at least basal tergites distinctly black maculated (a); entire mesonotum distinctly punctate (b); antenna with at most 30 flagellomeres ....................................................................... 33

33. Dark markings of body strongly extended: all metasomal tergites largely black maculated ( A), mesosoma with dark testaceous markings dorsally and laterally ( A, B); Madagascar........................ ................................................................................ P. moramora Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

– Body lighter, with only basal tergites partially dark (a); mesosoma uniformly pale (a, b), but sometimes with infuscate markings around scutellum; Southern Africa.................. P. venda   sp. nov.

34. Hind femur, and often other femora, with an obvious apical white patch ( A, B); tropical mainland Africa ............................................................................................................................................... 35 – Femora without distinct apical white patches, though often lighter apically (a, b)......................... 37 35. Scutellum smooth ( A)............................................................................................. P. mboum   sp. nov. – Scutellum distinctly punctate (a, b) ................................................................................................. 36

36. Ocelli enlarged, posterior ocelli close together ( POL <0.8) ( A); tergites 1–3 at least half black, and occiput black-maculated in female ( B); femoral tooth moderate ( C); widespread in tropical Africa ........................................................................................................................ P. masai   sp. nov.

– Ocelli not enlarged, posterior ocelli more widely separated ( POL > 0.8) (a); tergites 1–3 mostly yellow, at most basally blackened, and occiput not black-maculated (b); femoral tooth strongly reduced (c); Western Africa ....................................................................................... P. wolof   sp. nov.

37. Area superomedia not defined postero-laterally ( A, B); large wasps (F> 6 mm); ovipositor long (OT> 1.7) ........................................................................................................................................ 38

– Area superomedia most often fully delimited (a), though sometimes weakly so in P. keyka   (b) but then specimens very small (F <4.5 mm); otherwise small to moderately large wasps (F <5.5 mm); ovipositor variable ........................................................................................................................... 39

38. Female femoral tooth moderate in size ( A); antenna with more than 35 flagellomeres, penultimate flagellomere elongate ( B); Madagascar........................ P. patator Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

– Female femoral tooth reduced to a subapical protuberance followed by small denticles (a); antenna with fewer than 35 flagellomeres, penultimate flagellomere transverse (b); Namibia........................ .................................................................................................................... P. herero   sp. nov (in part)

39. Ovipositor long (OT> 1.7) ( A); notauli concolourous with remainder of mesoscutum ( B); Madagascar..........................................................................................................................................40 – Ovipositor shorter (OT <1.7) (a); notauli often distinctly lighter than remainder of mesoscutum (b)....41

40. Mesoscutum coriaceous with punctures along notauli lines ( A); small species (F <3.2) ( B); antenna with less than 28 flagellomeres ( B) ................................ P. keyka Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

– Mesoscutum distinctly punctate (a) (coriaceous in male); larger species (F> 3.2) (b); antenna with at least 28 flagellomeres (b)........................................... P. roberti Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

41. Clypeus strongly transverse (CT> 2.4) ( A); female femur unusually stout ( B); ovipositor short (OT ≤ 1.3) ( C); body without dark markings ( C); Eastern Africa.............................. P. bullis Fitton, 1994  

– Clypeus less transverse (CT <2.4) (a); female femur more slender (b); ovipositor longer (OT ≥ 1.3) (c); body most often with dark dorsal markings (c) .......................... P. pallidus Kriechbaumer, 1884  

42. Clypeus strongly transverse (CT> 2.4) ( A); inner margins of eyes distinctly diverging ventrally ( A); antenna with more than 34 flagellomeres ( B); Central Africa............................... P. babinga   sp. nov.

– Clypeus less transverse (CT <2.4) (a); inner margins of eyes at most slightly diverging ventrally (a); antenna various (b) ......................................................................................................................... 43 43. Mesoscutum, and often scutellum, densely punctate over entire surface ( A, B)............................. 44 – Mesoscutum largely to entirely coriaceous, scutellum often quite smooth (a, b) ........................... 46

44. Malar line moderately short ( ML <0.6) ( A); antenna with fewer than 32 flagellomeres ( B); size moderate (F <5.0) ( B); Western Africa.................................................................. P. yoccolo   sp. nov.

– Malar line moderately long ( ML > 0.6) (a); antenna with more than 32 flagellomeres (b); large (F> 5.0) (b); South Africa and Madagascar.................................................................................... 45 45. Area superomedia stouter ( ASM <1.8) and punctate ( A); metasoma black ( B); Madagascar........... ...................................................................................... P. veloma Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013   – Area superomedia elongate ( ASM > 2.0) and transversely rugulose (a); metasoma lighter (b); South Africa................................................................................................................... P. afrikaner   sp. nov.

46. Scutellum punctate ( A); antenna with less than 27 flagellomeres; mesosoma rufous, ventrally and posteriorly black ( B); tropical Africa....................................................................... P. bemba   sp. nov.

– Scutellum smooth (a); antenna with more than 27 flagellomeres; mesosoma usually uniformly yellow to orange (b), postero-dorsally black in P. swahili   (b, inset) ............................................... 47

47. Femora and trochanters without obvious apical white patches ( A); antenna with more than 31 flagellomeres ( B); Madagascar......................................... P. yago Rousse, Villemant & Seyrig, 2013  

– Femora and trochanters with obvious apical white patches (a); antenna with fewer than 31 flagellomeres (b); Eastern Africa ..................................................................................................... 48

48. (47) Clypeus weakly transverse (CT <1.8) ( A); flagellum uniformly dark brown ( B); propodeum dorsally black ( B) ................................................................................................... P. swahili   sp. nov.

– Clypeus more transverse (CT> 1.8) (a); flagellum brown, basally distinctly lighter and sometimes with a long whitish segment in apical half (b); propodeum uniformly yellowish-orange (b)............. ............................................................................................................................... P. yakoma   sp. nov.

B

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet

ML

Musee de Lectoure

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

C

University of Copenhagen

M

Botanische Staatssammlung München

ASM

Arts and Science University