Pravistylus lobus, Stiller, 2010

Stiller, M., 2010, Revision of the Southern African leafhopper genus Pravistylus (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae) 2468, Zootaxa 2468 (1), pp. 1-81: 24-26

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2468.1.1

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Pravistylus lobus

sp. n.

Pravistylus lobus   sp. n.

( Figs 1 o; 2 ad; 3 a & b; 4 a & b; 5 ae & af; 6 a; 7 ag–ak; 8 z & aa)

Diagnosis. Connective with unique posterior paraphysis, triangular, of variable length ( Figs 3 a & b, 4 a & b, 6 a). Pygofer lobe triangular, 0.6–1.5 times as long as width at base ( Fig. 1 o). Plate apex narrowly rounded ( Fig. 2 ad).

Etymology. Latin, for an elongated projection or protuberance ( lobus   ), referring to the paraphysis of the connective.

Male and female. Ochraceous. Ngome specimens usually without markings. Most specimens from other localities with two paired, variable brownish markings on vertex ( Fig. 8 z (few markings) & Fig. 8 aa (more distinct markings)). Sometimes with brown marking in central anteapical cell. Clypeus with 8–12 horizontal arcs.

Male. Dimensions. (n = 37) Length: apex of vertex to apex of tegmina 2.1–2.4 mm; apex of vertex to apex of abdomen 2.5–2.9 mm; vertex medially 0.4–0.5 mm; vertex next to eye 0.3 mm; pronotum medially 0.3 mm. Width: head 0.8–0.9 mm; pronotum 0.8 mm. Ocellar diameter 28.0 µm; ocellocular distance 34.5– 48.0 µm.

Genital capsule. Pygofer, in lateral view, square; posterior dorsal apex lobate; posterior ventral margin variable, narrowly bulbous or reduced, sclerotized or partially membranous ( Fig. 1 o); anal tube lattice ventrally bulbous, sclerotized, bearing microtrichia. Pygofer lobe acutely triangular, subapical; about one third as wide as width of pygofer ( Fig. 1 o). Plate apex narrowly rounded, median margin straight, lateral margin with subbasal, shallow indentation, flanked by short setae (Similar to P. macropygeus   sp. n. and P. indistinctidiscus   ) ( Fig. 2 ad); plate 1.0–1.4 times as long as wide. Aedeagal shaft in lateral view arising ventrally from atrium, about twice as long as dorsal apodeme ( Figs 3 a & b); dorsal view as in Fig. 4 a, ventral view as in Fig. 4 b. Style distal part separate from anterior medial arm; dorsal apophysis tapering acutely ( Fig. 5 af) or sometimes blunt ( Fig. 5 ae); anterior medial arm elongate. Connective apex modified bearing paired, posteriorly directed paraphyses of variable length, shape, orientation ( Figs 3 a & b; 4 a & b; 6 a): usually extended posteriad, sometimes curved ventrally; visible in undissected specimen with open plate; articulated with aedeagal preatrium at base of paraphyses.

Female. Dimensions. (n = 30) Length: apex of vertex to apex of tegmina 2.2–2.5 mm; apex of vertex to apex of abdomen 3.0– 3.3 mm; vertex medially 0.5–0.6 mm; vertex next to eye 0.3–0.4 mm; pronotum medially 0.3 mm. Width: head 0.9–1.0 mm; pronotum 0.8–0.9 mm. Ocellar diameter 26.0–30.5 µ m; ocellocular distance 36.2–46.8 µm.

Genitalia. Sternite 7 hind margin variable: ligula elongate, wide ( Fig. 7 ah, Cathedral Peak specimen)) or more narrowly triangular ( Figs 7 ag & ak (Suikerbosfontein specimen)), or almost parallel-sided ( Fig. 7 ai (Bermondsey and Geluk Farm specimens)), or short, widely triangular ( Fig. 7 aj (Ngome specimen)); notch at apex deep or shallow; ligula with ridge ventrally.

Material examined. Holotype male. South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal. Geluk Farm , NE Vryheid, northern site, 27°39ʹS, 30°48ʹE, 1527 m, 31.i.2007, M. Stiller, DVac grassland ( SANC) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes. 128♂, 71♀, 5 nymphs. South Africa. KwaZulu-Natal   . 5♂, 7♀, Ngome Forest Station , 27°49ʹS, 31°25ʹE, 5.ii.1996, sweeping, grass GoogleMaps   ; 2♂, 7♀, Ntendeka Wilderness near Ngome Police Station , 27°50ʹS, 31°23ʹE, 1280 m, 7.ii.1996, grass & forbs; all M. Stiller GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, Mike’s Pass, Cathedral Peak Nature Reserve , 28°58ʹS, 29°14ʹE, 1900 m, 16.iv.2002, M. Stiller, E. Breytenbach, DVac, grass and forbs, regrowth after fire GoogleMaps   ; 2♂, 1♀, Mlambu’s Kraal, Mnweni Valley , 28°50ʹS, 29°00ʹE, 1700 m, 26.iv.2004, sweeping, grass and forbs, Monocymbium ceresiiforme   dominant grass ( Poaceae   ) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂, 1♀, 3 nymphs, Dlamini’s Kraal, Mnweni Valley , 28°48ʹS, 29°05ʹE, 1550 m, 27.iv.2004, sweeping, wet grass and forbs; all M. Stiller GoogleMaps   ; 3♂, 2♀, 1nymph, Cathedral Peak , site no. 21, 28°58ʹS, 29°14ʹE, 1900 m, 17.xi.2005, MDTP survey, sweeping, also blue pan trap GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, Cathedral Peak , site no. 22, 28°59ʹS, 29°15ʹE, 1873 m, 17.xi.2005, MDTP survey, white pan trap GoogleMaps   ; 2♂, Cathedral Peak , site no. 23, 28°58ʹS, 29°15ʹE, 1916 m, 18.xi.2005, MDTP survey, blue pan trap GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, Cathedral Peak site no. 26, 28°01ʹS, 29°15ʹE, 1907 m, 19.xi.2005, MDTP survey, blue pan trap GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, Cathedral Peak , site no. 27, 28°58ʹS, 29°14ʹE, 1883 m, 20.xi.2005, MDTP survey, sweeping GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, Cathedral Peak , site no. 28, 28°59ʹS, 29°13ʹE, 1882 m, 20.xi.2005, MDTP survey, yellow pan trap GoogleMaps   ; 24♂, 6♀, same data as holotype GoogleMaps   ; 6♂, 2♀, Geluk Farm , NE Vryheid southern site, 27°40ʹS, 30°49ʹE, 1511 m, 31.i.2007, DVac, Festuca sp.   ( Poaceae   ) GoogleMaps   ; 10♂, 4♀, Vryheid Hill Nature Reserve , eastern perimeter, 27°43ʹS, 30°48ʹE, 1414 m, 31.i.2007, DVac GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, 1♀, Vryheid Hill Nature Reserve, North Gun Point , 27°44ʹS, 30°47ʹE, 1466 m, 31.i.2007, DVac GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, 1♀, Vryheid Hill Nature Reserve, Ntinginono Eco Center , 27°45ʹS, 30°47ʹE, 1259 m, 31.i.2007, sweeping GoogleMaps   ; 3♂, 1♀, Vryheid Hill Nature Reserve, plateau west of North Gun Point , 27°45ʹS, 30°46ʹE, 1325 m, 31.i.2007, sweeping GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, 1♀, Vryheid Hill Nature Reserve , western side, 27°45ʹS, 30°46ʹE, 1219 m, 31.i.2007, sweeping GoogleMaps   .

Mpumalanga. 1♂, Groenvaly, site C3 SHF experiment, 30°47ʹ32ʺS, 25°52ʹ58ʺE, 15.ii.1995, S.H. Foord; 2♂, Groenvaly, site C9 SHF experiment, 30°46ʹ18ʺS, 25°52ʹ03ʺE, 15.ii.1995, S.H. Foord; 1♂, Groenvaly, site C11 W control, 30°46ʹ03ʺS, 25°52ʹ52ʺE, 15.ii.1995, W. Furgeson; 3♂, 1♀, Groenvaly, site C12 SHF & D12 AL control, 30°46ʹ03ʺS, 25°52ʹ49ʺE, 15.ii.1995, S.H. Foord & D.H. Jacobs   ; 2♂, Groenvaly, site W14 L control, 30°46ʹ15ʺS, 25°52ʹ48ʺE, 15.ii.1995, W. Furgeson; 1♂, Groenvaly, site W17 L control, 30°45ʹ47ʺS, 25°52ʹ29ʺE, 15.ii.1995, W. Furgeson; 4♂, Groenvaly, site D18 AS & W18 SB control, 30°45ʹ49ʺS, 25°52ʹ28ʺE, 15.ii.1995, D.H. Jacobs & W. Furgeson ; all sweeping grass   ; 10♂, 21♀, Suikerboschfontein Farm, 25°56ʹS, 30°19ʹE, 1700 m, 3.ii.2001, sweeping moribund grass; sweeping short grass on rocky outcrop; 8♂, 3♀, 1nymph, Bermondsey Farm, SE Machadodorp, 25°46ʹS, 30°21ʹE, 1800 m, 2.xi.2003, sweeping; 5♂, 5♀, Bermondsey Farm, SE Machadodorp, 25°48ʹS, 30°20ʹE, 1680 m, 8.iii.2008, sweeping, mainly short grass along escarpment, Eragrostis sp.   common; 17♂, 12♀, Bermondsey Farm, SE Machadodorp, 25°49ʹS, 30°22ʹE, 1760 m, 8.iii.2008, sweeping moribund grass; all M. Stiller; Swaziland. Malolotja Nature Reserve   : 1♀, near Logwaja viewpoint, 26°07ʹ22ʺS, 31°06ʹ25ʺE, 1372 m, 10.iv.2009; 2♂, Malolotja River valley , 26°05ʹ14ʺS, 31°06ʹ42ʺE, 872 m, 11.iv.2009 GoogleMaps   ; 17♂, 6♀, near Silotfwane Peak, 26°04ʹ50ʺS, 31°04ʹ38ʺE, 1355 m, 12.iv.2009; 1♂, 1♀, near Ngwenya viewpoint, 26°08ʹ07ʺS, 31°06ʹ08ʺE, 1379 m, 13.iv.2009; all M. Stiller, sweeping grass & forbs. ( BMNH, INHS, SANC)   .

Remarks. The males of this species have a uniquely modified connective that is fused with paired paraphyses. Many other features in the genitalia of males and females, as well as the colour, shape and dimensions of this species correspond well with the generic characters of Pravistylus   . This modified connective is the only reliable means of species recognition since a number of species have similar plates and pygofer lobes, such as P. macropygeus   sp. n. ( Figs 2 ae & af, 1 q, respectively) and P. indistinctidiscus   ( Figs 2 ag & ah, 1 m, respectively). Furthermore the shape of the plate of P. lobus   is variable. It is more elongate in specimens from Suikerboschfontein Farm ( Fig. 2 ad) or shorter and more rounded in specimens from Groenvaly and Ngome.

The specimens of this species are known from eight isolated localities. They exhibit variation in the length and orientation of the paraphysis of the connective as follows: (a) short and triangular in specimens from Cathedral Peak and Mlambu’s Kraal ( Figs 3 b, 4 a); (b) long and basally parallel in specimens from Groenvaly, Malolotja and Suikerboschfontein Farm ( Figs 3 a, 4 b); (c) long and triangular in specimens from Bermondsey Farm, Geluk Farm and Ngome. The paraphysis is usually straight, sometimes slightly curved dorsally, and in some specimens from Bermondsey Farm the process is strongly curved ventrally. The female sternite 7 also varies. The ligula is elongate and triangular to narrowly triangular or even almost parallel-sided in specimens from five localities ( Figs 7 ag–ai, ak). Specimens from Ngome are least characteristic with a short, equidistantly triangular ligula, that is sometimes recessed into the base of the sternite ( Fig. 7 aj).


Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute


Illinois Natural History Survey