Parathyginus signifer ( Walker, 1872 ), GGE Scudder

Malipatil, M. B., 2021, Revision of Australian Parathyginus with description of two new species, along with first detailed description of aedeagus in the family Heterogastridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea), Zootaxa 5016 (4), pp. 503-522: 505-509

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5016.4.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:12204099-F6BB-4184-BFB9-7BFE5C214BDF

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E91564-FF88-973C-47C3-5E61FED8FF77

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Parathyginus signifer ( Walker, 1872 )
status

 

Parathyginus signifer ( Walker, 1872)  

( Figs. 1– 20 View FIGURES 1–4 View FIGURES 5–7 View FIGURES 8–13 View FIGURES 14–20 )

Heterogaster signifer Walker, 1872: 74   (original description).

Hyginus signifer: Distant, 1901: 472   (transferred from Heterogaster   ).

Parathyginus signifer: Scudder, 1957: 167   (as type species of Parathyginus   ). Slater, 1964: 770 (catalogue, distribution). Cassis & Gross, 2002: 207 (catalogue, distribution). Ban, 2018:54 View Cited Treatment (diagnosis, distribution).

Parathyginus signifer: Dellapé & Henry, 2021   : Lygaeoidea Species File. Version 5.0/5.0. Available from: urn:lsid:Lygaeoidea. speciesfile.org:TaxonName: 489779 (accessed 1/01/2021).

Dinomachus doddi Distant, 1918: 488   (original description). New subjective synonym.

Parathyginus doddi: Scudder, 1957: 168   (generic position).

Parathyginus doddi: Slater, 1964: 770   (catalogue, distribution). Cassis & Gross, 2002: 207 (catalogue, distribution)

Parathyginus doddi: Dellapé & Henry   , 20201: Lygaeoidea Species File. Version 5.0/5.0. Available from: urn:lsid:Lygaeoidea. speciesfile.org:TaxonName: 489786. (accessed 1/01/2021).

Type specimens examined: [Note only images but no specimens examined]. “Type”, “12. Heterogaster signifer   ”, “ signifer ” (handwritten), “ Thwaites, 67.25 ”, “ Heterogaster signifer Walker 1872 G.G.E. Scudder 1974   Lectotype ”, in NHM. [Although G.G.E. Scudder designated and labelled the above specimen as Lectotype, it appears his action was never published].

“ Lectotype ”, “male”, “Kuranda, Qld, April.04 F.P. Dodd”, “ Queensland. F. P. Dodd. 1907-54.”, “ Dinomachus doddi Distant 1918 G.G.E. Scudder 1974   Lectotype ”, in NHM. “ Paralectotype ”, “female”, “ Queensland. F.P. Dodd. 1907-54.”, “ Dinomachus doddi Distant 1918 G.G.E. Scudder 1974   Paralectotype ”, in NHM. [Although G.G.E. Scudder designated and labelled the above specimens as Lectotype and Paralectotype, it appear his actions were never published].

Other specimens examined: [ Specimen repository QM, otherwise indicated]. QUEENSLAND   : 5 male, St Pauls , Moa Is., at light, 10–16.ii.1986, K. Houston & E. Hamacek, in QDPI   ; 1 male, 1 female, Bamaga , 10.53S 142.24E, at light, 5–12.xii.1986, Houston & Sadler, in QDPI GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 1 female, Lockerbie Area , Cape York Pen., 13-27.iv.1973, G.B. Monteith   ; 1 male, Lockerbie Scrub , 6–10.vi.1969, G.B. Monteith   , 1 male, 2 female, same locality and collector, 19–22. iv.1973   , 1 male, same locality, 11.ix.1975, M.S. Moulds   ; 1 female, West Normanby River , 40 ml (ca 64 km) W of Cooktown, 5.v.1970, G.B. Monteith   ; 1 female, Iron Range , Cape York Pen., 7.iv.1964, “compared with type Parathyginus doddi (Dist.)   by GGE Scudder 1965”, in ANIC   , 1 male, 5 female, same locality, 16–23.xi.1965, G.B. Monteith   , 1 female, same locality and collector, 11–17.v.1968   , 3 male, 2 female, same locality and collector, 27.iv–4.v.1973   , 6 male, 3 female, same locality, x.1974, M. S. Moulds   ; 1 female, West Claudie River , Iron Range, 29-30.ix.1974, G.B. Monteith   ; 1 female, McIlwraith Ra , NE of Coen, Cape York Pen., 29.vi-5.vii.1976, J.F. Donaldson, in QDPI   ; 1 female, Lankelly creek , McIlwraith Ra nr Coen, Cape York Pen, 28-31.x.1969, B. Cantrell   ; 2 female, Cape Tribulation community at light, 23.i.1991, A. Stolarski, in SAM   ; 2 female, Gap Creek , 5 ml N of Bloomfield River, altitude 100 ft, 8-9.v.1970, G.B. Monteith   ; 1 female, Gap Creek , 6 ml (ca 9 km) N Bloomfield River, 13–14.xi.1965, G.B. Monteith   ; 1 female, Upper Mulgrave River , 1-3.xii.1965, G. Monteith   ; 1 male, 2 female, Little Cedar Ck , Mt Spec, 1.ii.1965, E.C. Dahms   ; 1 male, Julatten , at light, 1.i.1976, R.I. Storey, in QDPI   ; 1 female, Tully Falls Road, 18 km SSW Ravenshoe, 17.36S 145.29E, ex Malaise trap, 1.x–5.xi.1987, R. Storey & G. Dickenson, in QDPI GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Paluma Dam , 30–31.xii.1964, G. Monteith   ; 1 male, Crystal Cascades via Cairns, 30.xii.1963, G. Monteith   , 1 female, same locality, 6.xii.1966, B. Cantrell   , 1 female, same locality, 29.xii.1967, G. Monteith   ; 1 female, Cairns , 22.viii.1974, M.S. Moulds   ; 1 male, Cairns district , trapped by sticky seeds of Pisonia brunoniana, F.P. Dodd   , in SAM   ; 1 male, Cairns Botanical Gardens , on Garcinia xanthochymus   , 6.viii.1959, T.G. Campbell, in ANIC   ; 1 male, 1 female, Kuranda, F.P. Dodd, in SAM   ; 1 female, Davies Ck SF, sweeping disturbed habitat, 18.ii.1984, I.D. Galloway, in QDPI   ; 1 male, 1 female, Davies Ck Road via Mareeba, at light rainforest, 25.xii.1978, R.I. Storey, in QDPI   ; 1 male, Little Mulgrave River , 28.vi.1971, E.F. Riek, in ANIC   ; 1 female, Crystal Cascades , Cairns, 30.xii.1963, G. Monteith   , 2 male, 1 female, same locality and collector, 29- 30.xi.1965   ; 1 female, “The Boulder” via Babinda , 15.xi.1969, B. Cantrell   ; 1 female, Palmerston Hwy , 35 km W of Innisfail, 2.ii.1975, at light, B.K. Cantrell, in QDPI   ; 1 female, Cardstone , 9.i.1962, Carne & Britton, in ANIC   ; 1 female, Clump Point , 6.iii.1964, “ Parathyginus doddi (Dist.)   by GGE Scudder 1965”, I.F.B. Common & M.S. Upton, in ANIC   ; 1 male, Lacey’s Creek , Mission Beach, 21.iv.1970, G.B. Monteith   ; 4 female, Hinchinbrook Is , NE Gayundah Ck, 7–15.xi.1984, Monteith, Cook & Thompson   ; 1 male, 1 female, Forestry Road , 30 ml [ca 48 km] SW of Ingham, light trap, 18.iv.1961, R. Straatman, in ANIC   ; 1 male, Shute Harb. , 3.iii.1964, “ Parathyginus doddi (Dist.) GGE Scudder 1965   ”, I.F.B. Common & MS Upton, in ANIC   ; 1 female, Bucasia , 28.ii.2006, K.J. Sandery, in ANIC   ; 1 male, 2 female, St Lawrence , 18.5 km W, 22.21S 149.21E, 240 m, pyrethrum rainforest trees, 9271, 29.v.2000, G.B. Monteith GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 5 km S Byfield , 28.i.1975, B.K. Cantrell, in QDPI   ; 1 male, Heron Is , Barrier Reef, at light, 25.xi.1968, Britton & Misko, in ANIC   ; 1 female, Carnarvon , 29.v.1954, T.E.Woodward, “ Parathyginus signifer (Walk.) GGE Scudder   det. 1957’ “compared with type GGE Scudder”   ; 1 male, Gayndah , 10.iii.1939, in QDPI   ; 1 male, Kilcoy , 8.ix.1962, G. Monteith   ; 1 female, Brisbane , on Macadamia, 31.v.1981, K.J. Houston, in QDPI   ; 1 male, Brisbane , 16.ix.1957, G. Ettershank   , 1 male, same locality, light, 24.iii.1958, T.E. Woodward   , 3 male, 2 female, Brisbane (Albert Park), weeping fig, colonies on bark, 1.iv.1968, K.J. Grisemann (JHB), in QDPI   ; 1 female, Caloundra , 12.xi.1983, on Ficus, G.B. Monteith.   NORTHERN TERRITORY   : 1 female, 1 km N Cahills Crossing, East Alligator River , 12.25S 132.58E, at light, 3.vi.1973, R.I. Kitching, in ANIC GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, West Alligator River mouth, WA1 RF, 22–24.vii.1979, G. Monteith & D. Cook   ; 1 female, Amphitheatre Crystal Falls , Nitmulik NP, 16–17.iii.1975, Monteith & Janetzki   .

Redescription. Colour. ( Figs. 1–7 View FIGURES 1–4 View FIGURES 5–7 ). Body testaceous, shining ( Figs. 1, 4 View FIGURES 1–4 ), nearly fusiform, body beneath castaneous. Head castaneous, apex of tylus, and central longitudinal line between ocelli ochraceous, antennae ochraceous, apices of first, second, and third segments, nearly the whole of fourth pale castaneous, Pronotum ochraceous, somewhat darkly punctate, a broad sub-anterior, transverse fascia, two central longitudinal spots at base, and a submarginal line on posterior lobe castaneous. Scutellum castaneous, with a Y-shaped carina at middle ochraceous. Legs, labium, and disc and segmental marginal spots on abdominal sternum ochraceous. Mid and hind femora with subapical pale brown bands. Corium ochraceous, coarsely punctate, its extreme apical margin piceous; membrane pale bronzy or brown.

Body. (measurements are means, followed by ranges of 5 (2 male and 3 female) specimens measured in parentheses). Length including wings 7.41 (6.35–8.42); maximum width across abdomen 1.88 (1.71–1.90).

Head. Nearly triangular, finely punctate; eyes more stylate in male than in female ( Figs. 1, 4 View FIGURES 1–4 ), head length 1.19 (1.14–1.33); width across eyes 1.60 (1.48–1.74); interocular space 0.94 (0.87–1.02); interocellar space 0.42 (0.38–0.45); eye-ocellar space 0.17 (0.16–0.19); eye length 0.44 (0.40–0.49); eye width 0.34 (0.30–0.38). Antennae slender, second segment longest, third a little longer than fourth; lengths of segments: I 0.74 (0.57–0.79), II 1.69 (1.25–1.75), III 1.18 (0.95–1.17), IV 1.13 (0.91–1.17). Labium reaching middle coxae, lengths of segments: I 0.90 (0.80–1.02), II 0.99 (0.83–1.06), III 0.79 (0.64–0.87), IV 0.57 (0.53–0.60).

Thorax. Pronotum much narrower in front, with slight transverse furrow just before middle, with central longitudinal carina and with sub anterior transverse calli slightly globose and very sparingly punctate. Length pronotum 1.40 (1.21–1.55); width at anterior margin 1.12 (0.95–1.21); width at posterior margin 1.88 (1.63–2.09). Scutellum coarsely punctate, with a forked keel abbreviated anteriorly, length 1.56 (1.48–1.71), width 1.10 (1.06–1.21). Hemelytra extending to tip of abdomen, length of hemelytra 5.00 (4.68–5.46); length of corium 3.62 (3.20–3.90); claval commissure 0.45 (0.41–0.46).

Abdomen. Posterolateral angles of segments V, VI and VII produced to acute spinules ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 8–13 , arrowed). Inner laterotergites absent.

Male tergum and sternum moderate to heavy dark, except narrow continuous band along connexival area of all segments except VII, pale ( Figs. 5 View FIGURES 5–7 , 8, 9 View FIGURES 8–13 ). Female tergum uniformly dark except connexival areas pale, sternum with discal area shiny and light dark; connexiva of segments II–VI pale alternating with dark bands, of segment VII dark like remainder of sternum ( Figs. 6, 7 View FIGURES 5–7 , 10, 11 View FIGURES 8–13 ).

Male genitalia. Pygophore posterior margin entire, without a median process ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 8–13 ).

Paramere ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 8–13 ) with inner margin of curved blade without sub-basal tooth, tip broadly angularly, truncately rounded, widest subapically; outer margin of blade with slight indentation subapically. Aedeagus ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 14–20 ) as in genus description, ejaculatory reservoir ( Figs. 17, 18 View FIGURES 14–20 , er) greatly reduced to a lightly sclerotised scar on thickened seminal duct ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 14–20 , sd), tubular conjunctiva near here with enlarged membranous lobes, distal to this is vesica with seminal duct ( Figs. 17, 18 View FIGURES 14–20 , sd) modified to a heavily sclerotized narrow plate that is apically enlarged and roundly bent, continuing as a complex structure as in Figs. 17, 18 View FIGURES 14–20 .

Female genitalia. Ovipositor slender, as in Fig. 19 View FIGURES 14–20 .

Spermatheca ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 14–20 ), extremely long, thin, in the form of irregularly coiled tubular mass, duct slightly broader near base, apex gradually narrowed and lacking an apical bulb.

Distribution. Sri Lanka, Japan (Ryukyus), Taiwan, China, Philippines, Thailand (Rayong Prov.) and Australia (Queensland and Northern Territory) ( Slater 1964, Ban 2018, Cassis & Gross 2002, and present study).

Comments. There is considerable variation in body size and the colouration of body and appendages between male and female specimens from different localities or even within one locality. Colouration of abdominal connexiva also varies considerably in females, e.g., Hinchinbrook Island specimens have either all or most of segments II–VI with varying size and intensity pale bands ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5–7 ) or only segments III, V and VI with varying size pale bands or patches ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 5–7 ). Antennae, femora, and tibiae show variations in intensity and extent of brown markings on them. Existence of the foresaid colour variation in the specimens, including the types, examined in the present study has necessitated the establishment of the synonymy of P. doddi   with this species ( P. signifer   ).

Also, the degree of stylate nature of the eyes in males varies between specimens from different localities, e.g., Iron Range specimens appear to have eyes slightly smaller and more prominently stylate, particularly when viewed laterally, than the Brisbane specimens.

Distant (1901) noted that the New Guinea species Rhyparochromus divisus ( Walker, 1872)   is very closely allied to this species. The image and the brief description of the type specimen of the former species held at NHM seem to match well with Parathyginus signifier   . I am however reluctant to formally propose the synonymy here until further specimens become available for detailed examination including of the structures of genitalia.

The species has been collected from trees of Ficus sp.   in mountainous forests with several other heterogastrid and rhyparochromid species ( Cassis & Gross 2002, Ban 2018). Some of the museum specimens examined in the present study were collected at lights in different habitats including rainforests, or by pyrethrum fogging in rainforest trees, or recorded as associated with plants such as weeping fig ( Ficus benjamina   L.) or other Ficus species   ( Moraceae   ), and Pisonia brunoniana Endl.   ( Nyctaginaceae   ) and Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.   f. ex T. Anderson ( Clusiaceae   ).

QM

Queensland Museum

QDPI

Queensland Department of Primary Industries

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

SAM

South African Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Heterogastridae

Genus

Parathyginus

Loc

Parathyginus signifer ( Walker, 1872 )

Malipatil, M. B. 2021
2021
Loc

Parathyginus doddi:

Cassis, G. & Gross, G. F. 2002: 207
Slater, J. A. 1964: 770
1964
Loc

Parathyginus signifer:

Ban, T. 2018: 54
Cassis, G. & Gross, G. F. 2002: 207
Slater, J. A. 1964: 770
Scudder, G. G. E. 1957: 167
1957
Loc

Parathyginus doddi:

Scudder, G. G. E. 1957: 168
1957
Loc

Dinomachus doddi

Distant, W. L. 1918: 488
1918
Loc

Hyginus signifer:

Distant, W. L. 1901: 472
1901
Loc

Heterogaster signifer

Walker, F. 1872: 74
1872