Enargia fausta Schmidt

Schmidt, Christian, 2010, Review of the Nearctic species of Enargia Hubner, [1821] (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini), ZooKeys 39 (39), pp. 205-223: 215-219

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.3897/zookeys.39.429

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7056E01D-A8ED-44D1-833C-6909E0D18C10

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3788546

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E8C171-5816-740E-FCB6-DB56FC46432B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Enargia fausta Schmidt
status

sp. n.

Enargia fausta Schmidt   , sp. n.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:37251A95-9152-4C6F-BC0D-8C5513DB7D45

Figs 19–30, 56, 60, 65

Enargia infumata Franclemont 1939   , in part; Handfield 1999: p. 92 f. 9550; Rockburne and Lafontaine 1976: f. 434; Ferguson 1954: pl. X f. 4.

Type material. Holotype ♁. St.- Basile, N. B. [New Brunswick] / Canada. 14. VIII. 1994 / leg. Henry Hensel “ HOLOTYPE / Enargia fausta   / Schmidt, 2010” [red typed label] [ CNC]   . Paratypes: 55 ♁, 49 ♀ ( CNC, UASM, DHC, LHC). New Brunswick. Same data as holotype, 19 Aug 1993 (1 ♀)   ; Edmunston , 31 Aug 1991 (1 ♁), 16 Aug  

2002 (1 ♁), 8 Aug 2003 (1 ♀), 20 Aug 2003 (4 ♁, 3 ♀), 17 Aug 2003 (1 ♁, 1 ♀), 21 Aug 2003 (1 ♁), 27 Aug 2003 (1 ♀), 25 Aug 2003 (1 ♀), H. Hensel; Hanwell , 14 Aug 2007, G. Hensel (1 ♁). Quebec. Temiscouata Co., 18 Aug 1992, H. Hensel (1 ♁)   ; Lac Mondor , Ste. Flore, 27 Jul 1951, E.G. Munroe (1 ♁)   ; Laniel , 23 Aug 1932 (2 ♁, 2 ♀), 24 Aug 1932 (1 ♁), 26 Aug 1932 (1 ♀), W.J. Brown   ; Forestville , 11 Aug 1950 (2 ♁), R. de Ruette   ; Belisle Beach , Luskville, 12–19 Aug 1961, E.G. Munroe (1 ♁)   ; La Présentation , 5 Aug 1971, L. Handfield (2 ♁)   ; Mont-Saint-Hilaire ( Chemin des Lots ), 3 Sep 1971, L. Handfield (1 ♀)   ; Mont-Saint-Hilaire ( Manoir Rouville-Campbell ), 20 Aug 1969 (1 ♀), 23 Aug 1969 (1 ♀), 26 Aug 1968 (1 ♀), 29 Aug 1969 (1 ♀), 30 Aug 1971 (1 ♁, 4 ♀), 31 Aug 1971 (1 ♀), 2 Sep 1971 (9 ♀), L. Handfi eld   ; Mont-Saint- Hilaire (Rang des Étangs), 21 Aug 1978 (1 ♁, 1 ♀), L. Handfi eld   ; Saint-Valérien , comté de Rimouski, I. Blais, 21 Aug 1971 (1 ♀), L. Handfield   ; St-Michel des Saints , Lac Dussault, 8 Aug 2005, D. Handfield, barcode voucher DH010701 View Materials , (1 ♁)   ; Terrebonne High , 13 Aug 1938 (1 ♀), 3 Aug 1941 (1 ♁), L. Auger. Ontario. Th under Bay Co., Inwood Prov. Park nr. Upsala, 10 Aug 1982, J.F. Landry   ; Black Sturgeon Lake , 3 Aug 1964 (1 ♁, 1 ♀), 14 Aug 1963 (1 ♁, ♀), 2 Sep 1964 (1 ♁), 28 Aug 1964 (2 ♁), 21 Aug 1963 (1 ♁)   ; Th under Bay, Stanley Area, 12 Aug 1980 (1 ♁), J. P. Wales   ; La Passe , 16 Aug 1974 (1♁), E.W. Rockburne   ; Biscotasing , 16 Aug 1931 (1♁), 29 Jul 1931 (1 ♁), 30 Aug 1931 (1 ♁), K. Schedl   ; Ogoki , 14 Aug 1952 (2 ♁), 19 Aug 1952 (10 ♁, 7♀), 15 Aug 1952 (2 ♀), 21 Aug 1952 (1 ♀), 16 Aug 1952 (3 ♁)   ; Mississagi Is. , North Channel, 7 Aug 1977 (1 ♁), J.K. Morton. Michigan. Sault St. Marie, 27 Aug 1960, (1 ♁), Kelton & Whitney. Alberta. Peers, 4 mi. N, 2650’, 26 Jul 1961, D.F. Hardwick (1 ♁)   ; Edmonton , 2 Aug 1942, K. Bowman, UASM14971 View Materials , (1 ♁)   ; Heart Valley , (no date), reared ex Populus tremuloides   , (1 ♀)   ; Wembley , 1954, reared ex Populus tremuloides   , (1 ♁ 1 ♀)   ; Overfl ow, (no date), reared ex Populus balsamifera   (1 ♁, stunted)   ; Rocky Lake , 1957, reared ex Betula papyrifera   (2 ♀)   .

Diagnosis. Similar to and long confused with E. infumata   , see diagnosis under that species.

Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from Faustus, the alchemist of German legend who sold his soul to Mephistopheles, or Mephisto, in exchange for knowledge. The ending is amended for a more euphonious combination with Enargia   , and is a noun in apposition.

Description. Head and thorax – Colour ranging from pale ochre, yellow ochre, to rusty orange yellow, otherwise not differing from that of E. infumata   . Wings – Forewing length: males 17.5 mm (n = 6), females slightly larger overall at 19.4 mm (n = 5); forewing ground color varying from yellowish ochre to rusty ochre, but not exhibiting the very pale ochre or greyish phenotypes observed in E. infumata   ; dark markings varying from charcoal grey to brownish grey, usually highly contrasting and sharply defined; angle of antemedial line rounded and obtuse, but less so than in E. infumata   , averaging 110°–120°; postmedial line evenly slightly sinuate medially, only rarely evenly rounded; medial band moderately to poorly developed, co-varying with dark terminal and subapical shading but without the variation extremes seen in E. infumata   ; pale subterminal line present in specimens with dark terminal shading (Figs 12, 15); reni-

Figures 58–60. Comparison of male vesica cornuti in Enargia   species. 58 E. infumata   59 E. fausta   60 E. decolor   .

form and orbicular usually paler than ground colour, rarely concolorous; reniform and orbicular with sharply defined, uninterrupted border; base of reniform (toward anal margin) with dark grey spot of varying size, but spot nearly always darkest of forewing markings; fringe concolorous with ground colour; ventral forewing less variable than dorsum, ground colour pale yellowish ochre with postmedial line and reniform spot variously developed, more so in specimens with contrasting dorsal markings, and antemedial line absent. Hindwing ground colour pale yellowish ochre with maroon-grey dark shading of varying extent, but not as grey or extensive as variants of E. infumata   ; postmedial line and broader, diffuse subterminal band visible when dark markings developed, varying to entirely absent; medial line better defined ventrally, with ventral discal spot similarly dark (rarely visible dorsally). Abdomen – not differing from that of E. infumata   . Male genitalia – (Figs 56, 60). As for E. infumata   , but differing in following characters: valve length 3.3–3.5 mm; vesica with free apex of both cornuti equal in size to each other, ranging from 0.11– 0.15 mm; right cornutus small, i.e., length of sclerotized plate of right cornutus only 2.0–2.5 × greater than length of free apex of cornutus (Fig. 60). Female genitalia – (Fig. 65). As for E. infumata   , but differing in size and shape of corpus bursae, in that basal duct-like part shorter and more poorly defined, with a more gradual widening toward apical sac-like chamber; corpus bursae 3.5–4.0 × length of segment VIII.

Distribution and biology. Enargia fausta   has a narrower distribution than E. infumata   and is essentially restricted to the boreal forest and boreal-deciduous forest transition zone, and unlike E. infumata   does not range south along the Rocky Mountains nor as far north. Specimens examined range from central Alberta to New Brunswick (but see also Remarks, below) and in the East as far south as the Ottawa River Valley, but the species presumably also occurs in appropriate habitats in northern New York and New England; Ferguson (1954) illustrates a specimen from Glennville, Nova Scotia. Reports of this species from northeastern Ohio ( Rings et al. 1992, as E. infumata   ) need to be verified. Flight dates range from late July to early September with most records after mid-August. As discussed under E. infumata   , the peak flight of E. fausta   is three to four weeks later than that of E. infumata   . Available records indicate that this species is much less common than E. infumata   . It appears that the preferred larval host is white birch ( Betula papyrifera Marsh.   ) based on specimens reared from larval collections by the Forest Insect and Disease Survey (NOFC), and also trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides Michx.   ), with a single stunted specimen reared from balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera   L.. A preference for birch would explain the narrower habitat preference, more restricted range, and lower abundance of this species compared to E. decolor   and E. infumata   , both associated with aspen.

Remarks. The taxonomic status of an Enargia   species in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) (Fig. 31) remains unresolved; structurally, they are indistinguishable from boreal E. fausta   , but externally they are more similar to the European E. paleacea (Esper, 1788)   , with more evenly coloured, orange-yellow forewings (Figs 32–34). E. paleacea   and E. fausta   differ in phenotype and DNA barcode divergence, but I have not been able to find genitalic differences. The fact that the PNW specimens are phenotypically most similar to E. paleacea   , and the large apparent range disjunction of these populations from E. fausta   (which is not known from central or eastern British Columbia), suggests that the PNW taxon could be a Eurasian introduction via the Vancouver area shipping ports. Alternatively, it could be a coastal segregate of E. infumata   , or a native Nearctic population of a Holarctic, trans-Beringian E. paleacea   . However, E. paleacea   is not known from eastern Siberia, Yukon, or Alaska. It seems most likely that the PNW species represents an accidental introduction of E. paleaecea   , but more research is needed, and DNA sequencing particularly would help to elucidate the taxonomy of these interesting populations.

The single specimen of E. fausta   for which DNA barcode sequence is available differed by a minimum of 1.7% from E. infumata   haplotypes. An additional sequenced specimen E. fausta   (D. Handfield collection, voucher # DH 010701 View Materials ), confirmed by dissection, exhibited an E. infumata   haplotype, suggesting the two species may share haplotypes and that barcodes may not reliably distinguish the two; this requires further study.

Figures 6Ι–63. Female genitalia of Enargia   . 6Ι E. infumata   62 E. fausta   63 E. decolor   .

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

UASM

University of Alberta, E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Noctuidae

Genus

Enargia

Loc

Enargia fausta Schmidt

Schmidt, Christian 2010
2010
Loc

Enargia infumata

Franclemont 1939
1939