Paraschistura kermanensis, Sayyadzadeh & Teimori & Esmaeili, 2019
Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz, Teimori, Azad & Esmaeili, Hamid Reza, 2019, Paraschistura kermanensis, a new stone loach species from southeastern Iran (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae), Zootaxa 4638 (4), pp. 571-583 : 574-582
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Paraschistura kermanensis , new species
Paratypes. ZM-CBSU H2443, 20, 43–54 mm SL; same as holotype.
Additional materials. ZM-SBUK11-46, 36, 36–68 mm SL; Iran: Kerman prov.: Bidkhoon River at Deh Bala village, 29°37’35.8’’N 56°30’32.63’’E; A. Teimori, M. Mehrparvar and M. Motamedi, 15 Aug. 2018.
Material used in the molecular genetic analysis. ZM-CBSU M2502, M2504, M2505; Kerman prov.: Bidkhoon River at Deh Bala village , 29°37’35.8’’N 56°30’32.63’’E (GenBank accession numbers: MN 061674 View Materials , GoogleMaps MN 061675 View Materials , MN 061676 View Materials ).— ZM-CBSU M2556, M2557, M2558; Iran: Kerman prov.: Bidkhoon River at Hanjam village , 29°39’51.2’’N 56°30’52.3’’E (GenBank accession numbers: MN 061677 View Materials , MN 061678 View Materials , MN 061679 View Materials ) GoogleMaps .
Diagnosis. Paraschistura kermanensis is distinguished from P. bampurensis , P. hormuzensis , P. ilamensis , P. nielseni , and P. susiani by lacking a suborbital flap or groove in males. It is distinguished from P. aredvii , P. delvarii , P. naumanni , P. kessleri and P. turcmenica by lacking scales on the flank anterior to the dorsal-fin origin and having scales on the caudal peduncle (vs. body fully covered by scales in P. aredvii , P. delvarii , P. naumanni ; and scales completely absent in P. kessleri and P. turcmenica ). It is further distinguished from P. abdolii , P. alta , P. cristata and P. turcmenica by having the pelvic-fin origin situated anterior to or below the vertical through the dorsal-fin origin (vs. posterior to the dorsal-fin origin). The new species is further distinguished from P. kessleri by having irregular or almost regularly-shaped dark-bars on the flank, faded in some individuals(vs. distinct, wide and regularly-shaped dark-bars on the flank, see Freyhof et al. 2015 fig. 9), and from P. lindbergi , from the westernmost regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan, by having scales on the caudal peduncle (vs. scales completely absent, see Freyhof et al. (2015). Among congeners studied for molecular characters, Paraschistura kermanensis is characterised by six fixed diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region studied and a K2P nearest neighbor distance of 4 % to P. abdolii ( Table 2 View TABLE 2 ).
Description. For general appearance and morphometric data see Figures 3–8 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 and Table 3 View TABLE 3 . Small sized and moderately elongate species with short head. Body deepest at or slightly anterior to dorsal-fin origin, depth moderately decreasing towards caudal-fin base. No hump at nape. Greatest body width at pectoral-fin base. Section of head roundish, flattened on ventral surface. Caudal peduncle compressed laterally, 1.1–1.4 (mean 1.2) times longer than deep. Pectoral fin reaching approximately 50–67 % of distance from pectoral-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin. Pelvic axillarylobe ovoid, fully attached to body or absent. Pelvic-fin origin anterior toor below vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Pelvic fin not reaching to anus. Anal-fin origin about 1.5 times eye diameter behind anus. Anal-fin origin anterior to vertical through halfway between dorsal- and caudal-fin origins. No adipose keels on caudal peduncle. Margin of dorsal fin straight or slightly convex. Caudal fin slightly to deeply emarginate. Largest known specimen 68 mm SL.
Dorsal fin with 3–4 unbranched and 6 – 7½ branched rays. Anal fin with 2–3 unbranched and 5½ branched rays. Caudal fin with 8+7 (5), 8+8 (7) or 9+8 (3) branched rays. Pectoral fin with 10–11 and pelvic fin with 7–8 branched rays. Back and flank anterior to dorsal-fin origin without scales. Few or many small scales, often isolated and deeply embedded on caudal peduncle. Lateral line incomplete, reaching to vertical through dorsal-fin origin or below dorsal-fin base, posterior to dorsal-fin in few individuals. Anterior nostril opening at the end of a low, pointed and flap-like tube. Nostrils separated by a narrow space, anterior nostril not overlapping posterior nostril when folded backwards. No suborbital flap or groove. Mouth small, strongly arched ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ). Lips moderately thick, with many deep furrows. A deep median interruption in lower lip. Upper lip with median incision. Barbels short, inner rostral barbel reaching to a point at 2/3 of distance between inner rostral barbel and base of maxillary barbel; outer one reaching to base of maxillary barbel. Maxillary barbel reaching vertical through anterior part or middle of eye.
Coloration: Body pale-brown or yellowish. Upper part of head, opercula and snout covered by dark-brown small blotches, cheeks pale with few dark-brown dots on top. Flank with 4–21 regularly- or irregularly-shaped dark brown bars. Bars absent in some individuals, often blurred or dissociated into a marmorate pattern. Bars often dissociate on back but usually meeting their homologues on caudal peduncle. A bold black spot at base of unbranched and first branched dorsal-fin rays. An irregularly-shaped bold black bar at caudal-fin base. Dorsal and caudal fins with dark brown elongated blotches on rays, forming 2–3 vertical rows in dorsal fin and 2–4 vertical rows in caudal fin. Anal-fin with dark brown elongated blotches on rays forming 1–3 vertical rows. Pectoral fin with elongated dark-brown blotches on rays; pelvic fin hyaline or with few dark-brown blotches on rays in some individuals, hyaline in others.
Etymology. The species is named for the Kerman province where the type material was collected.
Remarks. Freyhof et al. (2015) identified all Paraschistura populations from Kerman province as P. abdolii . Paraschistura abdolii is known from three drainage basins in southern Iran: The Kol drainage, which flows to the Persian Gulf, the endorheic Sirjan basin where it is known from the Baft River drainage, and the western tributaries of the endorheic Hamun-e Jaz Murian basin. Paraschistura kermanensis was found in the adjacent Kerman-Naein basin ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). The two species are very similar to each other superficially, but P. kermanensis is distinguished from P. abdolii by having a larger pre-dorsal distance (53.5–56.0 vs. 49.2–53.0), having the pelvic-fin origin situated anterior to or below the vertical through the dorsal-fin origin (vs. posterior to the dorsal-fin origin), a K2P near- est neighbour distance of 4%, and six fixed diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region studied.
Comparative material. All from Iran.
Paraschistura abdolii : ZMCBSU J3030, 2, 52–55 mm SL; Kerman prov.: Kogar River at Baft, 29°15’26”N 56°24’57”E.— ZM-CBSU J3904, 32, 32–51 mm SL; Kerman prov.: Pol River at road between Rayen and Jiroft, 29°21’06”N 57°29’09”E GoogleMaps .— ZM-CBSU 2011-1516, 5, 42–50 mm SL; Yazd prov.: Nahr e Masih (Masih spring), south east of Herat, 30°01’ 56”N 54°19’54”E GoogleMaps .— ZM-CBSU 384, 3, 36–38 mm SL; Fars prov.: Qatroyeh qanat at Qatroyeh village ,, 29°10’12”N 54°41’03”E GoogleMaps .
Paraschistura alta : ZM-CBSU H2239, 15, 51–81 mm SL; Sistan & Baluchistan prov.: Zabol, a pool at Zahak, 30°51’54”N, 61°33’06”E.
Paraschistura bampurensis : ZM-CBSU 2012–1528, 1, 31 mm SL; Sistan & Baluchestan prov.: Sarbaz River at Chahbahar, 26°08’33”N 61°26’24”E.—ZM-CBSU 383, 1, 59 mm SL; ZM-CBSU N160, 8, 22–48 mm SL; ZM-CBSU N1010, 50, 20–53 mm SL; Sistan & Baluchestan prov.: Irandegan River at Irandegan, 27°53’22”N 61°05’35”E.—ZM-CBSU N1137, 3, 43–50 mm SL; Sistan & Baluchestan prov.: Sarbaz River at Sarbaz, 26°08’33”N 61°26’24”E.—ZMCBSU N1257, 1, 43 mm SL; Sistan & Baluchestan prov.: Sarbaz River at Sarbaz, 26°33’36”N 61°13’12”E.—ZM-CBSU N430, 1, 42 mm SL; Sistan & Baluchestan prov.: Kormadkor River at Sara- van, 27°19’41”N 62°21’26”E.
Paraschistura cristata : ZM-CBSU J2921, 8, 35–59 mm SL; Khorasan Razavi prov.: Qanat at Bakharz village, about 30 km south-west of Torbat-e Jam, 35°02’03”N 60°18’19”E.— ZM-CBSU J2930, 5, 21–29 mm SL; Khorasan Razavi prov.: Qanat at Jahan Abad , about 20 km north of Torbat-e Jam , 35°24’46”N 60°34’08”E GoogleMaps .
Paraschistura delvarii : ZM-CBSU J3304, 9, 36.9–50.7 mm SL; Fars prov.: Qareh Aqaj River, near Tangab dam at Firuzabad, 28°57’48.11’’N 52°33’15.54’’E.— ZM-CBSU H2038, 1, 38.2 mm SL; Fars prov.: Qareh Aqaj River at Khanzenian , 29°41′13.0″N, 52°02′58.6″E GoogleMaps .
Paraschistura ilamensis : ZM-CBSU J3247, 29, 30–41 mm SL; Khozestan prov.: Bala River (Balarud) at Dezful, 32°20’14”N 48°17’14”E.
Paraschistura susiani : ZM-CBSU J3009, 15, 30–38 mm SL; Khozestan prov.: Zard River close to Rudzard village at road from Ramhormoz to Baghmalek, 31°22’34”N 49°43’11”E.
Paraschistura turcmenica : ZM-CBSU 1521, 4, 36–40 mm SL; ZM-CBSU J3277, 6, 27–37 mm SL; Khorasan Razavi prov.: Khiyaban qanat at Khiyaban village, 34°44’10”N 60°34’29”E.— ZM-CBSU J2935, 5, 19–30 mm SL; Khorasan Razavi prov.: Qanat at Jahan Abad , 35°24’46”N 60°34’08”E GoogleMaps .
Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics
Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
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