Orthocephalus, FIEBER, 1858

Tatarnic, Nikolai J. & Cassis, Gerasimos, 2012, The Halticini of the world (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae): generic reclassification, phylogeny, and host plant associations, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 164 (3), pp. 558-658 : 623-626

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00770.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E8878D-FFAC-FFA6-5ED9-FBFBB6D4FC58

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Orthocephalus
status

 

ORTHOCEPHALUS FIEBER   ( FIGS 4 View Figure 4 , 45–46 View Figure 45 View Figure 46 )

Orthocephalus Fieber, 1858: 316   (gen. nov.; type species: Lygaeus brevis Panzer, 1798   by subsequent designation Reuter, 1888: 76); Fieber, 1858: 316 (gen. nov., key); Fieber, 1860b: 291, 1861 (key, descr.); Douglas & Scott, 1865: 429 (descr.); Thompson, 1871: 432 (key); Reuter, 1875b: 24 (key); Reuter, 1875a 1:86; 2:93 (key, descr.); Saunders, 1875: 289 (key); Provancher, 1887: 136 (descr.); Reuter, 1891: 43, 158 (key, descr.); Saunders, 1892: 269 (key, descr.); Hueber, 1906: 3, 15 (key, descr.); Kirkaldy, 1906: 131 (cat.); Oshanin, 1910: 791 (cat.); Reuter, 1910: 148 (cat.); Van Duzee, 1914: 389 (cat.); Knight, 1923: 498 (key); Blatchley, 1926: 804 (descr.); Stichel, 1933: 235 (key); Hedicke, 1935: 59 (key); Knight, 1941: 75, 81 (key); Hsiao, 1942: 253 (key); China, 1943: 267 (cat.); Slater, 1950: 46 (female genitalia); Kiritshenko, 1951: 127 (key); Wagner, 1952: 96, 103 (key, descr.); Carvalho & Leston, 1952: 245 (key, fig.); Carvalho, 1952: 74 (cat.); Carvalho, 1955: 67 (key); Carvalho, 1958: 22 (cat.); Southwood & Leston, 1959: 247 (key); Wagner, 1961: 50 (diag., key); Kerzhner, 1964a: 966 (diag., key); Wagner & Weber, 1964: 267 (descr., key); Wagner, 1973: 41 (descr., key); Schuh, 1995: 63 (world cat.); Namyatova & Konstantinov, 2009 (generic revision, phylogeny).

Anapomella Putshkov, 1961: 25   (syn. by Namyatova & Konstantinov, 2009)

Oraniella Reuter, 1894: 138   (syn. by Namyatova & Konstantinov, 2009)

Diagnosis: Orthocephalus   can be recognized by the following combination of characters: head transverse with frons flat to moderately convex; eyes sessile; AI short with two or three mesial spine-like setae, dorsum impunctate, usually covered with robust, bristle-like setae, apical portion of ductus seminis bowl-shaped, strongly dilated and sclerotized, apically funnel-shaped and dorsoventrally compressed, with distinct scale-like sculpturing.

Redescription: Coloration ( Fig. 4 View Figure 4 ): body dark brown to black, sometimes with yellow to reddish-brown colouring, particularly on legs; hemelytra of brachypterous morphs sometimes pale tan and brown. Surface and vestiture ( Figs 4 View Figure 4 , 45A–H View Figure 45 ): dorsum impunctate, pronotum, scutellum, and hemelytron sometimes rugulose; body clothed with long, black, bristle-like semi-erect setae; AI with two or three spines; femora sometimes with a few spines, tibiae strongly spinose; some species also densely clothed in white, scale-like setae. Structure : degree of wing polymorphism varies across species, both sexes macropterous or brachypterous. Head ( Figs 4 View Figure 4 , 45A–C View Figure 45 ): transverse, slightly broader than anterior of pronotum, always narrower than posterior of pronotum in macropterous males; posterior margin of vertex rounded to weakly carinate; frons flat to moderately convex, steeply declivent; gena height slightly greater than eye height; eyes round, substylate. Labium ( Fig. 45C View Figure 45 ): variable, reaching from before procoxae to slightly beyond metacoxae; LI short and swollen. Antennae ( Figs 4 View Figure 4 , 45A–C View Figure 45 ): insertion close to and in line with lower margin of eye; thin and cylindrical, shorter than body length; AI sometimes somewhat swollen, short, sometimes slightly longer than eye height; AII sometimes apically clavate; AIII and AIV thin. Thorax ( Figs 4 View Figure 4 , 45A–D View Figure 45 ): pronotum trapezoidal, in macropterous morphs declivent with thin collar, in brachypterous morphs sometimes more rectangular and flat without collar; callosite region present but sometimes ill-defined, lateral margins rounded in brachypterous morphs, posterior margin straight to weakly concave; mesoscutum sometimes concealed by pronotum in brachypterous morphs; scutellum flat to somewhat swollen; metathoracic spiracle conspicuous and exposed, often large, narrowly surrounded with evaporative bodies that extend up to dorsolateral margin of metathorax; MTG efferent system swollen and triangular, extending as high as base of mesocoxae, ostiole vertical, opens laterally, peritreme oval, extending posterodorsally from ostiole. Hemelytra ( Fig. 4 View Figure 4 ): macropterous – long and parallel-sided, all divisions present, cuneus long and narrow, membrane with two cells; brachypterous – membrane absent, all remaining divisions faint but present, cuneal fracture very short, posterior margin rounded. Legs ( Figs 4 View Figure 4 , 45E View Figure 45 ): metafemora moderately swollen; pretarsi without fleshy pulvilli. Male genitalia ( Figs 45G, H View Figure 45 , 46A–D View Figure 46 ): pygophore conical, posterior margin weakly asymmetrical, sometimes with thin apical serrate flange (e.g. Orthocephalus modarresi   ); parameres of roughly equal length; left paramere L-shaped, sometimes with pronounced sensory lobe, apex of apophysis hooked, sometimes bifid; right paramere with spoon-like apex deflected laterally, with small apical apophysis; ductus seminis attenuate, with flexible ribbing, secondary gonopore moderately sclerotized, basally constricted to form dorsoventral bowl shape, apex dorsoventrally compressed and laterally expanded, with scale-like sculpturing primarily on ventral wall, dorsal wall longer than ventral wall; endosoma usually with two or three spinose spicules, rarely with none. Female genitalia ( Fig. 46E, F View Figure 46 ): sclerotized rings widely separated, subtriangular, lateral and medial margins of DLP adjacent to sclerotized rings weakly sclerotized and upturned; VLP divided into anterior band attached to rami and medial plate, both portions weakly sclerotized; posterior wall of bursa copulatrix a simple, undivided, weakly sclerotized plate; vestibulum symmetrical, margins weakly sclerotized and unmodified   .

Diversity and distribution: Orthocephalus   includes 23 species and has a Holarctic distribution. One species, Orthocephalus coriaceus   , is found both in Europe and eastern North America, whereas all other species are restricted to the Palaearctic region.

Included species: Orthocephalus arnoldii ( Putshkov, 1961)   * Kazakhstan; Ukraine

Orthocephalus bivittatus Fieber, 1864   Turkey; Turkestan, East Asia (USSR)

Orthocephalus brevis ( Panzer, 1798)   * Palaearctic

Orthocephalus championi Saunders, 1894   Corsica

Orthocephalus coriaceus ( Fabricius, 1777)   * Europe; North America

Orthocephalus fulvipes Reuter, 1904   * Mediterranean; Asia Minor

Orthocephalus funestus Jakovlev, 1881 China   ; Siberia; north-east Asia; Vladivostok

Orthocephalus medvedevi Kiritshenko, 1951   Ukraine

Orthocephalus melas Seidenstücker, 1962   Turkey

Orthocephalus minimus Drapolyuk & Kerzhner, 2000   Kazakhstan

Orthocephalus modarresi Linnavuori, 1997   Iran

Orthocephalus proserpinae ( Mulsant & Rey, 1852)   Mediterranean

Orthocephalus putshkovi (Namyatova & Konstantinov)   Ukraine; Kazakhstan

Orthocephalus rhyparopus Fieber, 1864   south Russia

Orthocephalus saltator ( Hahn, 1835) Holarctic  

Orthocephalus scorzonerae Drapolyuk & Kerzhner, 2000   Uzbekistan; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan

Orthocephalus sefrensis Reuter, 1895   Algeria

Orthocephalus solidus   ( Seidenstücker, 1971 Turkey

Orthocephalus styx Reuter, 1908   Turkey; Russia; Kazakhstan

Orthocephalus tibialis ( Reuter, 1894)   Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia

Orthocephalus tristis ( Reuter, 1894)   Algeria

Orthocephalus turkmenicus Namyatova & Konstantinov, 2009   Turkmenistan; Iran

Orthocephalus vittipennis ( Herrich-Schäeffer, 1835) Palaearctic  

Biology and host plant associations: Host records exist for 13 species, all of which have been collected mainly on asterids in the family Asteraceae   , with a single species ( O. brevis   ) known only from the Campanulaceae   ( Hoberlandt, 1963; Göllner-Scheiding, 1972; Wagner, 1973). In addition to feeding on asterids, three species have also been collected off rosids, with O. coriaceus   found on oak ( Fagaceae   ) ( Ehanno, 1960, 1965), O. vittipenis   on Ononis spinosa   ( Fabaceae   ) ( Göllner-Scheiding, 1972), and O. saltator   on Spiraea sp.   ( Namyatova & Konstantinov, 2009). Orthocephalus saltator   has also been collected on unidentified grass ( Poaceae   ) ( Ehanno, 1960; Gravestein, 1978), several species of Fabaceae   ( Reuter, 1891; Saunders, 1892; Tamanini, 1981; Seidenstücker, 1959), as well as Thymus serpyllum   ( Lamiaceae   ) ( Reuter, 1891) and Salix sp.   ( Salicaceae   ) ( Namyatova & Konstantinov, 2009) ( Table 1).

Remarks: Orthocephalus   is superficially similar to Dasyscytus   , Pachytomella   , and Anapus   , but can be readily distinguished by the unique structure of the secondary gonopore. In a recent revision of Orthocephalus   , Anapomella Putshkov   and Oraniella Reuter   were designated junior synonyms of Orthocephalus   , based primarily on the secondary gonopore structure ( Namyatova & Konstantinov, 2009). This was supported through a phylogenetic analysis, which also proposed a sister relationship between Orthocephalus   and Pachytomella   . Our phylogeny supports this sister taxon relationship as well, based on two synapomorphies (69-1: opening of secondary gonopore slit-like; 83-1: DLP with pair of sickle-shaped sclerites adjacent to sclerotized rings). Interestingly, although we incorporated the coding of Namyatova & Konstantinov (2009) into our analysis, only the slit-shaped secondary gonopore opening was found to be synapomorphic in both analyses. This appears to be the result of differences in taxon sampling, as Namyatova & Konstantinov (2009) sampled all Orthocephalus   , not all of which possess paired sickle-shaped sclerites on the DLP.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Miridae

Loc

Orthocephalus

Tatarnic, Nikolai J. & Cassis, Gerasimos 2012
2012
Loc

Anapomella

Putshkov VG 1961: 25
1961
Loc

Oraniella

Reuter OM 1894: 138
1894
Loc

Orthocephalus

Wagner E 1973: 41
Kerzhner IM 1964: 966
Wagner E & Weber HH 1964: 267
Wagner E 1961: 50
Southwood TRE & Leston D 1959: 247
Carvalho JCM 1958: 22
Carvalho JCM 1955: 67
Wagner E 1952: 96
Carvalho JCM & Leston D 1952: 245
Kiritshenko AN 1951: 127
Slater JAS 1950: 46
China WE 1943: 267
Hsiao TY 1942: 253
Knight HH 1941: 75
Hedicke H 1935: 59
Stichel W 1933: 235
Blatchley WS 1926: 804
Knight HH 1923: 498
Van Duzee EP 1914: 389
Oshanin B 1910: 791
Reuter OM 1910: 148
Hueber T 1906: 3
Kirkaldy GW 1906: 131
Saunders E 1892: 269
Reuter OM 1891: 43
Reuter OM 1888: 76
Provancher L 1887: 136
Reuter OM 1875: 24
Saunders E 1875: 289
Thompson CG 1871: 432
Douglas JW & Scott J 1865: 429
Fieber FX 1860: 291
Fieber FX 1858: 316
Fieber FX 1858: 316
1858