Curtonotum litoralis Kirk-Spriggs
Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H. & Wiegmann, Brian M., 2013, <p> <strong> A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part IV — the continental Afrotropical species of <em> Curtonotum </ em> Macquart, with descriptions of thirteen new species and a combined phylogenetic analysis of the Curtonotidae </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3684 (1), pp. 1-166: 117-119
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|Curtonotum litoralis Kirk-Spriggs|
Curtonotum litoralis Kirk-Spriggs , sp. n.
Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Duda, 1935: 31 , Type VI of Tsacas (1977: 153).
Description: Male (primarily based on field-pinned HT).
As described for C. uncinatum (above), differing in the following respects:
Measurements: Overall length unknown (a ♀ measures 4.3 mm; n = 1, PT); length of head and thorax combined 2.1–2.7 mm; length of thorax and scutellum combined 1.9–2.6 mm (n = 4, HT, PT); wing length 2.8–4.1 mm (n = 5, HT, PT).
Head ( Figs 126 View FIGURES 124–129 , 150 View FIGURES 142–153 ). Eye height/length ratio: 11:7 (n = 1, PT); frons ( Fig. 150 View FIGURES 142–153 ) very slightly wider than long, frons length/width ratio: 6:7 (n = 1, HT); arista with 10–11 long dorsal branches and 4 ventral branches; 10 fine setae bordering genal groove; eye height/genal height ratio: 11:1 (n = 1, PT).
Thorax ( Fig. 126 View FIGURES 124–129 ). Postpronotum with 10 fine setulae; anepisternum surface with 18 fine setulae, 3 arranged in a group in posterior corner; katepisternum with 13 short, fine setulae.
Legs. Fore coxa with 14 brown setulae; fore tibia with ctenidium of 12–14 short, sharp, black spinules.
Wing ( Fig. 186 View FIGURES 182–190 ). Dm–cu crossvein moderately angled posteriorly with slight medial angle.
Abdomen. Sternite 6 as in Fig. 305 View FIGURES 295–305 .
Terminalia ( Figs 278, 281, 284 View FIGURES 277–285 ). Hypandrium ( Fig. 278 View FIGURES 277–285 , hy); postgonite (pg); epandrium (ep); cercus (ce); surstylus (ss); phallus (as in Figs 281 View FIGURES 277–285 , ph, bp, dp; 284, bp, dp); phallapodeme ( Fig. 281 View FIGURES 277–285 , ph); ejaculatory apodeme (ea); basiphallus ( Figs 281, 284 View FIGURES 277–285 , bp) wide basally, expanded into narrow lateral expansion apically, extreme apex of dorsal edge developed into hook or extension; distiphallus (dp) long, scimitar-like (viewed laterally), membranous area broad, with basal “spine” dorsally directed, moderately strong with acute apex, more apical dorsal spine of distiphallus broad basally with straight edges, with additional much smaller spine towards apex (not visible of Fig. 284 View FIGURES 277–285 ).
♀ Similar to ♂, except in the following respects: wing length 3.3–4.2 mm (n = 3, PT). Postabdomen as illustrated in Figs 314, 315 View FIGURES 306–321 .
Variation. The apical hook on the basiphallus is not distinctly hooked in some specimens, but forms a long process. In most specimens examined there is an additional distinct more apical spine on the left edge of the distiphallus (not visible in Figs 281, 284 View FIGURES 277–285 ). This may be reduced in some specimens, but is always apparent with careful examination. Other characters are consistent and this is here regarded as intraspecific variation only.
Differential diagnosis. Curtonotum litoralis sp. n. belongs to a group of ten species here ascribed to the uncinatum species-group, nine of which are virtually identical externally and are only separable based on minor differences in the male phallus (see Differential diagnosis under C. uncinatum sp. n. for details). Curtonotum litoralis sp. n. can be separated from other species in the species-group by reference to the above key.
Type material examined. KENYA: holotype ♂, “ Kenya : COAST PROVINCE / Muhaka Field Station / 04°19.76'S 39°31.55'E / 20.xi.1999, 45 m / A. H. Kirk-Spriggs / sweeping // Namibian National / Insect Collection / National Museum / P.O. Box 1203 / Windhoek, Namibia [printed; blue card] // HOLOTYPE ♂ / Curtonotum / litoralis sp. n. / A.H. Kirk-Spriggs 2011 [printed; red card]” ( NMNW) GoogleMaps . In excellent condition; dissected, abdomen and terminalia in micro-vial pinned beneath specimen. Paratypes (all labelled: “ PARATYPE / Curtonotum ♂ [or ♀] / litoralis sp. n. / A.H. Kirk-Spriggs 2011 [printed; blue card]”) : KENYA: 1♂, “ Kenya , Tiwi Beaches / 04°14'S, 39°36'E / 14–23.viii.1975 / B. Petersen leg.” ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps . [ TANZANIA]: 4♂, 3♀, “ZANZIBAR. / 1-11.1925 / H.J. Snell // Pres. by / Imp.Inst.Ent. / Brit.Mus. / 1932-335 // CURTONOTUM / cuthbertsoni / Duda / L. TSACAS DET. 1975 [printed & handwritten] // [1♂ labelled] “ Curtonotum / nigripalpis / 5♂ 4♀ Hendel / det. J.C. Deeming 1964 [printed & handwritten]”; 1♂ same except: “ ♂ 3♀ ” [2♂ head missing] (3♂, 3♀ BMNH; 1♂ MNHN) .
Distribution. Kenya and Tanzania ( Zanzibar) ( Fig. 331 View FIGURE 331 ). As is the case with its congener, C. mcgregor sp. n., this species is primarily coastal, apparently confined to low elevation coastal forests and mangroves.
Bionomics. Occurring in the Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Coastal Forest and Mangroves major habitat types; in Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests and Mangroves vegetation types (Appendix III). Swept from grasses beneath trees in Kenya (pers. obs.) .
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