Rhinolophus horaceki, Benda & Vallo, 2012

Benda, Petr & Vallo, Peter, 2012, New look on the geographical variation in Rhinolophus clivosus with description of a new horseshoe bat species from Cyrenaica, Libya, Vespertilio 16, pp. 69-96 : 84-90

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.4247720



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scientific name

Rhinolophus horaceki

sp. nov.

Rhinolophus horaceki View in CoL sp. n.

Rhinolophus View in CoL clivosus Cretzchmar, 1828: Qumsiyeh 1981: 49; Qumsiyeh & Schlitter 1982: 384; Le Berre 1990: 78 [partim]; Horáček et al. 2000: 100 [partim]; Simmons 2005: 353 [partim]; Aulagnier et al. 2008: 72 [partim].

Rhinolophus View in CoL clivosus clivosus Cretzchmar, 1828: Qumsiyeh 1985: 32.

Rhinolophus View in CoL clivosus brachygnathus Andersen, 1905: Koopman 1994: 54; Csorba et al. 2003: 35.

TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype: ♂ ad. ( NMP 49880 , field No. pb2124 [S+A]), Wadi Darnah, 6 km Sof Darnah, 15 May 2002, leg. M. Andreas, P. Benda, V. Hanák, A. Reiter & M. Uhrin . Paratypes: ♂ ad. ( NMP 49861 , field No. pb2104 [S+A]), Al Burdi, 12 May 2002, leg. M. Andreas, P. Benda, V. Hanák, A. Reiter & M. Uhrin ; ♂ ad. ( NMP 49879 , field No. pb2123 [S+A]), Wadi Darnah, 6 km Sof Darnah, 15 May 2002, leg. M. Andreas, P. Benda, V. Hanák, A. Reiter & M. Uhrin ; ♀ ad. ( NMP 49882 , field No. pb2127 [S+A]), Wadi Darnah, 10 km Sof Darnah, 16 May 2002, leg. M. Andreas, P. Benda, V. Hanák, A. Reiter & M. Uhrin ; ♀ ad. ( NMP 49915 , field No. pb2163 [S+A]), Wadi Al Kuf, 20 May 2002, leg. M. Andreas, P. Benda, V. Hanák, A. Reiter & M. Uhrin .

TYPE LOCALITY. Wadi Darnah, 32° 42’ 06” N, 22° 36’ 40” E, ca. 6 km Sof Darnah, Darnah Dist., Cyrenaica, Libya. GoogleMaps

DESCRIPTION. Rhinolophus horaceki sp. n. is a medium-sized horseshoe bat, in most respects similar to the medium-sized forms of R. clivosus Cretzschmar, 1828 from the Middle East and north-eastern Africa, including the structure and relative size of the nose-leaf. Forearm length 48–50 mm, ear length 20.8–22.7 mm, horseshoe width 6.9–7.5 mm, condylocanine lengthof skull 17.5–18.1 mm, length of the upper tooth-row 7.3–7.6 mm.

The horseshoe of R. horaceki sp. n. is relatively narrow ( Fig. 7 View Fig ), the connecting process of the nose-leaf is high and rounded, the sella is constricted in the middle, tip of the sella is pointed, lancet is hairy and regularly triangular in shape. One medial groove is present in the lower lip.

Skull is relatively wide (LaZ 11.1–12.1 mm; LaZ/LCc 0.599 –0.619), rostral part of the skull inluding the nasal swellings is massive (LaInf 5.3–6.1 mm; CC 5.6–6.3 mm; LaInf/CM 3 0.762 –0.786; CM 3 /LCc 0.454 –0.468), relatively long and wide (CC/CM 3 0.787 –0.821; CP 4 /CM 3 0.423 –0.441). Sagittal crest ismedium developed, infraorbital foramen islarge and infraorbital bar is long and thin ( Fig. 8 View Fig ). Nasal swellings are rather undeveloped, the posterior median swellings are equally long to the anterior swellings, the anterior lateral swellings are almost equal to the anterior median swellings ( Fig. 8 View Fig ).

The teeth are relatively massive ( Figs. 9 View Fig , 10 View Fig ); upper molars are relatively wide (LaM 1 /LM 1 1.559 –1.674; LaM 3 /LM 3 1.691 –1.735), large upper premolars (P 4) are relatively wide and mesio-distally short (LP 4 /LaP 4 0.569 –0.610), with relatively very shallow concavity in the distal margin of talon (LP 43 /LP 41 0.524 –0.697). Large lower premolars (P 4) are absolutely very large (LP 4 1.31–1.39 mm) as well as very large in relation to the size of smaller lower premolars (P 2) (LP 2 ×LaP 2 /LP 4 ×LaP 4 0.397 –0.466). The minutesecond lower premolar (P 3) is frequently missing, while the minute first upper premolar (P 2) is frequently present (LP 2 0.35–0.38 mm); if present, P 3 lies out of the the tooth-row, P 2 and P 4 are in contact.

Baculum of R. horaceki sp. n. is a relativelly large bone, dorso-ventrally flattened in its distal two-thirds, creating a lancet-form shape, while its proximal epiphysis is massive and laterally bifurcated ( Fig. 11 View Fig ). Total length of baculum 3.7–3.9 mm, largestwidth of the proximal epiphysis 1.2–1.5 mm, largest (dorso-ventral) height of the proximal epiphysis 1 mm, largest width of the lancet 0.8–0.9 mm.

The dorsal pelage of R. horaceki sp. n. is brown to brownish-grey, ventral pelage is greyish- -beige ( Fig. 12 View Fig ). Nose-leaf and ears are dark brown or dark greyish-brown, distal parts darker than the proximal. Wing membranes are dark brown or greyish-brown.

Genetics. In the group of horseshoe bats of the ferrumequinum/clivosus complex (R. ferrumequinum (Schreber, 1774), R. nippon Temminck, 1835 and R. clivosus Cretzschmar, 1828 s.str.), R. horaceki sp. n. shows a unique base position within the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b (1140 bp) at 34 sites: 1071 (A+C), 36, 127, 378, 562, 750, 808, 972, 1107, 1134 (A+G), 117 (C+A), 5, 57, 190, 201, 285, 390, 468, 564, 730, 894, 969, 982, 1057 (C+T), 698, 907 (G+ A), 126, 459, 873 (T+C), 864, 1089 (A/C+T), 282, 462 (A/G+C), and 708 (A/C/G+T). With the fumigatus group (here, R. fumigatus Rüppell, 1842 and R. hildebrandtii Peters, 1878), R. horaceki sp. n. shares unique base positions at four sites, which it does not share with bats of the ferrumequinum/clivosus complex: 57, 564 (T), 459, and 873 (C); only with R. fumigatus at two sites: 907 (A) and 969 (T); and only with R. hildebrandtii at three sites: 190, 1089 (T), and 697 (A). With the ferrumequinum/clivosus complex, R. horaceki sp. n. shares unique base positions at seven sites, which it does not share with bats of the fumigatus group: 141, 591, 681 (A), 105 (C), 640, 835 (G), and 49 (T).

DIMENSIONS OF THE HOLOTYPE (in millimetres). External: LC 60; LCd 34; LAt 18.4, LA 21.3; LaFE 6.9.

Cranial: LCr 20.16; LCc 17.48; LaZ 10.68; LaI 2.42; LaInf 5.69; LaNc 8.43; LaM 9.32; ANc 6.17; ACr 7.54; LBT 3.07; CC 5.84; P 4 P 46.48; M 3 M 37.71; CM 37.42; M 1 M 34.74; CP 43.22; LMd 13.24; ACo 3.28; IM 38.79; CM 38.03; M 1 M 35.39; CP 42.94.

Dental: LCs 1.92; LaCs 1.53; LP 20.35; LP 411.50; LP 420.91; LP 430.79; LaP 42.46; LM 11.82; LaM 13.05; LM 31.20; LaM 32.07; LCi 1.20; LP 20.69; LaP 20.83; LP 3 –; LP 41.31; LaP 41.10; LM 12.06.

MITOCHONDRIAL SEQUENCE OF THE HOLOTYPE (complete sequence of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b; GenBank Accession Number KC579375 View Materials ; 5’ end). atg atc aac att cgc aag tcc cac cca cta ttc aag att atc aac gac tca ttc gtt gac cta cct gcc cca tca agt atc tct tcc tga tga aacttc gga tcc ctc cta ggg gta tgc cta gcc gtc caa att ctc aca gga ctt ttc cta gca ata cac tac aca tca gat act gcc aca gcc ttc tac tcc gta act cat att tgc cga gac gtc aac tat ggc tga gtc cta cgc tac ctc cac gcc aac gga gcc tct ata ttc ttc atc tgc ctc ttt cta cac gta gga cga gga atc tac tac ggc tcc tat aca ttc tca gaa aca tga aac att gga att atc ctc ctc ttc gcc gtc atg gcc acg gca ttc ata ggt tac gta ctc cca tga ggc caa atg tcc ttc tga ggg gca aca gtc atc aca aac ctt ctc tca gcc atc ccc tac gtt gga aca acc cta gtc gaa tga gtc tga ggc gga ttc tca gtt gat aaa gcc aca ctc acc cga ttc ttc gcc ctg cac ttc cta cta ccc ttt gtt atc gca gcc ata gtt ata gtc cat cta ctt ttc ctc cat gaa aca gga tca aac aac cca acc gga atc cca tca gac gca gac ata atc cca ttc cac ccc tac tac acc att aaa gac atc cta ggc ctc ata cta ata ctt aca gca cta ctg tcc ctg gtc tta ttt gcc ccc gac cta ctg ggc gac cca gac aac tac act cca gcc aac cca cta aat act cca ccc cac att aag cca gaa tga tac ttt cta ttt gcc tac gca atc cta cgc tca atc cca aac aaa ctt ggt gga gtc gta gcc ctg gtc cta tcc att ctc atc cta gcc acc att cca cta ctc cac aca tca aaa caa cgc agc ata gca ttc cga ccc cta agt caa tgt ctg ttc tga ctc tta gta gca gac ctt ctt aca cta acc tga atc gga ggc caa cct gtc gaa cac ccg ttc atc atc atc gga caa tta gcc tcc att ctc tat ttc cta att atc ctt gtc cta ata cca ctt gcg ggc atc gca gaa aac cat cta ttg aag tga aga.

DERIVATIO NOMINIS. Patronymic; named in honour of Professor Ivan Horáček (Prague, Czech Republic) who has significantly contributed to the fauna, taxonomy and ecology of the Mediter- ranean bats.


Figs. 13–16. Sites of occurrence of Rhinolophus horaceki sp. n. in Cyrenaica, Libya (photos by A. Reiter). 13 – dense coniferous forest in the central part of Wadi Al Kuf. 14 – Qasr Ash Shahdayn ruins, roost of R. horaceki sp. n., surrounded by dense mountain forests. 15 – Wadi Darnah, mosaic of agricultural areas and Mediterranean

woodlands. 16 – Al Burdi, shrubland valley in a plateau of dry steppes.

DISTRIBUTION. Rhinolophus horaceki sp. n. isknown from seven sites in northern Cyrenaica ( Qumsiyeh & Schlitter 1982, original findings), from ca. 350 km long belt of Mediterranean woodlands and steppes between Wadi Al Kuf in the west and Al Burdi in the east (Figs. 13–16). The records are available from altitudes stretching from the sea level up to 660 m a. s. l., from the following sites: Al Burdi (31° 45’ N, 25° 05’ E), Qasr Ash Shahdayn (32° 37’ N, 21° 35’ E), ruins 6 km SE of Qasr [Al] Maqdam (32° 38’ N, 21° 36’ E; Qumsiyeh & Schlitter 1982), Roman aquaduct at Kufanta (32° 46’ N, 21° 34’ E; Qumsiyeh & Schlitter 1982), Wadi Darnah, gallery ca. 6 km Sof Darnah (type locality, 32° 42’ N, 22° 37’ E), Wadi Darnah, cave ca. 10 km Sof Darnah (32° 41’ N, 22° 36’ E), and Wadi Al Kuf, unnamed cave (32° 41’ N, 21° 34’ E). At four sites, R. horaceki sp. n. was found roosting; viz., in two natural caves, in an underground part of castle ruins (Fig. 14) and in an abandoned cellar.














Rhinolophus horaceki

Benda, Petr & Vallo, Peter 2012


KOOPMAN K. F. 1994: 54


QUMSIYEH M. B. 1985: 32


SIMMONS N. B. 2005: 353
HORACEK I. & HANAK V. & GAISLER J. 2000: 100
LE BERRE M. 1990: 78
QUMSIYEH M. B. & SCHLITTER D. A. 1982: 384
QUMSIYEH M. B. 1981: 49
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