Bruchophagus gijswijti Askew & Ribes

Delvare, G., Escolà, A. Ribes, Stojanova, A. M., Benoit, L., Lecomte, J. & Askew, R. R., 2019, Exploring insect biodiversity: the parasitic Hymenoptera, chiefly Chalcidoidea, associated with seeds of asphodels (Xanthorrhoeaceae), with the description of nine new species belonging to Eurytomidae and Torymidae, Zootaxa 4597 (1), pp. 1-90: 38-42

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Bruchophagus gijswijti Askew & Ribes

sp. n.

Bruchophagus gijswijti Askew & Ribes   sp. n.

( Figs 17 View FIGURE 17 , 18 View FIGURES 18 A–H; Tab. 4 View TABLE 4 , 5 View TABLE 5 )

Type material. Holotype ♀: SPAIN: Castellón, Vinaròs , 10 m, 40.49368°N 0.20821°E, ex seed of A. fistulosus fistulosus   , collected, emerged (A. Ribes) (in BMNH) GoogleMaps   . Allotype ♂: same data as holotype (in BMNH) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (A. Ribes) (13 ♀ 13 ♂) (4 paratypes in BMNH, 5 in MNCN, 3 in NMS, 14 in RAPC) GoogleMaps   .

Other material: FRANCE, Hérault , Mireval, 10 m, 43.51222°N 3.80372°E, adults collected on flowers of A. fistulosus   , 07.v.2012 (G. Delvare) (19 ♀ 3 ♂, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; same locality but ex seeds of A. fistulosus   collected 29.iv.2014, adult emergence 25.iv/ 10.v.2015 (G. Delvare) (vouchers GDEL1627 ♀ & GDEL1628 ♀, in CIRAD; 5 ♀ 2 ♂ in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Pyrénées-Orientales, Banyuls-sur-Mer, San Miguel , 37 m, 42.47944°N 3.11092°E, ex seeds of A. fistulosus   ,, adult emergence on 30.iv/ 10.v.2012 (J. Lecomte) (vouchers GDEL1630 ♀ and GDEL1631 ♂, in CIRAD; 4 ♀ 4 ♂ in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; same locality but adults collected on flowers of A. fistulosus   on 27.iv.2014 (G. Delvare) (2 ♀ 1 ♂, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; MOROCCO: road Essaouira-Agadir , 1 km N Oued Ibouzoulen, 31.08444°N 9.6911°W, 06.v.1997 (G. Delvare) (3 ♀ in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Haut–Atlas , 20 km N Agadir, 12.v.2012 (G. Delvare) (1 ♀ in GDPC)   ; SPAIN, same data as holotype 07– (vouchers GDEL1632 ♀ and GDEL1633 ♀, in CIRAD; 2 ♀ in GDPC)   , same collection data as holotype, a large sample of seeds produced a minimum of 93 ♀ 50 ♂ (excluding the type series) (15 ♀ 38 ♂, in RAPC)   . Lleida, La Granja d’Escarp , 90 m, 41.40481°N 0.33695°E (A. Ribes) (1 ♀ 6 ♂, 5 in MNCN, 1 in RAPC, 1 ♀ in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Sarroca, 205 m, 41.42244°N 0.56101°E, ex seeds of A. fistulosus   , 30.v.2008 adult emerged 11.v.2009 (A. Ribes) (1 ♀, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Utxesa, 140 m, 41.4048°N 0.54871°E, ex seeds of A. fistulosus   , 27.v.2011 adults emerged 14.v.2012 (A. Ribes) (1 ♀ 1 ♂, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Tarragona, Garcia , 75 m, 41.13127°N 0.65186°E, ex seeds of A. fistulosus (A. Ribes)   (20 ♀ 24 ♂, 5 in MNCN, 1 in RAPC; 4 ♀ 4 ♂, in GDPC) GoogleMaps   ; Zaragoza, Pina de Ebro , 41.48719°N, 0.33807°W, ex seeds A. fistulosus (J. Blasco-Zumeta)   (10 ♀ 1 ♂) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology. Named after the late Theo Gijswijt who first reared it, recognized it as a probably undescribed species of Bruchophagus   , and arranged for specimens to be sent to us.

Condition of female holotype. Complete specimen glued by right side to card point mounted over rectangular card.

Description from the type series. Female ( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 ). Length 1.8–2.4 mm. (holotype 2.3 mm) Body black, pilosity white; legs black, apices of femora testaceous, narrowly so on middle and hind legs, bases and apices of all tibiae and inner face of protibia testaceous, tarsi testaceous to brown with the fifth segments and pretarsi the darkest; wings almost clear, venation testaceous to light brown with a colourless spot between parastigma and marginal vein, stigmal vein medially faintly pigmented, wing pilosity dark (visible against a white background) ( Fig. 18G View FIGURES 18 ).

Head in dorsal view almost 2.0× as broad as long ( Fig. 18B View FIGURES 18 ); temples about half eye length, quite strongly convergent and rounded into occiput; POL 2.2× OOL, OOL about 1.7× diameter of ocellus. Head in front view 1.4× as broad as high; height of eye 2.0× malar space; mouth not quite twice the malar space ( Fig. 18A View FIGURES 18 ); scrobal depression smooth; toruli equidistant from anterior ocellus and anterior margin of clypeus; anterior margin of clypeus very slightly produced and truncate; lower face with rather weakly raised reticulate sculpture with irregular striae radiating from clypeus which is almost smooth; gena not carinate, rounded into occipital surface. Occipital surface with postgenal groove descending to about level of lower margins of eyes and not forming a lamella.

Antenna ( Fig. 18C View FIGURES 18 ) 11153 with a suture C2 and C3; scape reaching about to level of lower margin of anterior ocellus, 4.3× as long as broad; pedicel plus flagellum 0.8× as long as breadth of head; pedicel about as long as F1; flagellum fusiform, gradually broadening to base of clava; F1 about as broad as long, broader than pedicel; subsequent funicle segments with short petioles, transverse, F5 1.7–2.0× as broad as long; clava 2.0× as long as broad, about as long as the three preceding funicle segments combined, compact with a true suture between C2 and C3 ( Fig. 18D View FIGURES 18 ); linear sensilla in a single transverse row on each funicle and claval segment.

Mesosoma in dorsal view 1.7× as long as broad. Mesosoma in lateral view ( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 ) 1.6× as long as deep with dorsal surface of mesoscutum almost flat and mesoscutellum very weakly arched; epicnemial carina absent and ventral profile of mesepisternum in profile convex and fully as long as mesocoxa; propodeum declived at an angle of about 120° to plane of mesonotum. Pronotum in dorsal view 1.7× as broad as long; mesoscutum 1.6–1.7× as broad as long, very slightly longer than pronotum, notauli shallow posteriorly; mesoscutellum on disc ( Fig. 18A View FIGURES 18 ) with weak and mostly separated piliferous umbilicate punctures, the interspaces filled with patches of microreticulate sculpture, mesoscutellum 1.2× as long as broad, 1.1× as long as mesoscutum. Propodeum ( Fig. 18F View FIGURES 18 ) with broad median area poorly delimited and finely reticulate, callus with coarse reticulate sculpture and fine reticulate microsculpture in the areoles, spiracle almost at anterior margin, and a small brush of laterally directed setae adjacent to the petiolar insertion. Procoxa with flat anterior face; metacoxa with a very few setae on basal half of dorsal surface.

Fore wing ( Fig. 18G View FIGURES 18 ) with lengths of costal cell: marginal vein: stigmal vein: postmarginal vein as 41:8:11:13, stigma rather large separated from posterior edge of postmarginal vein by 1.9× its depth; basal cell setose but hairs sparse in basal one-third; speculum small, extending only to colourless zone of parastigma and with scattered hairs on undersurface.

Metasoma. Gaster ( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 ) ovate, somewhat longer than mesosoma, in dorsal view 1.65× as long as broad, not strongly compressed laterally and with rather flat dorsal surface, in lateral view 1.8× as long as deep; petiole short, transverse; GT1 with a sublateral line of a few setae; GT3 dorsally about as long as GT4; GT4 bare or with up to 3 setae dorsally on each side; syntergum not upturned, in dorsal view about 2.6× as broad as long; tergites ventrally with extremely faint coriaceous sculpture; ovipositor sheath about as long as syntergum.

Male. Length 1.8–2.3 mm. Differs from female in structure of antenna and shape of gaster.

Antenna ( Fig. 18H View FIGURES 18 ) 11143; scape about 2.6× as long as broad, swelling only slightly prominent on upper 0.6× ventral surface; combined length of pedicel and flagellum 1.2× breadth of head; flagellum of almost even breadth, four funicle segments shortly petiolate, F 1 in profile about 1.5× as deep as pedicel, about 1.6× as long as deep; F4 a little longer than broad; clava of three distinct segments, about 3.0× as long as broad, slightly longer than F3 plus F4, C3 rather pointed; setae on funicle segments mostly a little shorter than the lengths of their segments, outstanding, arranged in irregular whorls, 4 whorls on F1 and 2 on F2 to F4.

Metasoma. Gaster including petiole almost as long as mesosoma, body of gaster subcylindrical, about 1.55–1.75× as long as deep; petiole 0.25× length of body of gaster, its apex reaching apex of metacoxa, dorsal surface raised and flat, about 1.7× as long as anterior breadth with fine reticulate sculpture, tapering slightly posteriorly, anterior corners slightly rounded.

Diagnosis. Both sexes. Body of small size (2.2–2.5 mm). Pro- and mesonotum with superficial but irregular setiferous puncturation interfering on the mid lobe of mesoscutum with coriaceous interspaces. Propodeum mostly reticulate. Anterior margin of mesepisternum convex. Fore wing most often with dark setation.

Female. Funicle 5-segmented, clava 3-segmented.

Male. Swelling on scape only slight, funicle 4-segmented, clava 3-segmented.

Recognition. Both sexes of B. gijswijti   may be distinguished from B. abscedus   , B. ribesi   , B. insulare   and B. asphodelinae   by their small body size, complete absence of a genal carina, short postgenal carina, superficial puncturation of mesonotum, mostly reticulate propodeum which has a brush of differentiated setae on either side of the petiolar insertion, and convex anterior outline of mesepisternum; in addition, all males may by separated from the above Bruchophagus   by the absence of a conspicuous ventral swelling on the scape and the segmentation of the flagellum which includes a 4-segmented funicle and 3-segmented clava. In contrast, B. lecomtei   has a 5-segmented funicle and effectively 2-segmented clava. Most females of B. gijswijti   are distinguished from those of B. lecomtei   by the dark setation on the fore wing (white setae in the latter species) and less regular puncturation of the mid lobe of the mesoscutum with distinct but very irregular coriaceous interspaces between the areoles. In addition females of B. gijswijti   are separated from those of B. lecomtei   by their 3-segmented versus effectively 2-segmented clava [this character often needs slide-mountings to be indubitably identified]. The males of the two species are virtually impossible to separate except through a careful examination of the sculpture of the mesonotum.

Although it may be difficult to separate B. gijswijti   from B. lecomtei   morphologically and in their host plant associations, the molecular data, which concern both a mitochondrial gene (Cyt B) and a nuclear gene (EF), provides convincing evidence of their distinct specific status.

Distribution ( Fig. 34 View FIGURE 34 ). This species was reared in southern France and Spain from A. fistulosus   and collected in southern Morocco by sweeping herbaceous vegetation at a time when the association with this plant was not known. In all probability its distribution follows that of the asphodel.

Biology. Bruchophagus gijswijti   is almost certainly phytophagous in seeds of A. fistulosus   and it probably attacks both A. fistulosus fistulosus   and A. fistulosus cirerae   . It seems to be little attacked by chalcid parasitoids, although a species of Idiomacromerus   ( Torymidae   ), described below, was a quite plentiful ectoparasitoid at the type locality, and E. asphodeli   was found on fruits of A. fistulosus   in south-west France but this is, at most, a scarce parasitoid of B. gijswijti   . The sex ratio of B. gijswijti   from all rearings (287 specimens) is somewhat female biased (59%: 170 ♀ 117 ♂).


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National Museum of Scotland - Natural Sciences


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