Nyssorhynchus (Nyssorhynchus) jamariensis, Sant’Ana & Sallum, 2022

Sant’Ana, Denise Cristina & Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb, 2022, A new species of the Nuneztovari Complex of Nyssorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) from the western Brazilian Amazon, Zootaxa 5134 (2), pp. 275-285 : 276-281

publication ID


publication LSID




persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Nyssorhynchus (Nyssorhynchus) jamariensis

n. sp.

Nyssorhynchus (Nyssorhynchus) jamariensis n. sp.

Zoobank LSID: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D8A53513-B42F-49A7-8873-0DC0FAD1258A

Anopheles nuneztovari in part of Kitzmiller et al. 1973: 435–455 (polytene chromosome polymorphism); of Conn 1990: 400, 403, 404 (chromosomes); Scarpassa et al. 1999: 1010–1017 (phylogenetics); Trindade & Scarpassa 2002: 613–618 (genetics); Mirabello & Conn 2008: 109–117 (phylogeography).

Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. in part of Scarpassa et al. 2016: 1–16 (phylogenetics).

Anopheles nuneztovari A in part of Conn 1990: 401 (chromosomes); Conn et al. 1993: 294 (chromosome); Calado et al. 2008: 791–799 (molecular taxonomy); Foster et al. 2013: 1–7; Foster et al. 2017: 5 (phylogenetics); Santos et al. 2019: 235–244 (morphology).

Anopheles nuneztovari cytotype A of Conn et al. 1993: 300 (chromosome); Conn et al. 1998: 314, 317, 320, 321 (phylogenetics); Perera et al. 1998: 673, 675, 676, (polytene chromosomes); Scarpassa et al. 1999: 1016, (phylogenetics); Trindade & Scarpassa 2002: 618 (genetics); Mirabello & Conn 2008: 109, 110, 113, 115 (phylogeography).

Female. Integument light to dark brown. Head. Vertex with white erect forked scales and a few long white setae along ocular line, dark brown to black erect forked scales posteriorly on vertex and occiput. Proboscis dark-scaled, length 1.90–2.15 mm (mean 2.03 mm ± 0.10; n = 5), length of maxillary palpus 1.85–2.13 mm (mean 1.94 ± 0.13; n = 5). Maxillary palpomere 1 with dark semi-erect scales, palpomere 2 similar to palpomere 1, with narrow apical white band, palpomere 3 mostly dark-scaled with white scales at apex, palpomere 4 mostly white-scaled on dorsal and outer surfaces, with dark scales basally, palpomere 5 predominantly white-scaled with dark scales at base. Thorax. Integument pruinose with dark areas between dorsocentral area and lateral margin, at posterior edge of scutal fossa and posteriorly on prescutellar area.Anterior promontory with long white setiform scales, not extending onto acrostichal area; acrostichal setae strong; dorsocentral setae long; scutellum with long dark setae along posterior margin, with white spatulate scales anterior to setae.Antepronotum with dark setae; prespiracular area without setae and scales; upper mesokatepisternum without setae and scales, lower mesokatepisternum with white spatulate scales and brownish setae. Wing ( Fig. 1a View FIGURE 1 ). Length 3.06–3.36 mm (mean 3.22 ± 0.13; n = 5). Veins covered with dark and pale scales. Dorsal spots as follow: Costa with basal and basal pale (BP), prehumeral dark (PHD), humeral pale (HP), humeral dark (HD), presector pale (PSP), presector dark (PSD), sector pale (SP), subcostal dark (SCD), subcostal pale (SCP), preapical dark (PD), preapical pale (PP) apical dark (AD) and apical pale (AP); vein R s mostly dark-scaled; R 2+3,R 4+5 and M predominantly pale-scaled. Legs. Foretarsomeres 1–3 and 5 with white scales at apices, foretarsomeres 4 dark-scaled. Midtarsomeres 1, 2 and 5 dark-scaled with apical white bands, midtarsomeres 3 and 4 dark-scaled. Hindleg ( Fig. 1b View FIGURE 1 ): Hindtarsomere 1 (Ta-III 1) predominantly dark-scaled, with narrow pale-scaled spot at apex, hindtarsomere 2 (Ta-III 2) white-scaled on apical 0.25, hindtarsomeres 3 (Ta-III 3) and 4 (Ta-III 4) entirely white-scaled, hindtarsomere 5 (Ta-III 5) white-scaled apically. Abdomen. Integument dark brown; terga II–V with pale scales in sub-triangular pattern, pale scales evenly distributed on terga VI–VIII; dark posterolateral scale-tufts present on segments II–IV; sternum I with a few, moderately long to long setae; dark posterolateral scale-tufts on terga II–VII. Sternum I bare; sterna II–VII with a few pale scales; sternum VIII covered with pale scales and a few dark scales.

Male. Similar to female except for sexual characters. Head. Proboscis length 2.56–2.65 mm (mean 2.60 mm ± 0.04; n = 5), maxillary palpus mostly dark-scaled, with pale spots; palpomere 2 with dark erect scales and a few pale scales; palpomere 3 with dark erect scales basally, with pale apical band; palpomere 4 dark-scaled, with pale scales at base and apex. Genitalia ( Fig. 2c View FIGURE 2 ). Tergum and sternum VIII with spatulate scales and long setae. Sternum IX moderately long, sub-trapezoidal. Dorsal claspette: Pedicel long, moderately broad to moderately narrow, base rounded, leaflets broad and curved. Ventral claspette: Relatively short, broad, apex flat without median sulcus; short spicules on lateral margins, ventral and lateral surfaces, including basal lobule, extending to or nearly to apex; basal lobule moderately expanded laterally, rounded distally, with sparse small spicules similar in size and development, medium spicules abundant on inner margin; preapical plate moderately developed and weakly sclerotized, circular, well defined. Aedeagus with apex moderately rounded, somewhat triangular; subapical leaflets present, small, membranous, weakly sclerotized, non-serrate.

Pupa ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). Position and development of setae as figured. All measurements, number and mode of setal branches are based on 5 specimens. Cephalothorax ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ): Integument weakly pigmented; trumpet angusticorn with meatal cleft; pinna moderately pigmented. Abdomen ( Fig. 2b View FIGURE 2 ): Length 2.48–2.65 mm (mean 2.58 ± 0.09); seta 1-I dendritic, number of branches not counted; seta 2,4-I normally triple; 3-I single; 5,6-I single, long; 7-I usually with 2 branches, shorter than 6-I; 9-I single, as long as 7-I; 0-II–IV normally with 4 branches, 0-V–VII with 2–4 branches; 1-II,III well developed, usually with 9 and 7 branches respectively, 1-IV–VII always single, strong, long, extending beyond following segment; 3-II,III,VI single, 3-III long, 3-IV with 4–6 branches, never reaching caudal margin of segment, 3-V normally triple; 5-III,IV well developed, usually with 6 and 4 branches respectively, 5-V–VII single, long; 6-II most often single, 6-III–VII single; 7-II,V double or triple, 7-III,IV with 2–4 branches, 7-VI,VII single; 8-III normally with 4 branches, 8-IV,VII with 2–4 branches, 8-V,VI frequently double; 9-II minute, lightly pigmented, 9-III,IV short, 9-V–VIII well developed, strong, pigmented, sharply pointed; 10-III normally triple, 10-IV,V,VII single, long; 4-VIII usually with 2 branches. Genital lobe: Thick at base, with sides sloping toward apex, apex with mammiliform protuberance. Paddle: Length 0.72–0.75 mm (mean 0.74 ± 0.01), width 0.44–0.51 mm (mean 0.48 ± 0.03); obovate, outer margin distad of buttress, with very fine, minute spicules, extending around apex and becoming sparse along inner margin; seta 1-Pa stronger than 2-Pa, 2-Pa normally single.

Fourth-instar larva ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Position and development of setae as figured; all measurements, number and mode of setal branches are based on 5 specimens. Head: Length 0.61–0.69 mm (mean 0.65 ± 0.03), width 0.61–0.67 mm (mean 0.63 ± 0.03). Integument weakly pigmented, yellowish to light brown, with dark spots, not forming distinct pattern. Seta 2-C single with few moderately developed spicules distally; 3-C shorter than 2-C, single, distance between bases of 2-C 0.04–0.05 mm (mean 0.04 ± 0.002); distance between bases of 2-C and 3-C 0.05–0.06 mm (mean 0.05 ± 0.002); seta 4-C frequently single, extending approximately to base of 3-C; 5-C with 13–19 branches, extending well beyond base of 2-C, reaching almost 0.5 length of 2-C; 6,7-C normally with 14 and 21 branches respectively, extending approximately to base of 3-C; 8-C frequently triple; 9-C normally with 6 branches; 10-C frequently triple; 12,13-C usually with 4 branches. Collar strongly pigmented, dark brown. Antenna: Length 0.25–0.27 mm (mean 0.26 ± 0.01), enlarged toward base, longer than wide; with long and thin spicules on mesal margin; seta 1-A normally with 4 branches, small, inserted 0.06–0.07 mm (mean 0.06 mm ± 0.005) distant from base. Thorax: Setae 1,2-P arising separately, 1-P palmate, normally with 12 narrow lanceolate leaflets, leaflets pointed apically, 2-P long with 13–16 branches; 3-P single; 14-P frequently with 6 branches, long, extending beyond anterior margin of thorax; 1-M strongly plumose, usually with 24 branches, extending beyond base of 0-P; 2,3,5-M single, simple; 4,6,7-M normally triple; 8-M plumose; 14-M usually with 8 branches; 1,2-T single, simple; 3-T palmate, with narrow semi-transparent leaflets, usually with 9 leaflets; 4-T small usually with 3 branches; 13-T normally triple. Abdomen: Seta 0-II-VII moderately long; 1-I–VII palmate, 1-I usually with 13 leaflets, 1-II–VII with moderately narrow truncate leaflets; 2-I normally triple, 2-II with 5–7 branches, strongly developed, large, 2-III frequently triple, stronger than 2-II, 2-IV,V simple, single, 2-VI,VII normally with 4 and 6 branches respectively; 5-I usually with 4 branches, 5-II,III,VII frequently with 7 branches, 5-III–VII well developed, 5-IV with 3–6 branches, 5-V,VI normally with 6 branches; 6-I-III plumose, inserted on tubercle, 6-IV–VI simple, single, large, 6-VII with 4 or 5 branches; 7-I,II plumose, inserted on tubercle, 7-III–VI frequently triple, 7-VII normally with 6 branches; 8-II–VI usually triple, 8-VII with 3–5 branches; 9-I–V frequently with 6 branches, 9-VI with 4 or 5 branches, 9-VII with 6 or 7 branches; 10-I,III–V simple, single, 10-II double or triple, 10-VI normally triple, 10-VII usually with 8 branches; 11-I with 2–4 branches, large, 11-II,VI,VII single, 11-III,IV with 3 or 4 branches, 11-V normally with 6 branches; 13-I-III,VI,VII normally with 6 or 7 branches, 13-IV with 3 or 4 branches, 13-V well developed, normally with 4 branches; 1-VIII single; 2-VIII normally with 5 branches; 3-VIII with 13–15 branches; 4-VIII single; 5-VIII usually with 7 branches. Pecten: With 3–5 long and 9–11 short spines; median plate of spiracular apparatus moderately pigmented with lateral arms minute. Segment X: Seta 1-X inserted on margin of saddle; anal papillae narrow, longer than saddle.

Etymology. The name, jamariensis , is derived from the name of the geographical locality where the specimens were first collected, the Jamari River. The Jamari is a tributary of the Madeira River in the western Brazilian Amazon of Rondônia State.

Bionomics. Larvae and pupae of Ny. jamariensis were taken from partially shaded lake margins, ground pools and flooded areas. The water was stagnant, fresh, clear or turbid, with abundant floating and emergent vegetation. The temperature of the larval habitats was around 31 ◦ C. Females were collected in a Shannon trap from 18:00 to 21:00 h in pasture. It is unknown whether Ny. jamariensis is a local vector of malaria because it has been misidentified as both Ny. goeldii and Ny. nuneztovari s.s. Further studies are necessary to verify the potential association of Ny. jamariensis with malaria transmission in the Amazon River basin.

Distribution. Nyssorhynchus jamariensis occurs in Rondônia State in the western Brazilian Amazon. Because of morphological similarities shared with Ny. nuneztovari s.s., Ny. goeldii and Ny. dunhami , the geographical range of Ny. jamariensis needs further investigation, but most records of Ny. nuneztovari A refer to this species.

Material examined. Holotype: Adult male with associated Le and Pe and dissected genitalia mounted on microscope slides, specimen code RO02(13)-1, bearing the following collection data: Brazil, Rondônia State, municipality of Monte Negro , Sítio João Careca , Jamari River , 10º 18′ 03.5″ S, 63º 14′ 09.1″ W, coll. 08-Jan-2008, Bergo et al., in Shannon Trap, in a rural area, altitude 150 m. The holotype is a sibling of a progeny of a female bearing the field code RO02(13) GoogleMaps . Paratypes: 25 specimens with the following information: Rondônia State, municipality of Monte Negro, Sítio João Careca, Jamari River , 10º 18′ 03.5″ S, 63º 14′ 09.1″ W, coll. 08-Jan-2008, Bergo et al., RO02(13)-2, FSP-USP no. E-15949 [MLePe]; RO02(13)-7, FSP-USP no. E-15950 [FLePe]; RO02(13)-9, FSP-USP no. E-15951 [FLePe]; RO02(13)-10, FSP-USP no. E-15952 [MLePe]; RO02(13)-13, FSP-USP no. E-15953 [MLePe]; RO02(13)-14, FSP-USP no. E-15954 [FLePe]; RO02(13)-19, FSP-USP no. E-15955 [FLePe]; RO02(13)- 27, FSP-USP no. E-15956 [MLePe]; RO02(13)-100, FSP-USP no. E-15957 [MPeG], RO06-3, FSP-USP no. E-15958 [MLePe]. Rondônia State, municipality of Monte Negro, Fazenda Boa Sorte , BR421 GoogleMaps , 10º 17′ 02.7″ S, 63º 18′ 14.8″ W, coll. 15-Jan-2008, Bergo & Sallum, RO 20(1)-1, FSP-USP no. E-15959 [MLePeG]; RO20(1)-5, FSP-USP no. E-15960 [FLePe]; RO20(1)-7, FSP-USP no. E-15961 [FPe], RO20(2)-1, FSP-USP no. E-15962 [MLePeG]; RO20(2)-8, FSP-USP no. E-15963 [FLePe]; RO20(2)-11, FSP-USP no. E-15964 [FLePe]; RO20(2)-13, FSP-USP no. E-15965 [MLePe]; RO20(2)-14, FSP-USP no. E-15966 [MLePe]; RO20(2)-15, FSP-USP no. E-15967 [MLePe]; RO20(2)-19, FSP-USP no. E-15968 [FLePe]. Rondônia State, municipality of Monte Negro, Jamari River GoogleMaps , 10º 17′ 50.9″ S, 63º 16′ 05.9″ W, coll. 8-Jan-2008, Bergo, RO 01-17, FSP-USP no. E-15969 [MLePeG], RO01-103, FSP-USP no. E-15970 [MLePeG]. Rondônia State, municipality of Monte Negro, Jamari River GoogleMaps , 10º 17′ 56.1″ S, 63º 14′2 2.5″ W, coll. 9-Jan-2008, GoogleMaps Bergo, RO04-4, FSP-USP no. E-15971 [FLePe], RO04-103, FSP-USP no. E-15972 [FPe], RO04-106, FSP-USP no. E-15973 [MPeG]. GoogleMaps Other specimens examined: Specimens of Ny. jamariensis with the following data: Brazil, Rondônia State, municipality of Monte Negro, Fazenda Boa Sorte , BR421 , 10º 17′ 02.7″ S, 63º 18′ 14.8″ W, coll. 15-Jan-2008, Bergo & Sallum, 10 specimens with associated Le and Pe (RO20(1)-8, -9, -10, -13, -16, -17; RO20(2)-2,-4, -10, -23). GoogleMaps Specimens of Ny. dunhami with the following data: Brazil, Amazonas State, Parintins , Vila Amazonia settlement, 2º 38′ 66.2″ S, 56º 38′ 29.6″ W, coll. 6-June-2005, Sallum et al., FSP-USP no. E-12999 [G], BRAM013-105 [G], BRAM013-106 [G]. Specimens of Ny. goeldii with the following data: Brazil GoogleMaps , Pará State, Óbidos , 2° 32′ 19.1″ S 57° 45′ 21.6″ W, coll. 6-July-2005, Sallum et al., FSP-USP no. E-13000 [G], FSP-USP no. E-13001 [G]. Pará State, Santarém, Urumanduba GoogleMaps , 2° 28′ 56.2″ S 54° 39′ 39.3″ W, coll. 8-Oct-2008, Bergo et al., PA3(9)-1 [MLePeG], PA3(11) [M], PA3(15)-3 [F]. Pará State, Santarém, Bom Jardim GoogleMaps , 2° 33′ 07.9″ S 54° 35′ 38.7″ W, coll. 9-Oct-2008, Bergo et al., PA5(4)-1 [MLePeG]. Pará State, Belterra, São Domingos GoogleMaps , 2° 45′ 07.2″ S 55° 01′ 04.9″ W, coll. 10-Oct-2008, Bergo et al., PA7(2)-1 [MLePe], PA7(2)-8 [FLePe], PA7(3)-1 [MLePeG], PA7(3)-3 [M], PA7(6)-5 [M], PA7(7)-2 [F], PA7(7)-8 [F], PA7(17)-6 [M]. The holotype, paratypes and additional specimens are deposited in the Coleção Entomológica de Referência ( FSP-USP), Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil GoogleMaps .


Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo














Nyssorhynchus (Nyssorhynchus) jamariensis

Sant’Ana, Denise Cristina & Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb 2022

Anopheles nuneztovari

Scarpassa, V. M. & Cunha-Machado, A. S. & Saraiva, J. F. 2016: 1

Anopheles nuneztovari

Mirabello, L. & Conn, J. E. 2008: 109
Trindade, D. B. & Scarpassa, V. M. 2002: 618
Scarpassa, V. M. & Tadei, W. P. & Suarez, M. F. 1999: 1016
Conn, J. E. & Mitchell, S. E. & Cockburn, A. F. 1998: 314
Perera, O. P. & Cockburn, A. F. & Mitchell, S. E. & Conn, J. & Seawright, J. A. 1998: 673
Conn, J. & Puertas, Y. R. & Seawright, J. A. 1993: 300

Anopheles nuneztovari

Santos, M. M. M. dos & Sucupira, I. M. & Santos, T. V. dos & Santos, A. C. F. dos & Luz Lacerda, R. N. da & Povoa, M. M. 2019: 235
Foster, P. G. & Oliveira, T. M. P. de & Bergo, E. S. & Conn, J. E. & Sant'Ana, D. C. & Nagaki, S. S. & Nihei, S. & Lamas, C. E. & Gonzalez, C. & Moreira, C. C. & Sallum, M. A. M. 2017: 5
Foster, P. G. & Bergo, E. S. & Bourke, B. P. & Oliveira, T. M. P. & Nagaki, S. S. & Sant'Ana, D. C. & Sallum, M. A. M. 2013: 1
Calado, D. C. & Foster, P. G. & Bergo, E. S. & Santos, C. L. S. & Galardo, A. K. R. & Sallum, M. A. M. 2008: 791
Conn, J. & Puertas, Y. R. & Seawright, J. A. 1993: 294
Conn, J. 1990: 401

Anopheles nuneztovari

Mirabello, L. & Conn, J. E. 2008: 109
Trindade, D. B. & Scarpassa, V. M. 2002: 613
Scarpassa, V. M. & Tadei, W. P. & Suarez, M. F. 1999: 1010
Conn, J. 1990: 400
Kitzmiller, J. B. & Kreutzer, R. D. & Tallaferro, E. 1973: 435