Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935

Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H. & Wiegmann, Brian M., 2013, <p> <strong> A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part IV — the continental Afrotropical species of <em> Curtonotum </ em> Macquart, with descriptions of thirteen new species and a combined phylogenetic analysis of the Curtonotidae </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3684 (1), pp. 1-166 : 114-117

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Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935


Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935 View in CoL

Figs 125 View FIGURES 124–129 , 149 View FIGURES 142–153 , 185 View FIGURES 182–190 , 277, 280, 283 View FIGURES 277–285 , 330 View FIGURE 330 , 333 View FIGURES 332–335 .

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Duda, 1935: 31 View in CoL ; fig. 2, p. 28. Type locality: [ Zimbabwe] “S. Rhodesia: Balla Balla ”.

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Cuthbertson (1936: 54) View in CoL .

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Greathead (1958 View in CoL , figs 1–6), auctt. misidentification.

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Stower et al. (1958: 29) View in CoL , auctt. misidentification.

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Duda, 1935: 31 View in CoL , Type I of Tsacas (1977: 152).

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Wirth and Tsacas (1980: 672) View in CoL .

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Meier et al. (1997: 10) View in CoL .

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Pollock (2002: 1736) View in CoL .

Redescription: Male (primarily based on field-pinned N-T).

As described for C. uncinatum (above), differing in the following respects:

Measurements: Overall length unknown; 5.5 mm ( Tsacas 1977: 154); length of head and thorax combined 1.9– 2.6 mm; length of thorax and scutellum combined 1.9–2.7 mm; wing length 3.0– 4.3 mm (n = 5, N-T).

Head ( Figs 125 View FIGURES 124–129 , 149 View FIGURES 142–153 ). Eye height/length ratio: 9:6 (n = 1, N-T); frons ( Fig. 149 View FIGURES 142–153 ) slightly wider than long, frons length/width ratio: 6:8 (n = 1, N-T); arista with 10–12 long dorsal branches and 3 or 4 ventral branches; 9 fine setae bordering genal groove; gena narrow, eye height/genal height ratio: 9:1 (n = 1, N-T).

Thorax ( Fig. 125 View FIGURES 124–129 ). Postpronotum with 8 fine setulae; anepisternum surface with 18 fine setulae; katepisternum with 15 short, fine setulae.

Legs. Fore coxa with 20 brown setulae; fore tibia with ctenidium of 14–15 short, sharp, black spinules.

Wing ( Fig. 185 View FIGURES 182–190 ). Very broad; dm–cu crossvein with submedial angle.

Abdomen. Sternite 6 as in Fig. 305 View FIGURES 295–305 .

Terminalia ( Figs 277, 280, 283 View FIGURES 277–285 ). Hypandrium ( Fig. 277 View FIGURES 277–285 , hy); postgonite (pg); epandrium (ep); cercus (ce); surstylus (ss); phallus (as in Figs 280 View FIGURES 277–285 , ph, bp, dp; 283, bp, dp); phallapodeme ( Fig. 280 View FIGURES 277–285 , ph); ejaculatory apodeme (ea); basiphallus ( Figs 280, 283 View FIGURES 277–285 , bp) wide basally, slightly expanded medially, with narrow lateral expansion apically; distiphallus (dp) long, scimitar-like (viewed laterally), membranous area broad, with basal “spine” forming a medium-sized, upright, slightly curved and posteriorly-directed spine, more apical spine broad basally, with sides straight and apex acute.

♀ Similar to ♂, except in the following respects: wing length 4.5 mm ( Tsacas 1977: 163). The obclavate spermatheca was illustrated by Tsacas (1977: 152, fig. 3e), but given intraspecific variation this has little value in differentiating the “species”. As the specimens illustrated and measured were not specified by Tsacas it is impossible to ascribe these to any of the 8 species C. cuthbertsoni (sensu Tsacas) is here divided into.

Variation. No significant variation is noted.

Differential diagnosis. Curtonotum cuthbertsoni belongs to a group of ten species here ascribed to the uncinatum species-group, nine of which are virtually identical externally and are only separable based on minor differences in the male phallus (see Differential diagnosis under C. uncinatum sp. n. for details). Curtonotum cuthbertsoni can be separated from other species in the species-group by reference to the above key.

Type material examined. [ ZIMBABWE]: lectotype ♂ (here designated), “ Balla-Balla / S. Rhodesia, / Jan. 1933 / A. Cuthbertson [printed & handwritten; black border] // 3475 [handwritten; red ink] // Top front specimen / LECTOTYPE ♂ / Curtonotum / cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935 / designated by / A. H. Kirk-Spriggs 2008 [printed; blue card]” ( PPRZ). In fair condition; re-staged on nu-poly mount; dissected, abdomen and terminalia in micro-vial pinned beneath specimen . Paralectotypes (here designated) (all labelled: “ PARALECTOTYPE / Curtonotum ♂ [or ♀] / cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935 / designated by / A. H. Kirk-Spriggs 2008”): [ ZIMBABWE]: 1♂, 4♀, same data as lectotype and pinned to same mount ( PPRZ); 1♀, “ Balla-Balla , / S. Rhodesia, / Jan. 1933 / A. Cuthbertson [printed & handwritten; black border] // Curtonotum / cuthbertsoni / Duda ♀ d. Duda [handwritten] // Pres. by / Imp. Inst. Ent. / B.M.1934–557” ( BMNH); 1♀, “Balla-Balla, / S. Rhodesia, / Jan. 1933 / A. Cuthbertson [printed & handwritten; black border] // Curtonotum / cuthbertsoni / Duda / oben ♀ / unten ♂ / det Duda [handwritten] // Pres. by / Imp. Inst. Ent. / B.M.1934–557 // Zool. Mus. / Berlin” ( ZMHB) .

Remarks. Duda (1935: 31) cites 4♂ and 4♀ in the type series of Curtonotum cuthbertsoni from: “S. Rhodesia: Balla-Balla, Jan. 1933 (A. Cuthbertson), 3495”, stating in the introduction to that work that the studied specimens were obtained from Sir Guy A.K. Marshall of the Imperial Institute of Entomology, London. Cuthbertson (1936: 54) provides additional information on the types stating, “The type specimen was collected at the mouth of a warthog burrow in January 1933, in Glass Block Ranch near Balla Balla. Type in the British Museum.”

There are currently three specimens housed in the BMNH labelled “Balla-Balla”, by A. Cuthbertson; 1♀ syntype date “ Jan. 1933 ” and 1♂, 1♀ date “ V.1933 ”. Although these last two mentioned specimens bear Duda’s determination labels, they are not syntypes, as the date differs from that cited in the original publication. Despite this, Tsacas (1977: 154) erroneously designated the ♂ specimen as lectotype (although the specimen does not bear his lectotype label), stating “Malloch did not designate a type, so I designated as lectotype the dissected male. The labels bearing “type” that are found on a ♂ and a ♀ have been added afterwards and do not have any value as type designation. The ♂ lectotype bears the following labels: 1, ‘type’; 2, Balla-Balla, S. RHODESIA, V.1931, A. Cuthbertson; 3, ‘3495’; 4, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni ; 5, Pres. by Imp. Inst. Ent. B.M. 1934–557. Paratypes: 1♀ with the same indications, 1♀, same locality, but ‘av. 1933’. I could not study the other 3♂ and 2♀♀ indicated by Duda in the original description. British Museum (N.H.), London ” (translation M. De Meyer) .

Tsacas was incorrect in referring to these specimens as “ paratypes ” as these were not designated as such by Duda himself and also wrongly tallied the number of syntypes cited by Duda. Tsacas’ reference to Malloch (presumably Malloch (1930); the only Malloch paper to which he refers), is confusing, as Malloch makes no mention of C. cuthbertsoni .

An additional ♀ syntype dated “ Jan. 1933 ” originating from the BMNH and now housed in Oswald Duda’s collection in ZMHB was also located and examined. This specimen bears Duda’s determination label and exactly the same data labels as the ♀ syntype in the BMNH and the specimens deposited in PPRZ cited below .

Six additional specimens (2♂, 4♀), from “Balla Balla, Jan. 1933 ” on the same double mount, not previously examined by Tsacas, were located and examined in PPRZ (where Alexander Cuthbertson’s collection is now deposited). The Accession Register of the PPRZ collection (Numbers 1–5849), lists the same specimens under the accession entry for “3495 A ” (M. Cumming, pers. comm. 2006). Although these specimens do not bear Duda’s determination label they are, nevertheless, syntypes and are suitable for the selection of a lectotype. These syntypes are a mixed series of two species and only the two males can be identified with certainty. These true syntypes combined (1♀, BMNH; 1♀, ZMHB; and 2♂, 4♀, PPRZ) make up the full compliment of “types” cited by Duda (1935: 31), although the sexes do not exactly correspond. Duda has, however, made other errors in sexing specimens of this group (e. g., Parapsinota sublineata Duda ). The lectotype is here selected as the top front ♂ specimen (dissected) pinned with the same micro-pin as 1♀ and 1♂ (dissected), the last mentioned representing C. unicuspis sp. n. Three additional females on a separate minutien are pinned to the same double mount and these females cannot be determined with certainty. Three additional specimens in PPRZ (1♀, 2 unsexed as abdomens missing) bear the labels “Balla Balla, V. 1931, 3495” and are not syntypic .

Additional material examined (all labelled: “ Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935 ♂ [♀ or unsexed] det. A.H. Kirk-Spriggs 2008”): BOTSWANA: 1♂, Botswana: Tlokweng, 13.iii.1990, J. Mashonja, NMW.Z.1990–020; 1♂, same except: Malaise trap, 6–13.iii.1990, J.M. Mashonja; 1♂, same except: Malaise trap in sorghum field, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda ♂ det. J.C. Deeming 1990 (all NMWC). [ KENYA]: 1♂, Muséum Paris, Afrique Orient. Anglaise, entre la riviere Tana et cours sept. du Guasa Nyero (1200 a 2000 m. Janvier 1910) G. Vasses 1911, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda L. Tsacas det. 1975 [head missing] (MNHN); 1♂, Kenya: Coast Province, Muhaka Field Station, 04°19.76'S, 39°31.55'E, 20.xi.1999, 45 m, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs, sweeping [head missing] (NMNW). [ MOZAMBIQUE]: 1♂, Luabo, Lower Zambezi River, Port. East Africa, P.J. Usher, ix. 1957, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, L. Tsacas det. 1976 [head missing] (NMSA). NAMIBIA: 2♂, NAMIBIA: Katima Mulilo Dist., Ndopu village, 1km SE Bukalo, -17.7166667, 24.5166667, 20.iv.2006, A.H. Kirk-Spriggs, From single burrow, Resting in burrow of Ardvaark ( Orycteropus afer (Orcycteropidae)) (AMGS). SOUTH AFRICA: 3♂, Ndumu Reserve, Ingwavuma District, Tongaland, S. Africa, B. & P. Stuckenberg, 1–10.xii.1963, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, L. Tsacas det. 1976 [1 head missing]; 1♂, South Africa: Natal, Ndumu Game Reserve Rest Camp, 2632Cd, 95m, 23–9.xi.1977, Malaise, [D.] Brothers & J. Guillarmod; 1♂, Oribi Gorge Reserve, Umzimkulwana Valley, Natal, South Africa, B. & P. Stuckenberg, 21–28.xi.1960, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, L. Tsacas det. 1976; 1♂, 6561, South Africa: Natal, 20 km W. Tugela Ferry, 26–27.ii.1977, 2830CA, Raymond M. Miller, Malaise trap, Registered specimen, S.F. McEvey; 1♂, S. Africa: Natal #6, Kube Yini Game Res., 27°48'S, 32°14'E, 360 m, Date: 10–14.i.1994, Natal Musm Expedition; 3♂, S. Africa: N. Province #64, Blouberg Nature Reserve, 23°02'S: 29°04'E, 900 ft, Date: 22.xi.1997, Coll. [D.A.] Barraclough & [S.] James, on trunk of Baobab tree; 1♂, South Africa: Natal, New Germany, 13.iii.1984, D.J. Brothers; 5♂, “ SOUTH AFRICA. Transvaal, Kruger Park 9- XII-1972, Sabie River 4 km E Skukuza, Ficus gallery forest / B & P Stuckenberg 2431Dc, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, L. Tsacas det. 1975 [4 head missing] (all NMSA); 1♂, M’fongosi, Zululand, W.E. Jones, Apr– May 1934; 1♂, same except: Mar–Apr 1935 (both SANC); 2♂, South Africa, Trsvl., Mooketsi, 14-18-Feb.1968, Krombein & [P.J.] Spangler, [1 labelled] Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, L. Tsacas det. 1975 (USNM); 1♂, South Africa: Hartbeespoort, 25km W. Pretoria, 30.xii.1994, A Freidberg (TAU); 3♂, SOUTH AFRICA, Tvl., D’Nyala Nat Res Ellis, ras 23.45'S, 27.49'E, 850 m, 24–26.ix.1990, M.W. Mansell, Handnetted during day (all PPRI). [ TANZANIA]: 1♂, Africa or., Katona, Shirati, 1909.ii. (HNHM). UGANDA: 1♂, May, 1914, Uganda, Unyoro, Hoima, 3700 feet., Coll. Kittenberger, dd.’19, C.A. Wiggins (OUMNH); 5♂, Uganda, Ankole, Kichwamba, V-1-5- 1968, P.J. Spangler, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, L. Tsacas det. 1975 (3♂ USNM; 1♂ MNHN); 1♂, Kyarumba, 4,500ft., D.R. Buxton, Uganda, Ruwenzori Range, xii.1934 – i.1935, B.M. E. Afr. Exp., B.M. 1935–203 (BMNH); 2♂, Uganda, Katona, Mujenje [= Muyenje], 1913.IX; 2♂, same except: 1913.VIII (both HNHM). [ ZIMBABWE]: 1♂ (formerly erroneously designated as lectotype by Tsacas (1977: 157)), Type, Balla-Balla, S. Rhodesia, V.1931, A. Cuthbertson, 3495, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni, Pres. by Imp. Inst. Ent., B.M.1934–557, Designated as lectotype by Tsacas 1977: 157, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935 ; 1♀, Type, Balla-Balla, S. Rhodesia, v.1931, A. Cuthbertson, 3495, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda ♂ ♀, Typus det Duda ♀ gesichtet, Pres. by Imp. Inst. Ent., B.M.1934–557 (both BMNH); 1♀, 2 unsexed, Balla-Balla, S. Rhodesia, V.1931, A. Cuthbertson, 3495, Curtonotum ? cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935 ♀ + 2 unsexed det. A.H. Kirk-Spriggs 2008 [2 with abdomens missing] (all PPRZ); 1♂, Rhodesia, Victoria Falls Nat’l Park, IV-3-6-1968, Paul Spangler, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, L. Tsacas det. 1975, Muséum Paris (MNHN); 1♂, Trelawney, 20.i.[19]54, M.I. Myers, Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, L. Tsacas det. 1976 (NMSA); 1♂, Salisbury [= Harare], Mashonaland, G.A.K. Marshall (CUMZ); 1♂, Zimbabwe, Kotwa, 17°06'S, 32°38'E, Chimana Causway, 15.viii.1986; M. Lllig/S. Potel; same except: 1♂, 18.viii.1986; 1♂, 19.viii.1986; 2♂, 20.viii.1986; 1♂, 26.viii.1986; 1♂, 31.viii.1986 (all ZSM).

Distribution. Botswana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe ( Figs 330 View FIGURE 330 , 333 View FIGURES 332–335 ). With an apparently disjunctive distribution in East and south-eastern Africa in mesic savanna country; absent from the arid south-west arid region ( Fig. 333 View FIGURES 332–335 ).

Bionomics. Occurring in 16 major habitat types; predominantly in Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands and Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests, plus two other vegetation types (Appendix III). In Malaise traps in Ficus gallery forest in South Africa, swept from grasses beneath trees in Kenya (pers. obs.), and on the trunk of a Baobab (in company with C. bicuspis sp. n. and C. unicuspis sp. n.) in South Africa. Resting in the burrows of Aardvark (in same burrow as C. bicuspis sp. n. and C. unicuspis sp. n.) in northeastern Namibia.


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Curtonotum cuthbertsoni Duda, 1935

Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H. & Wiegmann, Brian M. 2013

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni:

Pollock, J. N. 2002: )

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni:

Meier, R. & Kotrba, M. & Barber, K. 1997: )

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni:

Wirth, W. W. & Tsacas, L. 1980: )

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni:

Stower, W. J. & Popov, G. B. & Greathead, D. J. 1958: )

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni:

Cuthbertson, A. 1936: )

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Duda, 1935: 31

Duda, O. 1935: 31

Curtonotum cuthbertsoni: Duda, 1935: 31

Tsacas, L. 1977: 152
Duda, O. 1935: 31
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