Chironomus salinarius Kieffer, 1915,

Orel, Oksana V., Istomina, Albina G., Kiknadze, Iya I., Zinchenko, Tatiana D. & Golovatyuk, Larisa V., 2014, Redescription of larva, pupa and imago male of Chironomus (Chironomus) salinarius Kieffer from the saline rivers of the Lake Elton basin (Russia), its karyotype and ecology, Zootaxa 3841 (4), pp. 528-550: 533-537

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3841.4.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FFDC2772-C806-4714-B50C-D0C77531882F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03EF87B6-2013-D530-A694-FCEDFB8AFEE7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chironomus salinarius Kieffer, 1915
status

 

Chironomus salinarius Kieffer, 1915 

( Figs 2–18View FIGURES 2 – 5View FIGURES 6 – 12View FIGURES 13 – 18)

Chironomus salinarius Kieffer  in Thienemann, 1915: 451; Goetghebuer (1928: 62); Thienemann, Strenzke (1951: 15); Strenzke (1959: 22, fig. 11); Keyl & Keyl (1959: 1); Keyl (1962: 464); Linevich & Erbaeva (1971: 156, figs 73–80); Michailova (1973: 348), ( 1980: 141), (1989: 108); Pinder (1978: 114, fig. 145 D); Sasa (1978: 20, figs 57–63); Grinchuk (1979: 44), ( 1984: 751); Pankratova (1983: 139); Ali & Majori (1984: 17); Webb & Scholl (1985: 353); Webb, Scholl & Ryser (1985: 373); Ceretti et al. (1987: 289); Chun (1989: 37); Yoon & Chun (1992: 1); Ali et al. (1994: 35); Drake & Arias (1995: 195); Sasa (1996: 94, fig. 8); Mirabdullayev et al. (2004: 101); Suemoto et al. (2004: 107); Fuentes et al. (2005: 289); Kim et al. (2005: 21); Ree & Yum (2006: 63, fig. 1); Gascon et al. (2007: 419); Ponti et al. (2007: 79); Marchini et al. (2008: 1076); Cartier et al. (2010: 637); Istomina et al. (2012: 55, figs 16–21); Kasatkina & Shubin (2012: 95).

Material. Male, pupa, larva, Russia, Volgograd region, the Lake Elton basin, the Chernavka River, 29.VI. 2012, leg. L. Golovatyuk (rearing); male, pupa, larva, the same location, 6.VII. 2012, leg. L. Golovatyuk (rearing); male, pupa, larva, the same location, 7.VII. 2012, leg. L. Golovatyuk (rearing).

Diagnostic characters. The imago males of C. salinarius Kieffer  can be separated from some species by following combination of features: dark brown or black colour midges, total length 5.0– 6.2 mm, wing length 2.40–3.25 mm, AR 2.84–3.20, LRP 1 1.36–1.40, BRP 1 5.0– 7.9, Ac 18–22, Dc 19–25, Pa 6–7, Scts 17–35, Sq 15–21, legs yellowish brown, except to dark brown proximal and apical ends of femur, proximal ½ and apical end of tibia, ta 1–5 gradually darken to end, tergite IX with 6–8 median setae, anal point expanded in apical third, superior volsella E-type, gonostylus the widest at proximal third. The pupa differs following combination of features: total length 6.0–7.0 mm, segment I with anterior and posterolateral Pedes spurii B; tergite VII in proximal half part with two patches of shagreen; tergite VIII with two patches of shagreen medially; tergites V –VII laterally with longitudinal rows of spinules; tergites V –VI with posterior-lateral patches of spines. The larva can be distinguished from the other members of the salinarius-type larva by following features: AR 1.85–2.15, L 1 68–85 µm, L 2 17–22 µm, blade reached to the segment 5, ring organ situated in the proximal 2 / 3 basal segment; pecten epipharyngis with 17–24 teeth; anterior margin of the base maxilla with 1–2 tubercles; mandible II-type, with 1 yellowish dorsal tooth, dark brown apical and 3 inner teeth; type of mentum by the characters of the median teeth—I/II; type of mentum by the degree of development of the 4 th lateral teeth—I; ventromental plate with 57–69 short striae, not reached inner spines series, type of strial termination IIIA, VmPR 0.36–0.45. VmPSR 1.6–2.4.

Male (n= 3). Total length 5.0– 6.2 mm; wing length 2.4–2.5 mm. Total length / wing length 2.08–2.58. Coloration. Thorax and abdomen dark brown or black. Legs yellowish brown, except to dark brown proximal and apical ends of femur, proximal ½ and apical end of tibia, ta 1–5 gradually darken to end.

Head. Head width 680 µm. Height of eyes 376–520 µm. HIR 6.07. Frontal tubercles finger-shaped, length 30–36 µm, width 12 µm. Antenna 1320–1386 µm long. Ultimate flagellomere 990–1056 µm long. AR 3.0– 3.2. Verticals 22–26. Clypeus with 25–31 setae. Cibarial pump 120–129 µm long, 84–90 µm wide. Maxillary palp 606–657 µm long, lengths of last 4 palpomeres (in µm): 42–60; 147–156; 168–174; 243–270. CP 1.12; Al/Pl 2.00– 2.18.

Thorax. Acrostichals 18–22; dorsocentrals 20–25; prealars 6–7; supraalars 1–2. Scutellum with 22–35 setae.

Wing. Length 2.4–2.5 mm, width 0.64–0.68 mm. Veins R, R 1 with 41–46 setae, R 4 + 5 with 11–16 setae. Squama with 15–20 setae; brachiolum with 2–3 setae. VR 1.0– 1.06.

Legs. Spurs of middle tibia 24 and 30 µm, of hind tibia 24 and 30 µm long. TiR 1.96–2.08. Lengths and proportions of legs as in Table 2.

Hypopygium ( Figs 2–5View FIGURES 2 – 5). Tergite IX with 6 median setae. Lateral tubercles sometimes present on tergite IX. Laterosternite IX with 5–8 setae. Anal point 90–105 µm long, 12–15 µm wide, expanded in the apical 1 / 3, sometimes the widest at about middle (depends on the position of hypopygium). Transverse sternapodeme 93–111 µm long, without oral projections. Phallapodeme 135–144 µm long. Gonocoxite 180–186 µm long, with 5–6 inner setae. Total length of superior volsella 75–90 µm, with 6–10 basal setae; height of apical finger-shaped part 60–69 µm, width— 18–21 µm, base (15–21 µm high, 30–42 µm wide) cover microtrichia (E – type). Inferior volsella 135–144 µm long, with 32–40 setae. Gonostylus 156–165 µm long, 36–39 µm wide, widest at proximal 1 / 3, with 1 apical seta (15 µm long) and 3–4 subapical inner setae. GsR 4.1–4.6. HR 1.11–1.15.

Pupa (n = 3, males). Total length 6.6 –7.0 mm.

Cephalothorax ( Figs 6–7View FIGURES 6 – 12). Cephalic tubercles conical 63–75 µm long, 45–48 µm wide; frontal setae 66–75 µm long ( Fig 6View FIGURES 6 – 12). Base of thoracic horn 78–90 long µm, 45–60 µm wide. Prealar tubercle developed. Pc 1 51–54 µm long, Pc 2 51–54 µm long; MAps 111–135 µm long; Dc 1 45–75 µm long, Dc 2 45–90 µm long, Dc 3 45–51 µm long, Dc 4 48–60 µm long; distance between setae Dc 1 –Dc 2 10–84 µm, Dc 3 –Dc 4 18–36 µm, Dc 2 –Dc 3 123–156 µm. Wing sheath length 237–246 µm, width 60 µm ( Fig 7View FIGURES 6 – 12).

Abdomen ( Figs 8–12View FIGURES 6 – 12) length 5.0– 5.5 mm. Tergites II –VI covered by square shagreen; tergite VII in proximal half part with two patches of shagreen; tergite VIII with two patches of shagreen medially. Tergites V –VII laterally with longitudinal rows of spinules; tergites V –VI with posterior-lateral patches of spines. Anal segment without shagreen, but in posterior part granulose. Hook row with 64–78 hooks; tops of median hooks with 1–5 little teeth ( Fig 8View FIGURES 6 – 12). Conjunctives IV/V and V/VI with little spinules, sometimes on conjunctives V –VI spinules absent. Sternite I usually with several spinules laterally; sternite II medially with shagreen and lateral longitudinal rows of spinules; sternites III in proximal part with median path of shagreen and several spinules laterally; sternite IV usually with several spinules laterally; sternites V –VI with posterior-lateral group of spinules; sternites VI –VIII with anteriorlateral group of shagreen. Segment I with anterior and posterolateral pedes spurii B ( Fig 9View FIGURES 6 – 12). Segment VIII with single dark brown spur, sometimes spur with three tips, covered by 5–7 dorsal spines ( Figs 11–12View FIGURES 6 – 12). Segment II –IV each with 3 L setae, V –VI each with 4 LS setae, VII with 3–4 LS setae, VIII with 5 LS setae. Anal lobe with 65–78 lamelliform setae. Length of anal lobe 400–432 µm, width 416–464 µm. ALR 0.86–1.04. Fourth instar larva (n= 3).

Head ( Figs 13–18View FIGURES 13 – 18) yellowish brown, length 0.50–0.55 mm, width 0.45 mm, cephalic index (W/L) 0.82–0.90. Frontal apotome 408–440 µm long, 136–176 µm wide. Distance between setae S 1 – S 1 69 –84 µm, S 2 – S 2 96 –114 µm, S 3 – S 3 93 –123 µm, S 4 – S 4 96 –129 µm, S 5 – S 5 96 –129 µm. Antenna 111–123 µm ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 13 – 18), length of each segment (in µm): 69–84; 18; 6; 9; 6. AR 1.85–2.15. Maximal width of basal segment 24–27 µm. Ring organ distribute in the proximal 2 / 3 basal segment; distance from ring organ to base of antenna 24 µm; ROR 2.9–3.5. Blade 42 µm long, reached to the segment 5; accessory blade 12 µm. S I 45 –48 µm long, S II 54 –60 µm long, S III 21 µm long, S IV 6 µm long. Pecten epipharyngis 42–45 µm long, with 17–24 teeth. Premandible 102–105 µm long, with 2 teeth; premandibular seta simple 15–24 µm long ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 13 – 18). Mandible 159–180 µm long, 87–99 µm wide; with 1 yellowish dorsal tooth, dark brown apical and 3 inner teeth; length apical tooth 21–24 µm ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 13 – 18). Type mandible II (some degree of pigmentation present on 3 rd tooth and tooth partly free on lower margin). Seta subdentalis 15–21 µm long. Pecten mandible with 12–14 setae. Mola with 1–3 long spines (15–21 µm). Mandible basally with 8–16 radial grooves. Maxillary palp 24–30 µm long, 15–21 µm wide. Anterior margin of the base maxilla with 1–2 tubercles ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 13 – 18). Mentum 141–153 µm wide, central tooth conical 12–16.5 µm, median trifid tooth 27–42 µm wide, distance between first lateral teeth 48–66 µm, distance between second lateral teeth 72–84 µm; distance between the top of first lateral teeth 42–54 µm ( Figs 17View FIGURES 13 – 18). Type of mentum by the characters of the median teeth—I/ II; type of mentum by the degree of development of the 4 th lateral teeth—I. Ventromental plate 150–168 µm wide and 60–78 µm height ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 13 – 18). Distance between ventromental plates 30–48 µm. Ventromental plates with 60–65 striae. VmPR 0.36–0.45. VmPSR 1.6–2.4.

Body. Lateral and ventral tubules absent. Procercus 21 µm height and 12 µm wide.

TABLE 2. Lengths (in µm) and proportion of legs C. salinarius

P 1              
P 2              
P 3              

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Chironomidae

Genus

Chironomus

Loc

Chironomus salinarius Kieffer, 1915

Orel, Oksana V., Istomina, Albina G., Kiknadze, Iya I., Zinchenko, Tatiana D. & Golovatyuk, Larisa V. 2014
2014
Loc

Chironomus salinarius

Istomina 2012: 55
Kasatkina 2012: 95
Cartier 2010: 637
Marchini 2008: 1076
Gascon 2007: 419
Ponti 2007: 79
Fuentes 2005: 289
Kim 2005: 21
Mirabdullayev 2004: 101
Suemoto 2004: 107
Drake 1995: 195
Ali 1994: 35
Yoon 1992: 1
Chun 1989: 37
Ceretti 1987: 289
Webb 1985: 373
Scholl 1985: 373
Grinchuk 1984: 751
Ali 1984: 17
Pankratova 1983: 139
Michailova 1980: 141
Grinchuk 1979: 44
Michailova 1973: 348
Keyl 1962: 464
Keyl 1959: 1
Thienemann 1951: 15
Strenzke 1951: 15
Goetghebuer 1928: 62
1928