Nylanderia steinheili ( Forel, 1893 ), Forel, 1893

Kallal, Robert J., 2019, Nylanderia of the World Part III: Nylanderia in the West Indies, Zootaxa 4658 (3), pp. 401-451: 437-441

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Nylanderia steinheili ( Forel, 1893 )


Nylanderia steinheili ( Forel, 1893)  

Figs. 89–91 View FIGURES 89–91 (worker); 92–96 (male)

Prenolepis steinheili Forel, 1893: 342   (worker). Lectotype worker, ST. THOMAS, Antilles, 13.X.78 (examined) (MHNG). Forel, 1908: 64 (queen); Forel, 1912: 66 View Cited Treatment (male). Lectotype designated by Trager, 1984. Combination in Nylanderia (Nylanderia)   : Forel, 1912: 66 View Cited Treatment ; in Paratrechina (Nylanderia)   : Emery, 1925 d: 223; in Nylanderia: Kempf, 1972: 168   ; in Paratrechina: Brandão, 1991: 367   ; in Nylanderia: LaPolla, Brady & Shattuck, 2010: 127   .

Prenolepis steinheili var. minuta Forel, 1893: 343   (worker, queen and male). 6 syntype workers, 3 syntype queens and 3 syntype males, ST. VINCENT, Antilles (examined; lectotype worker here designated (USNMENT00754828); specimen on pin with three separate points; point with lectotype marked with small red dot) (MHNG). Combination in Nylanderia (Nylanderia)   : Forel, 1912: 66; in Paratrechina (Nylanderia)   : Emery, 1925: 223; in Nylanderia: Kempf, 1972: 168   ; in Paratrechina: Brandão, 1991: 367   ; in Nylanderia: LaPolla, Brady & Shattuck, 2010: 127   . SYN. NOV.

Worker diagnosis: Dark brown, contrasting sharply with white trochanters and meso/metacoxae; mesosomal dorsum and gastral tergite 1 with moderate to dense pubescence.

Compare with: N. guatemalensis  

WORKER. Measurements (n=12): TL:1.70–2.30; HW: 0.49–0.57; HL: 0.57–0.67; EL: 0.14–0.19; SL: 0.63– 0.84; WL: 0.71–0.88; GL: 0.69–0.96. SMC: 12–23; PMC: 2–4; MMC: 2–3. Indices: CI: 81–91; REL: 22–30; SI: 118–155; SI2: 17–24.

Head: sides of head in full face view nearly parallel to rounded; posterolateral corners rounded; posterior margin straight, sometimes slightly emarginate medially; anterior clypeal margin nearly straight to slightly emarginate; median ocellus sometimes present; eyes well-developed. Mesosoma: in lateral view, pronotum convex; anterior margin of mesonotum raised slightly above posterior pronotal margin; metanotal area without short flat area before spiracle; dorsal face of propodeum slightly convex; dorsal face of propodeum and mesonotum approximately the same height or propodeum slightly lower than mesonotum in lateral view. Color and pilosity: body dark brown, trochanters, mesocoxa and metacoxae white; antennae and mandible lighter brown than head, mesosoma and gaster; pubescence abundant across body except mesopleuron and lateral portions of pronotum which are without pubescence.

QUEEN. Measurements (n=3): TL: 3.20–3.40; HW: 0.73–0.78; HL: 0.73–0.78; EL: 0.23–0.24; SL: 0.79–0.89; WL: 1.20–1.30; GL: 1.50–1.80. SMC: 10–12; PMC: 3–6; MMC: 11–12. Indices: CI: 99–105; REL: 31–33; SI: 107–119.

Generally, as in worker with modifications expected for caste.

MALE. Measurements (n=3): TL: 1.70–1.96; HW: 0.52–0.53; HL: 0.50–0.52; EL: 0.19–0.20; SL: 0.62–0.71; WL: 0.75–0.80; GL: 0.70–0.80. SMC: 8–14; PMC: 0; MMC: 10–16. Indices: CI: 99–106; REL: 37–39; SI: 119– 133.

Head: sides of head in full face view rounded; posterior margin rounded; clypeus nearly straight anteriorly; mandible with distinct apical tooth and much smaller, often indistinct, subapical tooth adjacent to apical tooth; basal angle indistinct. Mesosoma: in lateral view, dorsal margin of mesoscutum same as height as dorsal margin of mesoscutellum; propodeum steeply sloping without distinct dorsal and declivitous faces. Genitalia: gonopod apex coming to triangular point in lateral view; gonopod margin in dorsal view curves away from penial sclerite; digitus with pointed apex that bends away from penial sclerite; cuspis tubular, rounded at apex bending sharply toward digitus; anteroventral process of penial sclerite coming to point with ventral margin of process emarginate; valvura of penial sclerite placed ventral to midline (fig. 105). Color and pilosity: body typically dark brown with contrasting yellow-white to yellowish-brown (typically not as light as in workers) trochanters, and mesocoxa and metacoxa; antenna and mandible lighter brown than head, mesosoma and gaster; pubescence abundant across body except on mesopleuron which is without pubescence.

Other material examined: ANGUILLA: Shoal Bay Rd, quarry turnoff, 18.249° N, 63.033° W, 21/May/2006, #106, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Windward Point sea grapes on hill, 18.280° N, 62.968° W, 20/May/2006, #86, JK Wetter- er GoogleMaps   ; The Quarter, N Tanglewood Rd, 18.217° N, 63.040° W, 20/May/2006, #71, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Long Bay , scrub, 18.197° N, 63.126° W, 18/May/2006, #46, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; near Abadam Hole, under tree, 18.273° N, 62.975° W, 20/May/2006, #81, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Lake’s Quarry, 18.248° N, 63.037° W, 21/May/2006, #105, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Meads Bay hotel grounds, 18.183° N, 63.143° W, 17/May/2006, #13, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Maunday’s Bay , sea grapes, 18.171° N, 63.144° W, 21/May/2006, #100, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Airport, parking, 17.139° N, 61.794° W, 13/Jul/2007, #519, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Wellings, 10 min up trail, 17.032° N, 61.825° W, 26/May/2007, #374, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; ARUBA: Bubali by sanctuary tower, 12.562° N, 70.048° W, 2/Aug/2007, #735, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; BARBADOS: Trents clump of viny tree, 13.298° N, 59.633° W, 20/Jun/2006, #410, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Canefield forest patch, 13.193° N, 59.590° W, 16/Jun/2006, #346, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Lakes Beach, beach, 13.245° N, 59.556° W, 20/Jun/2006, #442, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Boarded Hall forest , 13.209° N, 59.576° W, 16/Jun/2006, #349, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Turner’s Hall Woods, 26/Nov/2003, #100, Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Codrington College campus, 13.172° N, 59.479° W, 21/Jun/2006, #446, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Breedy’s scrub forest, 13.251° N, 59.590° W, 16/Jun/2006, #354, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Bath near route H3, 13.182° N, 59.482° W, 21/Jun/2006, #440, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Hackleton Cliff base forest, 13.203° N, 59.536° W, 16/Jun/2006, #357, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; BARBUDA: Sand Ground , plantation, 17.602° N, 61.830° W, 8/Jul/2007, #431, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS: Tortola, Sabbath Hill , by sewer tank, 18.435° N, 64.598° W, 16/Nov/2005, #379, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Sage Mtn Rd, parking by park, 18.412° N, 64.656° W, 15/Nov/2005, #356, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Chalwell Hill, by radio tower, 18.425° N, 64.645° W, 16/Nov/2005, #374, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Martins Joes Hill, Joes Hill Rd, 18.427° N, 64.638° W, 18/Nov/2005, #397, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; DOMINICA: Concord, Hotel garden, 10/Jun/2004, #167, JK Wetterer; Central For. Res. , 7 km SW Concord, 11/Jun/2004, #169, JK Wetterer; La Source, 11/Jun/2004, #186, JK Wetterer; La Plaine, 14/Jun/2004, #208, JK Wetterer   ; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Santo Domingo, Botanical Garden, 9/Dec/2003, Mark Deyrup; Parque Nacional Sierra de Baharuco , 18° 09.310’ N, 71° 45.495; W, elev. 277 m; under leaf litter, 27 vii.2009; SA Schieder & JS LaPolla   ; GRENADA: Grand Etang, Morne La Bay, 9/Nov/2003, #12, JK Wetterer; woodlands, cane by factory, 12.025° N, 61.741° W, 28/Jun/2006, #552, JK Wetterer; Coral Cove, 11/Nov/2003, #32, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Trant’s Bay, W of road by end, 16.753° N, 62.164° W, 19/Jul/2007, #654, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Old Road Bay , waterfront, 16.742° N, 62.232° W, 16/Jul/2007, #589, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; MONTSERRAT: Cavala Hill by church, 16.779° N, 62.204° W, 20/Jul/2007, #661, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Mars Hill Oriole trailhead, 16.770° N, 62.207° W, 16/Jul/2007, #594, JK Wet- terer GoogleMaps   ; NEVIS: Tower Hill forest, 17.162° N, 62.599° W, 14/May/2007, #170, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; market shop, St George’s Church , 17.131° N, 62.571° W, 16/May/2007, #215, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; PUERTO RICO: Vieques: Bunkers, 0.7 km SW bunker 309, 8/Jun/2006, #321, JK Wetterer; Vieques: Playa Grande , sea grape, 18.092° N, 65.509° W, 7/Jun/2006, #319, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Vieques: Mosquito, S of pier, 18.130° N, 65.510° W, 8/Jun/2006, #334, JK Wetterer; San Juan, international airport, 16/May/2006, #7, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; ST. KITTS: Bayford’s, near radio tower, 17.327° N, 62.731° W, 6/May/2007, #32, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Wingfield, forest by orchard, 17.334° N, 62.801° W, 8/May/2007, #85, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Camp Bay, scrub N of PR, 17.298° N, 62.751° W, 8/May/2007, #81, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Rawlins, Plantation, 17.401° N, 62.828° W, 7/May/2007, #53, JK Wetterer; Boguis forest , 17/Nov/2003, #57, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; ST. LUCIA: Ambre, 4.4 km E of 52, 16/Nov/2003, #53, JK Wetterer; Prasin, 16/Nov/2003, #48, JK Wetterer; Choc , 15/Nov/2003, #45, JK Wetterer   ; ST. MARTIN: La Colombe, Rue de Concordia, 18.062° N, 63.074° W, 24/May/2006, #129, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; French Cul de Sac pasture, 18.107° N, 63.029° W, 23/May/2006, #120, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; La Soufriere trail, trailhead parking, 13.318° N, 61.156° W, 5/Jul/2006, #707, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; Rickmond Bach SW end of beach, 13.319° N, 61.236° W, 1/Jul/2006, #608, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; TRINIDAD: Blanchisseuse Rd, 4 km N Asa Wright, 30/Oct/2003, #213, Wetterer; Victoris Mayare Res., 7 km N gate, 3/Nov/2003, #234, Wetterer; Palmiste, 21/May/2004, #24, JK Wetterer; North Coast Rd, 6 km of Saddle, 30/Jun/2004, #474, JK Wetterer; 2 km NW Howson, 10/Jul/2004, #488, JK Wetterer; 10 km S Rte Clare, 31/Jul/2004, #541, JK Wetterer; Blanchisseuse Rd, 1 km S Asa Wright, 30/Oct/2003, #211, Wetterer; Victoria Mayare Res. 2 km W gate, 3/Nov/2003, #232, Wetterer; Mt Hope , 21/May/2004, #418, JK Wetterer; North Coast Rd , 6 km 2004, #474, JK Wetterer; 2 km SW Cunaripa, 10/Jul/2004, #487, JK Wetterer   ; TOBAGO: Tobago Forest Res., Gilpin Trace , 14/Oct/2003, #192, Wetterer   ; U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS: St Croix, Springfield, 76; 0.5 Km W quarry, 17.732° N, 64.834° W, 9/March/2006, #235, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; St. Croix , Jolly Hill, E of 763; N of 76, 17.732° N, 64.861° W, 3/March/2006, #35, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; St. John, Bordeaux Mtn, 0.5 Km E of peak, 18.339° N, 64.734° W, 9/Nov/2005, #299, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; St. Thomas , Mountaintop by mall, 18.356° N, 64.947° W, 8/Nov/2005, #270, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   ; St. Thomas , Botany Bay , 1 km N of 30, 18.357° N, 65.027° W, 6/Nov/2005, #245, JK Wetterer GoogleMaps   .

Notes: Trager (1984) considered two morphological differences to separate N. steinheili   and N. steinheili   minu- ta into distinct species. He noted that the subbasal tooth (tooth 5 counting from apical to basal) in N. steinheili   is always small relative to the median tooth (tooth 4 counting from apical to basal). Whereas, there are other specimens were the subbasal tooth is distinctly large relative to the median tooth and these would be distinguishable as N. steinheili minuta   . Differences in coloration were also noted, with N. steinheili minuta   having the mesocoxae and metacoxae reddish, and N. steinheili   with mesocoxae and metacoxae that are bright white. Initially, we were able to separate specimens using the above morphological criteria, but the more specimens we examined the more difficult it became as both morphological characters showed considerable variability. Therefore, until other data becomes available we consider N. steinheili minuta   a synonym of N. steinheili   .

Nylanderia steinheili   is a widespread species, which may or may not be native to the West Indies. There is considerable morphological variation in what we are calling N. steinheili   . This species is putatively found in Central and South America as well so it is hoped that as revisions of Nylanderia   in those regions are completed further data for better refinement of the morphological limits of this species will be possible.

Nylanderia steinheili   and N. guatemalensis   are broadly sympatric across the West Indies with both occurring primarily in similarly disturbed habitats. Usually both can be separated relatively easily based on worker body coloration, with N. steinheili   being dark brown to black and N. guatemalensis   being yellow to light brown (typically with contrasting dark macrosetae). However, particularly in southern Florida and the Bahamas, N. guatemalensis   can have a darker body, sometimes approaching dark brown. This can make distinguishing the species difficult. N. guatemalensis   and N. steinheili   both occur in Florida in contrast to Kallal and LaPolla (2012) which only reported N. steinheili   . Apparently, N. guatemalensis   occurs only in the extreme southern part of the state, whereas N. steinheili   is more widespread. We found N. guatemalensis   workers have a SI above 120 while N. steinheili   worker have a SI below 120, but there is some overlap. Like N. steinheili   , N. guatemalensis   putatively ranges into Central and South America.

We did examine the penial sclerites for both N. steinheili   and N. guatemalensis   males (fig. 105). Overall the penial sclerites are fairly similar in basic structure but there are some importance differences. The anteroventral process of N. steinheili   is emarginate, whereas in N. guatemalensis   it is broadly rounded. Additionally, the penial sclerite vulvurae are ventrally placed in N. steinheili   ; in N. guatemalensis   they are at the midline of the penial sclerites. As in worker morphology, the male morphology suggests these species are closely related, perhaps even sister taxa. It is important to note we examined a relatively small number of males and both of these species range far outside of the West Indies where male morphology needs to be examined as well.


Museum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratiore de Paleontologie














Nylanderia steinheili ( Forel, 1893 )

Kallal, Robert J. 2019

Prenolepis steinheili

LaPolla, J. S. & Brady, S. G. & Shattuck, S. O. 2010: 127
Brandao, C. R. F. 1991: 367
Kempf, W. W. 1972: 168
Forel, A. 1912: 66
Forel, A. 1912: 66
Forel, A. 1908: 64
Forel, A. 1893: 342

Prenolepis steinheili var. minuta

LaPolla, J. S. & Brady, S. G. & Shattuck, S. O. 2010: 127
Brandao, C. R. F. 1991: 367
Kempf, W. W. 1972: 168
Emery, C. 1925: 223
Forel, A. 1912: 66
Forel, A. 1893: 343