Kondo, Takumasa & Cortés, Ronald Simbaqueba, 2014, Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive aphid on San Andres island and mainland Colombia, with notes on other adventive species, Insecta Mundi 2014 (362), pp. 1-10: 3-4

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( Hemiptera   : Aphididae   )

Diagnosis. According to Bodlah et al. (2013), the crape myrtle aphid can be diagnosed as follows: winged females are yellow or pale green in color ( Fig. 1A View Figure 1 ). Colonies are composed of nymphs and winged females. Alate females with dark longitudinal stripes on head, thorax and apex of leg segments ( Fig. 1A View Figure 1 ). Head and thorax devoid of spinal tubercles; antenna 6 segmented, each segment pigmented at its apex, antennal tubercles feebly developed ( Fig. 1A View Figure 1 ). Processus terminalis 1.5 or less than length of base of antenomere VI. Fore wings with black spots on veins ( Fig. 1A View Figure 1 ). Abdominal segment II with one large bifid medial tubercle, markedly pigmented ( Figure 1B View Figure 1 ). Abdominal lateral tubercles well developed ( Fig. 1B View Figure 1 ). Siphunculi short, dark, anal plate bilobed; cauda knobbed, with 8 or 9 hairs. Nymphs pale to bright yellow, with black spike- or hair-like projections on the abdomen, lacking black spots, but with two large black tubercles on dorsum of abdomen.

Sarucallis kahawaluokalani   belongs to the tribe Panaphidini   in the subfamily Calaphidinae ( Favret 2013)   . It is native to Southeast Asia, but was first described from specimens collected in Hawaii, by Kirkaldy ( Herbert and Mizell 2006). The crape myrtle aphid is the most important insect pest of crape myrtle Lagerstroemia spp.   in the United States and heavy infestations may cause cosmetic damage, although feeding appears to have no long-term effects on plant health or vigor ( Herbert and Mizell 2006). Sarucallis kahawaluokalani   also is commonly known in the scientific literature as Tinocallis kahawaluokalani ( Kirkaldy, 1907)   . Until recently, the genus Sarucallis Shinji, 1922   , was placed as a synonym of Tinocallis Matsumura, 1919   , by Remaudière and Remaudière (1997), but it was later revived as a separate genus by Quednau (2003). Some junior synonyms of S. kahawaluokalani   include: Monellia lagerstroemiae Takahashi, 1920   ; Sarucallis lythrae Shinji, 1920   ; and Tinocallis kahawaluokalani ( Kirkaldy, 1907) ( Yovkova and Petrovic-Obradovic 2011)   .

Sarucallis kahawaluokalani   is widely distributed and has been reported from Argentina, Brazil, China, Cuba, France, Germany, Greece, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Panama, Spain, United States, and Venezuela ( Blackman and Eastop 1994; Carrera and Cermeli 2003; Evans and Halbert 2007; Grillo 2008; Higuchi 1972; Leclant and Renoust 1986; Mier Durante et al. 1995; Peronti and Sousa-Silva 2002; Quiros and Emmen 2006; Szpeiner 2008; Tsitsipis et al. 2007). It is the most important insect pest on Lagerstroemia spp.   ( Herbert and Mizell 2006; Mizell and Schiffhauer 1987). Additionally, S. kahawaluokalani   is mostly monophagous, monoecious and holocyclic ( Lazzari and Zonta-de-Carvalho 2006), feeding mainly on Lagerstroemia indica   L., but occasionally found on Eugenia uniflora   L. ( Myrtaceae   ) ( Zemora 2009) and Punica granatum   L. ( Lythraceae   ) ( Mizell and Knox 1993). In the USA, S. kahawaluokalani   is monophagous, feeding exclusively on crape myrtle ( Herbert and Mizell 2006). All samples of S. kahawaluokalani   in Colombia were collected on leaves of L. indica   .

This is the first report of S. kahawaluokalani   from continental Colombia and from San Andres Island. San Andres is the main island of the Archipelago of San Andres, Old Providence and Santa Catalina, a southwestern Caribbean State of Colombia, composed of an extensive area of islands, banks and cays in the western Caribbean, located about 700 km northwest of mainland Colombia, and 250 km east of Nicaragua ( Geister and Diaz 1997, Hartnoll et al. 2006).