Nyctimystes Stejneger, 1916,

Duellman, William E., Marion, Angela B. & Hedges, Blair, 2016, Phylogenetics, classification, and biogeography of the treefrogs (Amphibia: Anura: Arboranae), Zootaxa 4104 (1), pp. 1-109: 39-40

publication ID

publication LSID

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Nyctimystes Stejneger, 1916


Nyctimystes Stejneger, 1916 

Nyctimystes Stejneger, 1916: 85  . Type species: Nyctimantis papua Boulenger, 1897  , by monotypy.

Sandyrana Wells  and Wellington. 1985: 6. Type species: Hyla infrafrenata Günther, 1867  , by original designation.

Definition. Pupil vertically elliptical; palpebral membrane reticulated ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16. A C). Stream-adapted tadpoles with large, ventral oral discs having a LTRF of 2 / 3. Chromosome complement 2 n = 26. See Remarks for different characteristics of Nyctimystes infrafrenatus  .

Content. Thirty-eight species: Nyctimystes avocalis  * Zweifel, bivocalis * Kraus, brevipalmatus (Tyler, Martin & Watson)  new combination, calcaratus  * Menzies, cheesmani Tyler  , cryptochrysos * Kraus, daymani * Zweifel, disruptus * Tyler, dux (Richards & Oliver)  new combination, eucavatus * Menzies, fluviatilis * Zweifel, foricula Tyler  , granti * (Boulenger), gularis * Parker, humeralis (Boulenger)  , infrafrenatus (Günther)  , new combination, intercastellus * Kraus, kubori Zweifel  , kuduki * Richards, latratus * Menzies, montanus * (Peters & Doria), myolae * Menzies, narinosus Zweifel  , obsoletus * (Lönnberg), ocreptus * Menzies, papua (Boulenger)  , perimetri * Zweifel, persimilis * Zweifel, pulcher (Wandolleck)  , purpureolatus * (Oliver, Richards, Tjaturadi & Iskander) new combination, rueppelli * (Boettger), sanguinolenta * (Van Kampen) new combination, semipalmatus Parker  , trachydermis * Zweifel, traunae * Menzies, tyleri  * Zweifel, and zweifeli (Tyler)  .

Distribution. New Guinea and associated islands; eastern Australia from the York Peninsula to New South Wales.

Etymology. The generic name is derived from the Greek nycktos meaning night and the Greek myst meaning mystic; the name alludes to the mysteries of the night. The gender is masculine.

Remarks. Frogs of the genus Nyctimystes  have been treated thoroughly by Zweifel (1958), Tyler and Davies (1979), and Menzies (2006), but the recognition of the genus has been controversial. In our analysis that includes only about one third of the species of Nyctimystes  , all but three species are in a tight cluster with a support value of 100 %. The immediate sister species of that clade is N. brevipalmatus  , a species widely distributed in eastern Australia. Nyctimystes dux  and N. infrafrenatus  ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16. A D) form an outlying branch to the rest of the genus.

Hyla infrafrenata  ” Günther is a highly enigmatic species. Molecular data (99 % bootstrap support) clearly place it in Nyctimystes  , whereas morphologically it is like Litoria  in having a horizontal pupil and no reticulations on the palpebral membrane ( Tyler 1968). Furthermore, unlike species of Nyctimystes  , it breeds in ponds and has pigmented eggs that hatch into tadpoles with small anteroventral mouths ( Anstis 2013). Last, it is the only pelodryadid known to have a chromosome complement of 2 n = 24 ( Menzies & Tippet 1976). The taxonomic position of this species awaits more data and further interpretation to determine if it belongs in Litoria  , Nyctimystes  , or in its own genus; if the latter, the generic name Sandyrana Wells  and Wellington is available.




Nyctimystes Stejneger, 1916

Duellman, William E., Marion, Angela B. & Hedges, Blair 2016


Stejneger 1916: 85

Nyctimantis papua

Boulenger 1897

Hyla infrafrenata Günther, 1867

Gunther 1867