Bruchophagus lecomtei Delvare

Delvare, G., Escolà, A. Ribes, Stojanova, A. M., Benoit, L., Lecomte, J. & Askew, R. R., 2019, Exploring insect biodiversity: the parasitic Hymenoptera, chiefly Chalcidoidea, associated with seeds of asphodels (Xanthorrhoeaceae), with the description of nine new species belonging to Eurytomidae and Torymidae, Zootaxa 4597 (1), pp. 1-90: 42-49

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4597.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F8FD30CA-1B84-4134-91BC-B69736DB0EA8

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5584431

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03ED8793-FFD0-3B32-D9F0-A0B1E14DFB35

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bruchophagus lecomtei Delvare
status

sp. n.

Bruchophagus lecomtei Delvare   sp. n.

( Figs 19 View FIGURE 19 , 20 View FIGURES 20 A–D, 21A–H; Tab. 4 View TABLE 4 , 5 View TABLE 5 )

Type material. Holotype ♀ [GDEL1544]: FRANCE: Pyrénées-Orientales, Banyuls-sur-Mer, San Miguel , 37 m, 42.47944°N 3.11092°E, ex seed of A. fistulosus   , 06.vi.2011, adult emergence on 28.iv.2012 (J. Lecomte) (in BMNH) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes. Same data as holotype but adult emergence 24–28.iv.2012 (vouchers GDEL1622 ♀, GDEL1623 ♀, GDEL1624 ♂, in CIRAD; 18 ♀ 19 ♂, in BMNH, MNHN and GDPC,) GoogleMaps   ; same locality but females collected on flowers of the asphodel, 27.iv.2014 (G. Delvare) (vouchers GDEL1625 ♀, and GDEL1626 ♀, in CIRAD) GoogleMaps   ; same locality but females emerged on 23–27.iv.2014 (J. Lecomte) (5 ♀, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Hérault, Mireval, 10 m, 43.51222°N 3.80372°E, adults collected on flowers of A. fistulosus   , 05.v.2012 (G. Delvare) (vouchers GDEL1619 ♀, GDEL1620 ♀, GDEL1621 ♂, in CIRAD; 22 ♀ 13 ♂, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; same locality but ex seeds of A. fistulosus   , 29.iv.2014 (G. Delvare) (1 ♀ 5 ♂, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   .

Other material. MOROCCO: Asilah, 35.2906°N 6.0130°W, sweeping herbaceous layer 04.v.1997 (G. Delvare) (1 ♀, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   . SPAIN: Alicante, Calpe, 39.71678°N 5.25167°W, sweeping herbaceous layer, 28–31.v.1991 (H. Tussac) (14 ♀, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Castellón, Vinaròs , 10 m, 40.49368°N 0.20821°E, ex seeds A. fistulosus   , 07–08.vi.2012 (A. Ribes) (3 ♀, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Lleida, Alfes , 41.54843°N 0.65482°E, ex seeds A. fistulosus   , 21.vi.2011 adult emerged 18.v.2012 (A. Ribes) (13 ♀ 3 ♂; in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; La Granja d'Escarp , 90 m, 41.40481°N 0.33695°E, ex seeds A. fistulosus   , 20.iii.2012 adult emerged 14.iv–03.v.2012 (A. Ribes) (14 ♀ 9 ♂, in GDPC; 6 ♀ 11 ♂, 6 in RAPC) GoogleMaps   ; Sarroca , 205 m, 41.42244°N 0.56101°E, ex seeds A. fistulosus   , 30.v.2008 adult emerged 11.v.2009 (A. Ribes) (2 ♂, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; same locality, asphodel and collector, collected on 30.v.2008 (103 ♀ 86 ♂, in MNCN and RAPC) and 07.v.2009 (18 ♀ 20 ♂) GoogleMaps   ; Utxesa , 140 m, 41.4048°N 0.54871°E, ex seeds A. fistulosus   , 27.v.2011 adult emerged 14.v.2012 (A. Ribes) (8 ♀ 3 ♂, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Tarragona, Garcia , 75 m, 41.13127°N 0.65186°E, ex seeds A. fistulosus   , 07–09.vi.2012 (A. Ribes) (2 ♀ 4 ♂, in GDPC; 6 ♀ 5 ♂, in MNCN and RAPC) GoogleMaps   ; Cambrils , 41.06833°N 1.05388°E, sweeping herbaceous layer, 16.v.1991 (H. Tussac) (9 ♀, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Zaragoza, S Zaragoza , 41.60166°N 1.07501°W, sweeping herbaceous layer (G. Delvare) (6 ♀, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology. This species is dedicated to Jean Lecomte for his welcome during the visits of GD, his contribution to the illustration of the chalcid wasps associated with asphodels, providing photographs of live adults on flowers, and for his assistance in the sampling.

Condition of holotype. Specimen complete, glued on rectangular card, with left wings removed and glued on the same card.

Description of female holotype. Body size 2.5 mm. Body colour and setation as in B. gijswijti   but setation of fore and hind wing entirely white ( Figs 19 View FIGURE 19 , 21G View FIGURES 21 ). Mandible brown on disc, galea and labium whitish.

Head 1.83× as wide as long in dorsal view ( Fig. 21B View FIGURES 21 ). Eyes separated by 1.53× their own height; POL 2.15× as OOL and OOL 1.56× posterior ocellus diameter; temple as long as one third of eye length; anterior margin of frons somewhat convex in dorsal view; vertex laterally and mesally irregularly squamous. Head 1.34× as wide as high in frontal view, almost subcircular, with dorsal margin of vertex and lateral margin of gena evidently convex ( Fig. 21A View FIGURES 21 ). Malar space 0.61× as long as height of eye and 0.56× as long as width of oral fossa. Lower edge of antennal toruli about at mid-distance between ventral margin of clypeus and anterior ocellus, clearly above lower eye margin. Mandibles both 3-toothed with lower tooth deeply separated from median one. Labrum with 4 setae. Clypeus smooth, somewhat protruding ventrally and very faintly emarginate mesally; anterior tentorial pits visible; lower face virtually flat with radiating wrinkles originating from sides of clypeus and alternating with punctures; small area of coriaceous sculpture visible below interantennal projection; setation orientated downwards on face, outwards on the punctured frons; malar sulcus fine but complete. Surface of scrobal depression virtually smooth, with squamous sculpture quite superficial.

Antenna ( Fig. 21C View FIGURES 21 ). Scape linear 4.5× as long as wide. Pedicel plus flagellum taken together 0.84× as long as width of head. Pedicel 1.65× as long as wide. Funicle 5-segmented; F1 somewhat shorter than pedicel; F1 and F5 respectively 1.27× and 0.86× as long as wide; each funicular with a single row of MPS and 2 whorls of long setae. Clava effectively 2-segmented with the vestige of the suture visible between the second row of MPS and the tapering apex of clava ( Figs 20B View FIGURES 20 , 21D View FIGURES 21 ).

Mesosoma 1.76× as long as wide and 1.46× as long as high; its dorsal surface nearly regularly arched. Anterior outline of mesepisternum distinctly convex; propodeum strongly sloping. Pro- and mesonotum regularly, densely but superficially areolate-punctured, bearing setae somewhat longer than diameter of punctures ( Fig. 21E View FIGURES 21 ); the setae subdecumbent except on mesoscutellum where they are suberect and oriented towards the median line; interspaces narrow, not sculptured. Lateral panel of pronotum reticulate squamose. Pronotum, and mesoscutum respectively 2.09× and 1.74× as wide as long; mesoscutellum 1.11× as long as wide. Notauli impressed throughout but obliterated by sculpture of mesoscutum, their inner and outer margins not step-like. Axillar groove deep and step-like with a pit at about anterior third; hind margin of mesoscutellum regularly arched. Postscutellum with transverse elevated smooth strip behind rugulose basal groove. Propodeum ( Fig. 21F View FIGURES 21 ) with wide mesal reticulate surface but with short submedian ridge basally, turning outwards to delimit posteriorly a narrow basal groove that separates laterally the spiracle from the posterior margin of metanotum; propodeum with lateral surface areolate, bearing long setae orientated backwards sublaterally and outwards laterally. Lateral panel of prepectus very finely reticulate, its ventral belt rugulose reticulate. Mesepisternum with incomplete epicnemial carina; epicnemium reticulate, femoral depression more coarsely so dorsally ( Figs 19 View FIGURE 19 , 20C View FIGURES 20 ); mesepimeron finely reticulate ventrally, striolate squamose dorsally. Metepimeron subtriangular and with areolate sculpture.

Legs. Procoxa without depression on frontal surface. Metacoxa bare basidorsally.

Fore wing ( Fig. 21G View FIGURES 21 ) 2.36× as long as wide, costal cell virtually as long as wing width; stigmal and postmarginal veins respectively 1.1× and 1.19× as long as marginal vein. Stigmal vein straight; stigma about half as wide as its distance from anterior margin of wing; parastigma with 2 sensilla placodea, uncus with 2 narrowly separated pairs of placodea. Basal cell and cubital fold sparsely setose; costal cell with 1 complete and 2–3 incomplete rows of setae and scarcely setose ventrally.

Metasoma. Petiole with small teeth, 2 laterobasal and 1 mediodorsal, bare ventrally. Gaster ovate, about as wide as and 1.22× as long as mesosoma, 1.61× as long as high. GT4 about as long as GT3 on median line. GT2–GT4 finely punctulate laterally, GT5 entirely so. GT1 with a few submedian setae anteriorly; GT2 and GT3 with few aligned setae subdorsally, GT5 with a complete line of setae. Syntergum very short and somewhat upturned.

Male identical with that of B. gijswijti   except for the setation of the fore wing which in most cases is white instead of dark.

Variation. Sometimes smaller (hardly 2 mm in length) and in such specimens the head is higher, subcircular in frontal view and more globose in dorsal view; the mesosoma is relatively longer and slender, with less sloping propodeum; the sculpture of mesonotum is more irregular with coriaceous interspaces; the setation of the fore wing is often dark beyond the venation and in one specimen examined it was entirely dark.

Diagnosis. Both sexes. Body of small size (2.2–2.5 mm). Clava effectively bisegmented. Pro- and mesonotum with superficial but regular and dense setiferous puncturation and with coriaceous interspaces between the punctures. Anterior margin of mesepisternum convex. Fore wing most often with white setation.

Female. Clava effectively bisegmented (C1, C2+3), the penultimate segment being fused with the terminal one.

Recognition. Both sexes of B. lecomtei   may be distinguished from B. abscedus   , B. ribesi   , B. insulare   and B. asphodelinae   by their small body size, superficial puncturation of mesonotum, mostly reticulate propodeum and convex anterior outline of mesepisternum. Males may be separated from the above four Bruchophagus   species by the absence of a distinct swelling on the scape and the segmentation of the flagellum which includes a 4-segmented funicle and 3-segmented clava in B. lecomtei   in contrast to the 5-segmented funicle and 2-segmented clava in the other species. Most individuals of B. lecomtei   are distinguished from those of B. gijswijti   by their white instead of dark setation on the fore wing and the more regular puncturation of the mesonotum, the punctures being well delimited, not mixed with the coriaceous interspaces. In addition, females of B. lecomtei   are separated from B. gijswijti   by their effectively bisegmented (C1, C2+3) instead of 3-segmented clava (C1, C2, C3).

Comment. The segmentation of the clava can be very difficult to establish in female B. lecomtei   , where a discontinuity mimicking a suture is present in place of the true suture between C2 and C3 found in B. gijswijti   . In doubtful cases it is necessary to make a slide mounting of the antenna. Fortunately most individuals of B. lecomtei   exhibit an entirely white setation on the fore wing, a state quite diagnostic and confirmed by a series of slide mountings of the female antenna. A problem arises when the setation of the wing is partly dark. In such cases the wing bears dark setae only beyond the venation, and setae behind the marginal vein are white. In individuals of B. gijswijti   in which the setation is only partly dark, the setae below the marginal vein are also dark.

Distribution ( Fig. 35 View FIGURE 35 ). The species is known from Morocco, Spain and France but its distribution is probably the same as that of its host plant which occurs widely in the Mediterranean Basin.

Biology. Host plant. Reared only from A. fistulosus   ( Fig. 43 View FIGURE 43 ).

TABLE 4. Some measurements (in µm) on females of the newly described eurytomid species.

Species Bruchophagus lecomtei   holotype ♀ Bruchophagus gijswijti   ♀ GDEL1633 Bruchophagus abscedus   Bruchophagus ribesi   Bruchophagus insulare   holotype ♀ Bruchophagus asphodelinae   Eurytoma genale   Aximopsis balajasi   holotype ♀ GDEL1610
Origin Banyuls-sur-Mer, Pyrénées Orientales, France Vinaros, Castellon, Spain Banyuls-sur-Mer, Pyrénées Orientales, France Lapanouse-de- Cernon, Aveyron, France Vizzini, Sicilia, Italy Vizzini, Sicilia, Italy Vizzini, Sicilia, Italy Aléria, Corse, France
Asphodel Asphodelus fistulosus   Asphodelus fistulosus   Asphodelus ramosus   Asphodelus cerasiferus   Asphodelus ramosus   Asphodeline lutea   Asphodeline lutea   Asphodelus ramosus  
Body length 2496 2036 3133 4262 2800 3739   3200
head width 694 563 866 1095 877 1145 942 803
head length 380 303 442 541 460 578 502 450
head height 517 435 663 595 659 807 717 632
frontovertex width = FVX 441 381 590 721 580 753 596 460
distance between lateral ocelli = OOL 89 68 117 153 117 202 112 63
ocular - lateral ocellus distance = POL 191 170 233 293 239 242 262 207
lateral ocellus diameter = LOD 57 57 73 90 77 54 76 70
distance lower edge antennal toruli - ventral margin of clypeus = TCL 217 170 228 301 277 319 332 225
distance lower edge antennal toruli - lower edge of anterior ocellus = TAO 228 208 277 380 305 367 381 269
eye length 253 197 263 333 295 359 303 307
temple length 78 70 120 99 86 130 108 63
eye height 289 233 339 428 359 428 381 371
malar sulcus length = MSP 177 157 259 331 239 325 309 243
oral fossa width = OFW 318 266 388 446 341 500 413 331
combined length of pedicel + flagellum = PDFL 584 378 680 789 688 848 830 815
scape length 218   263 352 254 315 309  
scape width 48   70 92 70 91 73 66
pedicel length 91 78 102 105 88 108 108 99
pedicel width 55 53 59 66 62 59 65 46
2nd flagellomere (= F1) length 75 58 86 98 99 132 101 110
2nd flagellomere width 59 60 59 59 67 86 81 66
6th flagellomere (= F5) length 66 56 62 52 72 89 86 106
6th flagellomere width 77 75 86 93 86 108 90 53
clava length 164 151 153 216 190 221 203 199

……continued on the next page

TABLE 5. Some ratios calculated from the measurements figured in Table 4.

Species Bruchophagus lecomtei holotype ♀ Bruchophagus gijswijti ♀ GDEL1633 Bruchophagus abscedus ♀ Bruchophagus ribesi ♀ Bruchophagus insulare holotype ♀ Bruchophagus asphodelinae ♀ Eurytoma genale ♀ Aximopsis balajasi holotype ♀ GDEL1610
Origin of specimen Banyuls-sur-Mer, Pyrénées Orientales, France Vinaros, Castellon, Spain Banyuls-sur-Mer, Pyrénées Orientales, France Lapanouse-de- Cernon, Aveyron, France Vizzini, Sicilia, Italy Vizzini, Sicilia, Italy Vizzini, Sicilia, Italy Aléria, Corse, France
Asphodel Asphodelus fistulosus Asphodelus fistulosus Asphodelus ramosus Asphodelus cerasiferus Asphodelus ramosus Asphodeline lutea Asphodeline lutea Asphodelus ramosus
Head width: head length 1.83 1.86 1.96 2.02 1.91 1.98 1.88 1.78
Head width: head height 1.34 1.29 1.31 1.84 1.33 1.42 1.31 1.27
Eye length: eye height 1.14 1.18 1.29 1.29 1.22 1.19 1.26 1.21
FVX: eye height 1.53 1.64 1.74 1.68 1.62 1.76 1.56 1.24
OOL: LOD 1.56 1.19 1.60 1.70 1.52 3.74 1.47 0.90
POL: OOL 2.15 2.50 1.99 1.92 2.04 1.20 2.34 3.29
temple length: eye length 0.31 0.36 0.46 0.30 0.29 0.36 0.36 0.21
TCL: TAO 0.95 0.82 0.82 0.79 0.91 0.87 0.87 0.84
MSP: OFW 0.56 0.59 0.67 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.75 0.73
MSP: eye height 0.61 0.67 0.76 0.77 0.67 0.76 0.81 0.65
Scape length: scape width 4.54   3.76 3.83 3.63 3.44 4.23 0.00
Pedicel + flagellum: head width 0.84 0.67 0.79 0.72 0.78 0.74 0.88 1.01
Pedicel length: pedicel width 1.65 1.47 1.73 1.59 1.42 1.82 1.67 2.14
F1 length: F1 width 1.27 0.97 1.46 1.66 1.48 1.53 1.24 1.67
F5 length: F5 width 0.86 0.75 0.72 0.56 0.84 0.83 0.96 2.00
Mesosoma length: mesosoma width 1.76 1.96 1.77 1.58 1.76 1.53 1.70 1.70
Mesosoma length: mesosoma height 1.46 1.82 1.59 1.26 1.47 1.21 1.36 1.47
Pronotum width: pronotum length 2.09 2.39 3.08 3.18 3.28 4.35 2.98 3.26
Mesoscutum width: mesoscutum length 1.74 1.79 1.82 1.65 1.61 1.71 1.62 1.96
Mesocutellum length: mesoscutellum width 1.11 1.20 1.06 0.96 0.97 0.99 1.02 1.11
Fore wing length: fore wing width 2.36 2.12 2.31 2.25 2.24 2.23 2.27 2.28
Costal cell length: fore wing length 0.97 0.92 1.00 1.00 0.98 1.01 1.00 1.00
Stigmal vein length: marginal vein length 1.10 1.50 1.15 1.23 1.35 1.61 1.07 1.23
Postmarginal vein length: marginal vein length 1.19 1.56 1.19 1.55 1.79 2.00 1.30 1.68
Gaster length: mesosoma length 1.22 1.06 1.06 1.49 1.08 1.43 1.53 1.32
Gaster length: gaster height 1.61 2.02 1.91 1.96 1.68 1.92 1.91 1.76
GT4 length: GT3 length 1.02 0.82 0.97 1.11 1.11 1.33 1.08 1.24

6667

CIRAD

Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MNCN

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales