Glaphyrosoma stephanosoltis Richardson, Trimm, Paderes, Koehl,

Richardson, Steven, Trimm, Travis, Paredes, Randell, Koehl, Jonathan & Song, Hojun, 2019, A new species of king cricket Glaphyrosoma Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888 (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae: Glaphyrosomatini) from Costa Rica with behavioral observations, Zootaxa 4671 (1), pp. 93-104: 95-100

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Glaphyrosoma stephanosoltis Richardson, Trimm, Paderes, Koehl


Glaphyrosoma stephanosoltis Richardson, Trimm, Paderes, Koehl  , & Song, sp. nov. Figs 1–11View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10View FIGURE 11

urn:lsid: Orthoptera

Diagnosis. Glaphyrosoma stephanosoltis  sp. nov. is dorsally colored in solid dark brown ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 3View FIGURE 3, 10View FIGURE 10), and is similar in overall coloration to G. gracile  , G. anderi  , G. beretka  , G. bulbosum  , G. pushenkovi  , G. franciscoasturiasi  , G. hectorcentenoi  , and G. magnaproctalis  . However, it can be separated from all other members of the genus by having quadrangular male paraproctal process with a spine protruding medially facing upwards ( Figs. 7B, 7CView FIGURE 7, 9A, 9DView FIGURE 9). This species is morphologically most similar to G. magnaproctalis  according to the key presented by Cadena- Castañeda & Monzón-Sierra (2017), but differs in the position of the spine on male paraproctal process and the appearance of the male subgenital plate as well as the length of styli. The spine arises medially in G. stephanosoltis  sp. nov. instead of being located at the top of the paraproctal process. The subgenital plate also shows more curvature between the styli forming a deep “V” shaped notch half the length of the subgenital plate ( Fig. 7DView FIGURE 7, 9BView FIGURE 9) and differs from the subgenital plate of G. magnaproctalis  in which there is almost no notch in between the styli.

Coloration. Dorsal portion of head dark brown, nearing black; gena and frons dark brown; clypeus light yellow. Median ocellus and two upper ocelli pinkish cream white (when alive) with light beige rings ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). Antennae dark brown. Labrum white (when alive); mandibles light brown at base and dark brown at the tip; maxillary palpi and labial palpi creamy white. Entire dorsal region from thorax to abdomen dark brown with no delineated coloration patterns. Lateral margin of thoracic and abdominal tergites lighter brown. Sternum yellow/brown. Fore femora and mid femora yellowish brown distally, and darker brown apically. Hind femora lighter brown distally, gradually becoming darker apically and dorsally, with apical end (knee) abruptly becoming creamy white ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). All tibiae distally dark brown, apically creamy white. All tarsi creamy white.

Male. Head ( Fig. 2A,BView FIGURE 2): Integument smooth. Vertex smooth without any depression, blended to frontal ridge. Gena convex. Frons, smooth, unpronounced, blended with the rest of head; two parallel depressions starting at the base of scape; a pair of small circular depressions above the mandibular condyles. Antennal scape originating from where frontal ocellus is positioned. Antenna filiform and at least three times longer than body. Ocelli round and not protruding from head. Eyes pear-shaped, narrowing dorsoventrally, half as long as the width of gena. Clypeus upside down triangular with broadly round ventrally, concave. Labrum circular. Mandibles narrowing to sharp end, articulation points pronounced below gena. Maxillary palpi very long, nearly three times the dorsoventral length of the head. Labial palpi evident, but not long, shorter than the length of mandible. Both maxillary and labial palpi with bulbous apical tips. Thorax: Integument smooth. Completely apterous. Pronotum about as long as wide ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3); sloping downward anteriorly; lateral lobe of pronotum square basally ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2). Mesonotal and metanotal lobes rounded distally ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2). Legs: Fore tibiae ventrally with 3 pairs of symmetrically arranged spines, 6 apical spurs composed of 1 pair of short symmetrical spines and 2 pairs of apical spurs ( Figs. 4AView FIGURE 4, 5AView FIGURE 5); no subapical spines along the dorsal surface; tympanum present as depression at distal portion of inner and outer surface of fore tibiae ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5). Middle tibiae with 4 asymmetrical spines dorsally and 3 pairs of symmetrically arranged spines ventrally ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4); 6 apical spurs composed of 1 pair of short symmetrical spines, 1 pair of spurs dorsally, and 1 pair of spurs ventrally ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4). Hind tibiae dorsally armed with 18–21 unarticulated spines, 8 apical spurs composed of 1 pair of short spines, 1 pair of short spurs ventrally, two pairs of long spurs ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4). Hind femora absent of stripes or patterns ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3); light muscular lining visible through cuticle ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3); femoral groove present on outer side of hind femur from base to distal part ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3). Inner side of hind femora with 3–4 diagonal rows of stridulatory pegs present ( Fig. 6CView FIGURE 6). Abdomen: Integument smooth. Abdominal tergites gradually narrowing to last tergite ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3). Sternites rectangular and wider than its length. Lateral margin of first and second abdominal tergites with patches of granular stridulatory pegs ( Fig. 6AView FIGURE 6). The ninth tergite broadly bilobed and divided in the middle with a broad notch along the postero-medial margin ( Figs. 7CView FIGURE 7, 9A, 9BView FIGURE 9). The tenth tergite forming a pair of hooks in the middle, which turn upward above the middle of the ninth tergite ( Figs. 7B, 7CView FIGURE 7, 9A, 9CView FIGURE 9). Paraproct projected posteriorly but distal part still remains very close to last abdominal tergite and almost flat in appearance ( Figs. 7BView FIGURE 7, 9AView FIGURE 9). Paraproctal process rectangular with a small denticle arising from medio-posteriorly lying almost flat and directed upwards ( Figs. 7BView FIGURE 7, 9A, 9DView FIGURE 9). Subgenital plate with a prominent “V” shaped posteromedian notch and relatively long styli half the length of the subgenital plate ( Figs. 7DView FIGURE 7, 9BView FIGURE 9). Cerci almost twice as long as the width of the tenth tergite, tapering from the base to the tip, arched inwards in dorsal view, covered in small hairs ( Figs. 7A, C, DView FIGURE 7). Male internal genitalia largely membranous and as in Fig. 8View FIGURE 8.

Female. Similar to male ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10). Subgenital plate triangular with a broad base and tapering toward the tip ( Fig. 9EView FIGURE 9). Ovipositor curved medially and apically directed ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11) and almost one-third length of hind femora. Paraproctal process absent. Cerci thicker than male cerci at base with prominently tapering to the tip ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11).

Measurements (in mm). Male (n=5): pronotum length 8.94–9.42 (9.24 ± 0.22); fore femur length 11.89–12.62 (12.23 ± 0.29); mid femur length 12.09–13.63 (12.87 ± 0.59); hind femur length 29.36–31.31 (30.02 ± 0.89); hind femur width 6.71–6.83 (6.78 ± 0.06). Female (n=5): pronotum length 9.00–10.24 (9.60 ± 0.48); fore femur length 11.33–13.55 (12.33 ± 0.84); mid femur length 11.96–13.65 (12.79 ± 0.67); hind femur length 28.53–31.73 (30.15 ± 1.29); hind femur width 6.50–7.60 (7.05 ± 0.40); ovipositor length 11.74–13.95 (12.56 ± 0.82).

Etymology. From Latin “stephano” meaning crown and “soltis” referring to the Soltis Center for Research and Education, the type locality of the species. Therefore, stephanosoltis  means “Crown of Soltis” referring to the first king cricket ever described at the facility.

Distribution. Costa Rica: Alajuela Province, San Ramón. Forest floor in mid-elevation (450 m above sea level) secondary rainforest.

Holotype: Male ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). (Measurement: pronotum length 9.34 mm; fore femur length 11.99 mm; mid femur length 12.09 mm; hind femur length 29.36 mm; hind femur width 6.81 mm.) COSTA RICA: Alajuela Province, San Ramón, San Juan de Peñas Blancas. Soltis Center for Research and Education , 10°23’0.4524’’N, 84°37’4.674’’W, 7.viii.2018, collected by hand at night. Coll. S.J. Richardson.GoogleMaps 

Additional Type Material. 26 paratypes (5 adult males, 13 adult females, 5 nymphal males, 3 nymphal females). Same data as holotype.

Type Depository. All type material has been deposited to the Texas A&M University Insect Collection (TAMU- IC).

DNA Barcode. We have generated a DNA barcode for G. stephanosoltis  sp. nov., which has been deposited to GenBank with accession number MN 128722View Materials, and the DNA tissue voucher specimen was deposited to TAMUIC Insect Genomic Collection with voucher number TAMUIC-IGC-002678. Although Vandergast et al. (2017) generated COI genes for many Anostostomatidae  , including several unidentified specimens of Glaphyrosoma  from Mexico, the primers that they used (C1-J-2183 and C1-N-2872) amplified the back half of the COI gene and did not overlap with the DNA barcode region, which is located in the front half of the COI gene. Therefore, our DNA barcode represents the first for the genus.

Biological Information. Glaphyrosoma stephanosoltis  sp. nov. was hand collected along the trails adjacent to secondary rainforest in the vicinity of the Soltis Center for Research and Education. The Soltis Center’s forests are adjacent to the Children’s Eternal Rainforest (Bosque Eterno de los Niños) and located about 450 m above sea level. The insects were only found after sunset when it was sprinkling or after it had just rained, and were more abundant when temperature was above 21 oC. The species was never observed during the day, and when kept in a screen cage with foliage comprised of torn leaves and branches, it was observed that the insects still hid under foliage, even in a dark environment. Those that were unable to hide under the foliage started to appear dull in their cuticles, which suggested that they desiccate easily even on the rainforest floor. The species most likely lives underground in order to avoid desiccation and remain in a higher level of humidity beneath the rainforest floor and only comes out when humidity levels are higher to search for food or mates. When collecting specimens along trails, it was found they tended to hide on the overhanging dirt underside along trails and sometimes in tunnels most likely made by other burrowing animals. When baited with oatmeal, the insects were attracted within an hour of placing the bait, which suggested that these insects might be targeting a good source of carbohydrate and protein, which are rich in the oatmeal used for the trail. When presented with a choice between a plant mixture ( Passiflora  sp., Cecropia obtusifolia  , Neurolaena lobata  , and unidentified Piperaceae  ) and a protein mixture (land crab and katydids), all of which were commonly found in the forest, G. stephanosoltis  sp. nov. showed overwhelming preference for the plants. However, when kept in a cage with other insects, they fed on dead crickets and katydids, suggesting a necrophagous behavior. Collectively, these observations suggest that G. stephanosoltis  sp. nov. is an omnivorous insect, which is a common dietary pattern in many ensiferans.


Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro


Texas A&M University Insect Collection