Pravistylus exquadratus (Naudé), Theron, 1975

Stiller, M., 2010, Revision of the Southern African leafhopper genus Pravistylus (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae) 2468, Zootaxa 2468 (1), pp. 1-81: 19-21

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2468.1.1

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Pravistylus exquadratus (Naudé)


Pravistylus exquadratus (Naudé)  

( Figs 1 l; 2 h, i & w; 3 p & q; 4 o; 5 c & d; 6 n–p; 7 u–w; 8 r–u)

Deltocephalus exquadratus Naudé 1929: 12   . [Brief description].

Pravistylus exquadratus (Naudé) Theron, 1975: 196   . [Redescription, SANC].

Pravistylus exquadratus Theron, 1982: 27   . [New record].

Deltocephalus aristida Cogan, 1916: 187   [identity unconfirmed, original description, type not found].

Deltocephalus aristida Naudé, 1926: 50   [description rewritten from Cogan, 1916].

Deltocephalus africanus Naudé, 1926: 46   [identity unconfirmed, type specimen no longer in SAMC or OSU collections].

Deltocephalus africanus Naudé, Linnavuori, 1961: 482   [new record, AMNH].

Deltocephalus africanus Naudé, Webb & Viraktamath, 2009   [see Footnote 5, page 39].

Holotype. Female. South Africa, Free State Province, Bloemfontein , 14 April 1918, J.C. Fauré. DCEE.  

Deltocephalus exquadratus   was described by Naudé (1929) in a very brief description in a dissertation abstract but this is considered a valid publication. Theron (1975) reported the type of D. africanus   lost. From Naudé’s description and drawings of the sternite 7 of the female of D. africanus   it is likely that it is the same species as P. exquadratus   . Six specimens in AMNH, provisionally identified by Linnavuori (1961) as D. africanus   (hand written in pencil), are P. exquadratus   . Deltocephalus aristida Cogan, 1916   is probably the same as D. exquadratus   , based on the description only. As the type cannot be located, the synonymy cannot be confirmed.


Diagnosis. Always macropterous. Plate apex sclerotized, deflected laterad or posteriad, rectangular, or rarely rounded; lateral subapical margin abruptly sinuous; length of plate 1.2–1.5 times as long as wide ( Figs 2 h, i & w). Pygofer with sclerotized ligula invading membranous region on posteroventral margin, ligula with 3–4 macrosetae ( Fig. 1 l). Aedeagal shaft, in lateral view, U-shaped; shaft arising ventrally from atrium; shaft about twice as long as dorsal apodeme; shaft with apex bulbous; gonopore subapical, at base of bulbous apex; dorsal apodeme, in dorsal view, narrowly rounded ( Figs 3 p & q, 4 o). Female sternite 7 ligula about half as wide as greatest width across base of sternite; length variable; posterior margin of ligula broadly or narrowly triangular; medially with U-shaped notch, with base of notch uniformly rounded or stepped ( Figs 7 u–w).

Male and female. Colour variable. Dark specimens with dorsally longitudinally striate markings dorsally, with most cells of tegmina fuscous ( Fig. 8 r, weakly striate; Fig. 8 s, strongly striate; Fig. 8 t, dark specimen; Fig. 8 u, pale specimen). Pale specimens without distinct markings, and few markings in cells of tegmina. All examined specimens have fully developed hind wings, with submacroptery sometimes evident.

Male. Dimensions. (n = 210) Length: apex of vertex to apex of tegmina 2.7–3.1 mm; apex of vertex to apex of abdomen 2.3–2.6 mm; vertex medially 0.3–0.4 mm; vertex next to eye 0.2–0.3 mm; pronotum medially 0.3–0.4 mm. Width: head 0.8–0.9 mm; pronotum 0.7–0.8 mm. Ocellar diameter 27.5–28.5 µm; ocellocular distance 37.1–48.0 µm.

Genital capsule. Pygofer ventral posterior margin with small, bulbous lobe, bearing microtrichia, membranous region invaded by ligula bearing 3–4 macrosetae; dorsal posterior margin lobate ( Fig. 1 l (specimen from Malawi)). Pygofer lobe asymmetric, dorsal margin rounded, ventral margin produced triangularly beyond rounded dorsal margin, about two times as wide as pygofer ( Fig. 1 l). Plate apex sclerotized, directed posteriad or deflected lateroposteriad, square, rarely rounded; medial margin straight or slightly curved laterad; lateral subapical margin abruptly sinuous; length of plate 1.2–1.5 times as long as wide; 4–10 uniseriate macrosetae medially, fine setae marginally ( Fig. 2 h, specimen from Western Cape Province; Fig. 2 i, specimen from Malawi; Fig. 2 w, apex rounded, specimen from Western Cape Province). Aedeagus, in lateral view, U-shaped, with apex bulbous, shaft about twice as long as dorsal apodeme; shaft arising ventrally from atrium; preatrium reduced ( Fig. 3 p, specimen from Western Cape Province; Figs 3 q, 4 o, specimen from Malawi). Style base variable; distal part either close to or far from anterior medial lobe; dorsal apophysis base parallel, apex produced laterally into asymmetrical, acute point, ventral subapical tooth ( Fig. 5 c, Western Cape Province; Fig. 5 d, Malawi). Connective, in lateral view, straight ( Fig. 6 p, Malawi), dorsal view, stem and arms of similar width, stem about one third as long as arms ( Fig. 6 n, specimen from Western Cape Province; Fig. 6 o, specimen from Malawi).

Female. Dimensions. (n = 182) Length: apex of vertex to apex of tegmina 2.9–3.4 mm; apex of vertex to apex of abdomen 2.6–3.0 mm; vertex medially 0.4 mm; vertex next to eye 0.3 mm; pronotum medially 0.3– 0.4 mm. Width: head 0.8–0.9 mm; pronotum 0.8 mm. Ocellar diameter 26.7–29.0 µm; ocellocular distance 39.6–53.8 µm.

Genitalia. Sternite 7 posteriorly with ligula about half as wide as width across base; length of ligula variable, generally about as long as median length of base; apex of ligula variable; notch of variable depth, shape: rounded ( Fig. 7 u, short ligula, round notch and lobe, specimen from Western Cape Province), or notch width variable, notch at base sinuous ( Fig. 7 v, notch wide, shallow, specimen from Malawi; Fig. 7 w, notch narrow, deep, specimen from Free State Province).

Type material examined. Holotype female. South Africa, Free State. “Bloemfontein, 14-4-(19)18, J.C. Faure ” [first label, black type-set text, white paper]; “ Holotype ” [type-set] “ Deltocephalus exquadratus   ” [hand-written by Theron], “ Naude, 1926 ” [black type-set text, red paper] [type collection number 439] SANC   . Paratypes. 2♀. same data as holotype [labels as for holotype] SANC. Specimens in good condition, apparently faded. Naudé’s original label not present, type-set locality and type labels made by Theron on all specimens   .

Additional material examined. 515♂, 457♀ and 49 nymphs from Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi and eight provinces in South Africa ( AMNH, BMNH, INHS, SANC)   .

Remarks. Deltocephalus exquadratus Naudé, 1929   was described in a doctoral thesis in 1923, with the thesis abstract published by Ohio State University in 1929. Subsequently Theron, 1975 transferred the species to Pravistylus   . Deltocephalus africanus Naudé   was recorded from Southern Africa (Linnavuori, 1961). Specimens examined in AMNH and identified as this species were presumably identified by Linnavuori, but the labels do not specify a determiner. The female type of Deltocephalus aristida Cogan (1916)   could not be found either in Ohio State University or in the Iziko Cape Town Museum. However, judging from the description, and more so from the plate, this species resembles P. exquadratus   most closely.

Pravistylus exquadratus   and P. eductus   generally have similarly shaped plates ( P. eductus   in Figs 2 e–g; P   . exquadratus in Figs 2 h, i & w), which are readily distinguished from that of any other species of Pravistylus   . The shape of sternite 7 in the female ( Figs 7 u–w) and in the male the structure of the aedeagus ( Figs 3 p & q), connective ( Figs 6 n–p), and the peculiarity of the hind margin of the pygofer lobe ( Fig. 1 l), distinguish P. exquadratus   from P. eductus   . Additionally colouration and tegmina development help to distinguish the species. Pravistylus exquadratus   usually has a longitudinal striate pattern, and it is always macropterous. In P. eductus   there are rectangular markings near the ocelli, and numerous fuscous markings on the vertex, pronotum and scutellum, and is usually brachypterous.


American Museum of Natural History


Illinois Natural History Survey


Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute














Pravistylus exquadratus (Naudé)

Stiller, M. 2010

Pravistylus exquadratus

Theron, J. G. 1982: 27

Pravistylus exquadratus (Naudé)

Theron, J. G. 1975: 196

Deltocephalus exquadratus Naudé 1929: 12

Naude, T. J. 1929: 12

Deltocephalus aristida Naudé, 1926: 50

Naude, T. J. 1926: 50

Deltocephalus africanus Naudé, 1926: 46

Naude, T. J. 1926: 46