Anastrepha furcata, Lima, 1934

Norrbom, Allen L. & Korytkowski, Cheslavo A., 2009, A revision of the Anastrepha robusta species group (Diptera: Tephritidae) 2182, Zootaxa 2182 (1), pp. 1-91 : 27-29

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2182.1.1


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Anastrepha furcata


Anastrepha furcata Lima

Figs. 5 View FIGURES 5–9 , 36–39 View FIGURES 30–41 , 73–74 View FIGURES 73–81 , 116–117 View FIGURES 108–130 , 149 View FIGURES 149–163 , 173–174 View FIGURES 164–185 , 199–200 View FIGURES 199–204

Anastrepha furcata Lima 1934: 529 [description, wing, male terminalia, Brazil: Amazonas]; Lima 1937b: 64 [wing, female abdomen, aculeus tip, Brazil: Pará]; Stone 1942a: 91 [ Panamá]; Foote 1967: 11 [in catalog]; Zucchi 1978: 55; Nascimento & Zucchi 1981: 765 [ Brazil: Bahia]; Norrbom 1985: 152 [aculeus tip, male terminalia]; Steyskal 1977: 33; Zucchi et al. 1996: 262 [type data]; Korytkowski 1997: 65 [in key]; Norrbom et al. 1999a: 79 [in catalog, French Guiana]; Norrbom et al. 1999b: 333 [classification]; Zucchi 2000a: 21 [in key]; Zucchi 2000b: 43 [in list]; Silva & Ronchi-Teles 2000: 203 [ Brazil: Amazonia]; Nascimento & Carvalho 2000: 236 [ Brazil: Bahia]; Martins et al. 2000: 256 [ Brazil: Espírito Santo]; Korytkowski 2004: 61 [in key].

Anastrepha furcaia Aczél 1950: 212 . Misspelling of furcata Lima.

Diagnosis. Anastrepha furcata differs from other species of Anastrepha except A. amaryllis , A. fuscata , and A. robusta in having the aculeus strongly dorsally curved. It differs from A. amaryllis in having shorter terminalia, from A. robusta in the shape of the aculeus tip (lateral margins not concave), and from both species in having the wing pattern more extensively brown. It differs from A. fuscata in having a shorter aculeus tip (less than 0.30 vs. 0.38 mm long).

Description. Mostly yellow to orange, with white to pale yellow markings. Setae dark red brown to black.

Head: Yellow to orange except brown ocellar tubercle. 4–5 frontal setae; 2 orbital setae, posterior seta well developed. Ocellar seta weak, at most twice as long as ocellar tubercle. Facial carina, in profile, straight to slightly convex dorsally and medially. Antenna extended 0.65–0.85 distance to ventral facial margin.

Thorax ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 5–9 ): Mostly yellow to orange with following areas white or pale yellow (not always well differentiated in dried specimens): postpronotal lobe; diffuse medial vitta, inverted T-shaped or reduced to quadrate posterior area extended laterally to dorsocentral seta; paired sublateral scutal vitta from transverse suture to posterior margin, including intra-alar seta; entire scutellum; dorsal margin of anepisternum; dorsal margin of katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Posterior margin of scutum with broad dark orange brown to dark brown band with more or less straight anterior margin, sometimes extended to but not completely including acrostichal seta, sometimes with short anterior extensions laterally along sublateral white vitta, and ending laterally at sublateral white vitta, not extended to intra-alar seta. Subscutellum and mediotergite entirely orange, or subscutellum sometimes (Panamanian specimens) with moderate to dark brown dorsolateral mark. Mesonotum 3.58–4.70 mm long. Scutum entirely microtrichose; setulae mostly yellow to orange, usually brownish laterally. Katepisternal seta weak, yellow to medium brown, at most 0.33 as large as anepimeral seta.

Wing ( Figs. 36–39 View FIGURES 30–41 ): Length 8.0– 10.1 mm (7.75 in Rio Cuminá female according to Lima (1937b)), width 3.4–3.9 mm, ratio 2.29–2.73. Apex of vein R 1 at 0.54–0.56 wing length. Cell c 1.21–1.35 times as long as pterostigma; pterostigma 3.06–3.85 times as long as wide. Vein R 2+3 without sharp bends or undulations. Crossvein r-m at 0.62–0.67 distance from bm-cu to dm-cu on vein M. Vein M very strongly curved apically; cell r 4+5 0.64–0.92 times as wide at apex as at level of dm-cu. Cell bcu with distal lobe moderately long, length of bcu 1.58–1.84 times as long as anterior margin. Wing pattern mostly moderate to dark brown and orange. C-band with cell bc yellowish; cell c yellowish basally, anterior margin narrowly yellowish, brown on distal 0.20–0.67, posteriorly with broad elongate medial subhyaline to yellowish nonmicrotrichose area; yellow area extended slightly into posterobasal corner of pterostigma but not into cell r 1, except in Panamanian specimens as small mottled area posterior to bend in vein Sc; remainder of band in pterostigma, r 1, r 2+3, and br usually entirely dark brown, rarely (Bahia female) r 1 and r 2+3 with small subapical orange area. C-band and S-band broadly connected along vein R 4+5, hyaline area in cell br small, often not reaching vein R 4+5, at most 1.1 times as long as distal brown area of cell; cell dm with basal hyaline area moderately large. Basal half of S-band mostly dark brown, with large medial orange area broadly bordering crossvein r-m and extending broadly into anterior 0.50–0.75 of cell dm, rarely (holotype, Manaus female, Lima 1937 female) narrowly reaching proximal margin of band in dm; posterior margin with distinct incision in cell cu 1; section between vein M and costa and distal section of band also with orange areas with broad brown margins, distal section relatively broad, at apex of vein R 2+3 0.72–0.85 times width of cell r 2+3, slightly to distinctly broadening in cell r 2+3; in most South American specimens extended to or almost to apex of vein M, but well separated in holotype and Panamanian specimens; hyaline area proximal to it usually ending at vein R 2+3 (very narrowly separated from vein in Manaus female). Hyaline basomarginal spot in cell r 1 triangular, generally slightly narrower in South American specimens, sometimes with blunt apex, extended to R 4+5, its apex aligned slightly proximal to crossvein r-m. V-band complete, mostly brown, broadly connected to S-band in cell r 2+3; proximal arm with medial orange area extending across cell r 4+5, extending slightly into cell dm bordering anterior fourth or less of dm-cu or sometimes (Bahia specimens, French Guiana male) extending narrowing posteriorly (in Bahia male almost full length of dm-cu); proximal arm moderately broad anteriorly, gradually broadening posteriorly, with basal extension along wing margin, at level of vein M 1.8–2.8 times as wide as distal arm and 1.1–1.5 times as wide as hyaline area proximal to it in cells r 4+5 and dm; distal arm slender to moderately broad, connected to proximal arm.

Abdomen: Mostly orange, without brown markings.

Male terminalia ( Figs. 199–200 View FIGURES 199–204 ): Lateral surstylus short, extended beyond prensisetae by less than 1 times length of prensiseta; in lateral view bluntly truncate; in posterior view similar to A. nigrifascia , lateral and medial margins convex, apex blunt. Proctiger with ventral and lateral sclerotized areas connected but lateral areas separate dorsally. Phallus 2.47 mm long, 0.67 times as long as mesonotum in Brazilian male, 4.35 mm long, 0.93 times as long as mesonotum in Panamanian male; glans 0.38 mm long in Brazilian male, 0.55 mm long in Panamanian male.

Female terminalia: Oviscape ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 5–9 ) 1.79–3.00 mm long, 0.50–0.65 times as long as mesonotum; entirely orange or darker orange to moderate brown dorsally; spiracle at basal 0.37–0.44. Eversible membrane ( Figs. 73–74 View FIGURES 73–81 ) with 5–7 moderately long hooklike dorsobasal scales in 1–2 rows distal to 10–15 small, stout scales. Aculeus ( Figs. 116–117 View FIGURES 108–130 ) strongly dorsally curved more than 45° in lateral view, 1.19–2.27 mm long; in ventral view base expanded, 0.18–0.26 mm wide; shaft 0.065–0.11 mm wide at midlength; tip ( Figs. 149 View FIGURES 149–163 , 173–174 View FIGURES 164–185 ) 0.22–0.28 mm long, 0.065–0.11 mm wide, 2.56–4.00 times as long as wide, 0.065–0.09 mm wide in lateral view, 0.64–1.14 times ventral width, in ventral view gradually tapered, slightly more rapidly on distal half, nonserrate. Spermathecae spherical.

Distribution. Anastrepha furcata is known from Panamá, French Guiana, and northern and eastern Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, Bahia, Espírito Santo).

Biology. The host plants and other aspects of the biology of this species other than dates of capture of adults are unknown.

Type Data. Holotype male ( IOC, no. 1825), Brazil: Amazonas : Manaus, Rio Negro, 16 Jul 1927, J. F. Zikan [not examined, unavailable for loan].

Other specimens examined. BRAZIL: Amazonas: near Manaus , forest fragment R-1208, 3 Sep 1985, B. Klein, 1♀ ( INPA USNMENT00216209 View Materials ) ; Manaus, Reserva Ducke , 7 Mar 1968, 1♀ ( INPA USNMENT00216172 View Materials ) . Bahia: Cruz das Almas, Fazenda Chapadinha, 3 Aug 1977, A. S. Nascimento, 1♂ ( ESALQ USNMENT00052097 ) ; Muritiba , 14 Sep 1977, A. S. Nascimento, 1♀ ( ESALQ USNMENT00052098 ) . Pará: Belém , [no date], C. F. Baker, 1♀ ( CAS USNMENT00216236 View Materials ) . FRENCH GUIANA: La Mana [ Mana River ?], 1864, Mélinon, 1♂ ( MNHNP USNMENT00216210 ) . PANAMÁ: Chiriquí: La Fortuna, blacklight trap, 13–19 Aug 1977, H. Wolda, 1♀ ( FSCA USNMENT00216175 View Materials ) . Coclé: Cerro La Vieja , McPhail trap with protein lure, 12 Jun 2007, P. Rodriguez, 1♀ ( MEUP) . Panamá: El Cermeño, fruit fly trap, 13 Jun 1939, J. Zetek 4448, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00052099 View Materials ) ; same, 16 Jul 1940, J. Zetek 4666, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00052100 View Materials ) .

Comments. The holotype and the female from Rio Cuminá, Brazil (also in IOC) described by Lima (1937b) were unavailable for loan. The examined specimens from South America match the descriptions of these specimens by Lima and Zucchi (1978), except that in the photo of the wing of the holotype in Lima (1934, fig. 28), vein M appears less curved apically than in all of the other specimens, with the ratio of cell r 4+5 width apically to that at dm-cu approximately 1.0.

The examined specimens from Panamá are slightly larger than those from South America (mesonotum length 4.5–4.7 vs. 3.58–4.2 mm, wing length 9.4–10.1 vs. 8.0– 8.7 mm) and differ slightly in vein M ratio (0.64–0.67 vs. 0.62–0.65) and cell r 4+5 ratio (0.84–0.92 vs. 0.64–0.83, except in holotype). The terminalia in the Panamanian specimens are longer (oviscape length 3.00–3.08 vs. 1.79–2.35 mm, aculeus length 2.26–2.27 vs. 1.19–1.57 mm in specimens examined), although the Rio Cuminá, Brazil female is somewhat intermediate (aculeus 1.8 mm long according to Lima (1937b)), and the oviscape ratio is only slightly greater in the Panamanian females (0.65–0.66 vs. 0.50–0.56). The aculeus tip is stouter in the Panamanian females ( Fig. 121 View FIGURES 108–130 ), 2.56 times as long as wide vs. 3.0–4.0 times in the South American females ( Fig. 146 View FIGURES 131–148 ), but is similar in shape. The Panamanian specimens also have a brown dorsolateral mark on the subscutellum, although the mark varies in color. Further study of the specimens reported by Lima and additional material or characters is needed to determine whether the Panamanian population represents a distinct species. Pending discovery of additional information, we treat it as conspecific with other populations of A. furcata .


Colecao de Culturas de Fungos do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


California Academy of Sciences


Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Anastrepha furcata

Norrbom, Allen L. & Korytkowski, Cheslavo A. 2009

Anastrepha furcaia Aczél 1950: 212

Aczel, M. L. 1950: 212

Anastrepha furcata

Korytkowski, C. A. 2004: 61
Zucchi, R. A. 2000: 21
Zucchi, R. A. 2000: 43
Silva, N. M. da & Ronchi-Teles, B. 2000: 203
Nascimento, A. S. & Carvalho, R. da & Silva 2000: 236
Martins, D. dos & Santos & Uramoto, K. & Malavasi, A. 2000: 256
Norrbom, A. L. & Carroll, L. E. & Thompson, F. C. & White, I. M. & Freidberg, A. 1999: 79
Norrbom, A. L. & Zucchi, R. A. & Hernandez-Ortiz, V. 1999: 333
Korytkowski, C. A. 1997: 65
Zucchi, R. A. & Silva, N. M. da & Silveira Neto, S. 1996: 262
Norrbom, A. L. 1985: 152
Zucchi, R. A. 1978: 55
Steyskal, G. C. 1977: 33
Foote, R. H. 1967: 11
Stone, A. 1942: 91
Lima, A. M. da & Costa 1937: 64
Lima, A. M. da & Costa 1934: 529