Holoaden suarezi, Martins, Itamar A. & Zaher, Hussam, 2013

Martins, Itamar A. & Zaher, Hussam, 2013, A new species of the highland frog genus Holoaden (Amphibia, Strabomantidae) from cloud forests of southeastern Brazil, Zootaxa 3599 (2), pp. 178-188: 179-185

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.222736

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B04BEFE6-86E0-4F43-A578-DAEFCA7FCDB6

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5628864

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03EC5823-2A69-AE64-C9AC-FD36FD0894D5

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Holoaden suarezi
status

sp. nov.

Holoaden suarezi   sp. nov.

Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 A, B; 2 A, B; 3 A; 4 A

Holotype. MZUSP 131872, adult female collected at Estação Ecológica de Bananal (22 ° 47 ’ 42 ” S, 44 ° 21 ’ 36 ” W, 1220 m above sea level), municipality of Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on 18 December 2003 by H. Zaher, A. P. Suarez, E. A. Domenico, T. Camolez, R. Clemente, R Masiero, and P. Nunes.

Paratypes. MZUSP 23794, adult female collected at Estação Biológica de Boracéia (23 ° 38 ’ S, 45 ° 52 ’ W), municipality of Salesópolis, State of São Paulo, on 23 March 1963 by A. S. Rand and P. Rand. MZUSP 94415, an adult male collected at Campo de Fruticultura da Bocaina (presently known as Ponte Alta, inside of Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina) (22 ° 42 ’ S, 44 ° 38 ’ W), Municipality of São José do Barreiro, state of São Paulo, on 0 3 November 1965 by W. C. A. Bokermann (ex WCAB 37146); MZUSP 138348, adult male collected at Estação Biológica de Boracéia (23 ° 38 ’ S, 45 ° 52 ’ W), Municipality of Salesópolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on 0 6 November 2003 by M. T. Rodrigues, V. Verdade, and M. C. Lange.

Diagnosis. Holoaden suarezi   can be recognized by the following combination of characters: (1) a moderate body size (female 42.6–44.2 mm SVL; male 37.2–38.5 mm SVL) indicating sexual dimorphism in size; (2) dorsum and head textures densely glandular (macroglands), with glands reaching the internasal region; (3) thigh and tibia with glandular texture; (4) forearms long and very slender; (5) legs and toes long and slender; (6) toe tips rounded, fingers not webbed nor fringed; (7) few supernumerary tubercles on the palmar region, (8) outer metatarsal tubercle elliptical, small; (9) texture of outer tarsal and sole of foot smooth; (10) iris black in living specimens; (11) tympanic membrane poorly or not visible.

Comparisons with other species. Holoaden suarezi   differs from H. bradei   by a larger body size ( Holoaden suarezi   = males 37.2–38.5 mm SVL; females 42.6–44.2 mm SVL; H. bradei   = males 10.1–28.4 mm SVL; females 26.4–36.8 mm SVL) ( Table 1 View TABLE 1 ), longer limbs ( Holoaden suarezi   = forearms 11.2–12.2 mm and 13.0– 13.1 mm, thighs 17.8 –18.0 mm and 19.7–19.9 mm, tibia 16.9–17.7 mm and 18.3–18.7 mm in males and females, respectively; H. bradei   = forearms 2.2–6.7 mm and 5.3–7.5 mm, thighs 4.3–11.9 mm and 5.9–12.1, tibia 3.6–10.9 mm and 6.0– 12.1 mm in males and females, respectively) ( Table 1 View TABLE 1 ), and a uniformly dark brown coloration (upper surface of dorsum olive brown with irregular and dispersed black marks in H. bradei   ). Holoaden suarezi   differs from H. luederwaldti   by an uniformly dark brown coloration (dorsal surface brown to dark purple-brown or redbrown and ventral surface cream in H. luederwaldti   ), longer forearms, thighs, and tibia ( Holoaden suarezi   = forearms 11.2–12.2 mm and 13.0– 13.1 mm, thighs 17.8 –18.0 mm and 19.7–19.9 mm, tibia 16.9–17.7 mm and 18.3–18.7 mm in males and females, respectively; H. luederwaldti   = forearms 7.9–11.6 mm and 9.1–12.1 mm, thighs 11.7–17.5 mm and 15.5–18.2 mm, tibia 8.0–17.0 mm and 10.2–17.2 mm in males and females, respectively) ( Table 1 View TABLE 1 ), a longer length of the head that corresponds to 79 % of its width (65 % of head width in H. luederwaldti   ), and a black iris coloration in live specimens (brown iris in H. luederwaldti   ). Holoaden suarezi   differs from H. pholeter   an uniformly dark grey ventral surface of the body (ventral surface of the body dark brown with a light abdominal blotch of variable size in H. pholeter   ) ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ), dense glandular granules on the dorsal surface of the head and body that extend to the internasal region (glandular granules extend to the inter-orbital region in H. pholeter   ), thigh and tibia also covered by glandular granules (thigh and tibia smooth in H. pholeter   ) ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ), a distinct and strait canthus rostralis (canthus rostralis weakly marked and slightly concave in H. pholeter   ) ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 and 2 View FIGURE 2 ), and a shorter length of the head that corresponds to 79 % of its width (94 % in H. pholeter   ).

Description of the holotype. Female with oocytes in the initial stage of development; The oocytes are unpigmented; Body robust; head large, wider than long ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 and 2 View FIGURE 2 ), head length 30 % of SVL and head width 38 % of SVL; head length corresponds to 79 % of head width; snout nearly rounded in dorsal view and almost rounded in lateral view ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A, B); nostril elliptical and slightly protuberant, directed laterally; canthus rostralis distinct, straight; loreal region concave; eye large, protruding, lateral and slightly forward, eye diameter 30 % of head length; pupil round; tympanic not visible externally or poorly visible; a glandular supratympanic fold extending from the corner of the eye to the insertion of the forearm ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A); tongue large; two short transverse series of vomerine teeth behind and between choanae; choanae elliptical; numerous teeth on maxilla and premaxillae; arms very slender; forearms slender; fingers long and slender, forearm length 30 % of SVL; finger lengths II≤IV<I<III; hand length 24 % of SVL; finger tips rounded; fingers not webbed nor fringed; subarticular tubercles single, rounded; inner metacarpal tubercle large and nearly elliptical; outer metacarpal tubercle ovoid; few supernumerary tubercles on the palmar region ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A); legs long and slender, thigh and tibia length 46 % and 44 % of SVL, respectively; toes very long and slender, toe lengths I<II<V<III<IV; toe tips rounded, with poorly expanded disc; toes not webbed nor fringed; subarticular tubercles single, elliptical or round; inner metatarsal tubercle elliptical; outer metatarsal tubercle elliptical, small; outer tarsal and sole of foot texture smooth ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A); foot length 41.6 % of SVL; thigh and tibia with glandular texture; dorsal surface of head and body with glandular texture; the glandular granulation extends to the internasal region ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B); arm and forearm smooth; venter smooth ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A, B).

Color of the holotype in preservative. Dorsal surfaces of the head, dorsum, limbs, and flanks dark brown; lateral and ventral surfaces clear brown; palmar and plantar tubercles and tips of digits light brown, similar to ventral coloration ( Figs. 1–4 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 ).

Measurements of the holotype. SVL 42.6; HL 13.1; HW 16.5; ED 5.1; IOD 6.7; END 3.9; IND 3.1; AL 9.4; FAL 13.0; HAL 10.7; FL 19.7; TL 18.7; FOL 18.2.

Color in life. Dorsal surfaces of the head, body, and limbs deeply dark brown. The glandular portion of the lateral surface dark brown; flanks and ventral surfaces of the body and limbs slightly lighter than dorsum; palmar and plantar tubercles and tips of digits light gray; eyes black ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ).

Variation. Males were smaller and with more robust forearms than females ( Tables 1 View TABLE 1 and 2 View TABLE 2 ). Otherwise, no conspicuous qualitative differences were found between the available specimens, which were very similar to the holotype in external morphology and color pattern.

Distribution. So far, Holoaden suarezi   was recorded in three localities of high altitude (between 900 and 1300 m) in the State of São Paulo, situated in the Atlantic Forest Domain (sensu Ab’Saber 1977) of the Serra do Mar mountain range. The three localities are situated in the municipalities of Bananal (Estação Ecológica de Bananal), São José do Barreiro (Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina), and Salesópolis (Estação Biológica de Boracéia) ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ).

Currently, Holoaden suarezi   is endemic of the Serra do Mar in the State of São Paulo, and is geographically isolated from H. luederwaldti   and H. bradei   , which are endemic species of the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range. Although H. pholeter   also occurs in the Atlantic Forest Domain of the Serra do Mar mountain range, it is an endemic species of the Serra dos Órgãos that corresponds to a geographically isolated eastern portion of the Serra do Mar in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Pombal et al. 2008; Martins 2010).

Etymology. A patronym honoring José Roberto Alves Suarez, Forest Ranger from the Instituto Florestal of São Paulo who dedicated most of his long-time career to the preservation of São Paulo’s high altitude Atlantic forest remnants and their fauna.

Natural history. The holotype and paratype MZUSP 138348 were captured in pitfall traps during the months of highest precipitations (November and December 2003). Heyer et al. (1990) mentioned that MZUSP 23794 was taken from the ground on a forest trail at night. MZUSP 23794 contained a small number of large and unpigmented eggs. Similar eggs were reported in H. bradei ( Lutz 1958)   , H. luederwaldti ( Martins 2010)   , and H. pholeter (Pombal et al. 2008)   . Its vocalization is unknown.

TABLE 1. Measurements (in millimeters) of Holoaden suarezi sp. nov., Holoaden bradei, Holoaden luederwaldti, and Holoaden pholeter (Pombal et al., 2008). * Measurements include juveniles that were not sexed.

  H. suarezi   sp nov H. bradei   H. luederwaldti   H. pholeter  
Snout-vent length Male Female (n=2) (n=2) 37.2; 38.5 42.6; 44.2 Male Female (n=134)* (n=18) 10.1–28.4 26.4–36.8 Male Female (n=26) (n=8) 27.1–39.9 39.3–42.8 Mal Female e (1) (n=2) 41.6 44.6; 47.7
Head width 14.6; 15.9 16.5; 17.1 3.7–10.3 8.5–12.2 10.1–16.0 13.7–16.3 16.4 16.3; 19.3
Head length 13.1; 13.6 13.0; 13.1 2.7–6.9 4.6–8.3 6.6–11.0 8.3–11.3 14.7 15.2; 18.4
Eye diameter 4,6; 4.8 5.1; 5.6 1.2–3.2 2.0–3.5 4.2- 6.1 5.1–6.2 4.7 5.4; 6.6
Eye-nostril distance 3.5; 3.5 3.9; 4.2 0.7–2.0 1.2–2.6 3.0–4.4 3.1–4.5 3.7 4.6; 4.4
Inter-orbital distance 6.0; 6.4 6.7; 6.9; 1.3–5.1 4.4–5.5 7.1–11.9 7.2–10.5 4.2 5.9; 6.2
Internasal distance 2.9; 3.0 3.1; 3.3 1.0–2.4 2.1–2.8 3.6–5.1 4.4–5.2 3.1 3.6; 3.4
Arm length 8.1; 9.5 9.0; 9.4 1.8–5.6 4.1–6.6 5.7–8.4 7.1–8.8 – –
Forearm length Femur length 11.2; 12.2 13.0; 13.1 17.8; 18.0 19.7; 19.9 2.2–6.7 5.3–7.5 4.3–11.9 5.9–12.1 7.9–11.6 9.0–12.1 11.7–17.5 15.5–18.2 11.9 12.9; 12.8 17.7 19.9; 20.6
Tibia length Foot length 16.9; 17.7 18.3; 18.7 16.6; 17.5 17.9; 18.2 3.6–10.9 6.0–12.1 3.7–12.7 10.9–14.5 8.0–17.0 10.2–17.2 10.6–16.9 14.9–17.5 18.0 19.0; 19.3 17.7 17.7; 19.5
Hand length 9.2; 10.4 10.7; 10.9 2.1–7.2 4.7–7.8 6.6–11.0 9.1–11.0 11.0 11.2; 12.0

TABLE 2. Measurements (in millimeters) of paratypes of Holoaden suarezi sp. nov.

  Male Female
  MZUSP-94415 MZUSP-138348 MZUSP-23794
Snout-vent length 38.5 37.2 44.2
Head width 15.9 14.6 17.1
Head length 13.6 13.3 13.0
Eye diameter 4.8 4.6 5.6
Eye-nostril distance 3.5 3.5 4.2
Inter-orbital distance 6.4 6.0 6.9
Internasal distance 3.0 2.9 3.3
Arm length 9.5 8.1 9.0
Forearm length 11.2 12.2 13.1
Femur length 17.8 18.0 19.9
Tibia length 16.9 17.7 18.3
Foot length 16.6 17.5 17.9
Hand length 10.4 9.2 10.9
MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

HAL

Martin-Luther-Universität

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Amphibia

Order

Anura

Family

Strabomantidae

Genus

Holoaden