Probolodus Eigenmann, 1911

Santos, Osmar & Castro, Ricardo M. C., 2014, Taxonomy of Probolodus Eigenmann, 1911 (Characiformes: Characidae) with description of two new species, and comments about the phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the genus, Neotropical Ichthyology 12 (2), pp. 403-418 : 405

publication ID 10.1590/1982-0224-20130232


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Probolodus Eigenmann, 1911


Probolodus Eigenmann, 1911 View in CoL View at ENA

Type species. Probolodus heterostomus Eigenmann, 1911 View in CoL

Diagnosis. The genus Probolodus can be diagnosed among the Characidae (sensu Oliveira et al., 2011) by the following exclusive characteristics: only one row of premaxillary, maxillary and dentary teeth ( Fig. 1 View Fig a-c); premaxillary teeth tricuspidate with crown curved outward ( Fig. 1a View Fig ); two cusps of equal size in the maxillary teeth ( Fig. 1b View Fig ); tricuspidate dentary teeth of approximately equal size, followed posteriorly by one or more smaller cuspidated teeth ( Fig. 1c View Fig ), and anterodorsal margin of the maxillary bone overlapping the expanded margin of first infraorbital.

Description. Overall size small (largest examined specimen 110 mm SL). Body slightly compressed, relatively high, and short or long depending on the species. Greatest body depth in front of insertion of dorsal fin. Small head obtusely rounded anteriorly in lateral view. Eye diameter greater than length of snout. Mouth terminal. Only one teeth row on premaxillary, maxillary and dentary; three or four teeth on premaxilla with three cusps each and with crown curved outward; two to seven teeth on maxilla with two cusps of similar size, first two or three directed outward; four or five anterior tricuspid teeth of dentary larger than remaining cusp being directed out of the mouth. Median cusps of all teeth more developed than lateral cusps. Body covered with cycloid scales from small to large size, and firmly implanted. Lateral line completely pored from supracleithrum to base of caudal-fin. Dorsal-fin consists of two unbranched rays followed by nine branched rays; dorsal-fin origin situated approximately at middle of SL. Pectoral-fin rays with i+10-13+i and pelvic-fin rays with i+6- 8+i. Anal-fin formed by up to five unbranched rays followed by 22-31 branched rays. Adipose-fin well-developed in all examined specimens. Caudal fin forked, with distal margins of lobes obtusely pointed, with i+17+i rays. Small scales covering the upper and lower lobes of caudal fin. Hooks present on pelvic and anal fin of sexually mature males.

Distribution. The species of Probolodus occur in a series of tributaries of the coastal basins of southeastern Brazil, from Espírito Santo to São Paulo states ( Fig. 2 View Fig ).

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