Pravistylus mutilidiscus, Stiller, 2010

Stiller, M., 2010, Revision of the Southern African leafhopper genus Pravistylus (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae) 2468, Zootaxa 2468 (1), pp. 1-81: 33-36

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2468.1.1

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Pravistylus mutilidiscus

sp. n.

Pravistylus mutilidiscus   sp. n.

( Figs 1 v & w; 2 ak–ap; 3 i–k; 4 i; 5 v & w; 6 h; 7 ax–bi; 8 al–ar)

Diagnosis. Variable, widely distributed species. Plate posterior margin variably truncate: (a) Medial apex longer than lateral apex ( Fig. 2 ao). (b) Medial apex as long as lateral apex, sometimes concave ( Fig. 2 ak). (c) Medial apex shorter than lateral apex ( Figs 2 al–an & ap). Aedeagus without much intraspecific variation; lateral view, shaft arising dorsally from atrium; preatrium elongate; dorsal apodeme reduced; shaft about twice as long as atrium and preatrium; base C-shaped, apical third straight; dorsal view, base wide, tapering towards apex ( Figs 3 i–k, 4 i). Style distal part far from base; dorsal apodeme length variable ( Figs 5 v & w). Female sternite 7 variable: Commonly posterior margin with small, shallow notch flanked by acute points ( Figs 7 ay, az, bc, bd, bg, bh); rarely narrow, triangular ligula with small V-shaped notch ( Figs 7 bf & bi), that appears prone to damage ( Figs 7 ax, ba, bb & be).

Etymology. Latin, compound word from cut off (mutilatus) and plate (discus), for the apex of the subgenital plate that is square, concave and sometimes with the apices of different length.

Male and female. Ochraceous, sometimes two paired markings on anterior margin of vertex. Pronotum sometimes with 2–3 paired, wide, longitudinal brown stripes. Hind wing reduced, triangular, about half as long as tegmina. Tegmina veins opaque, cells translucent, sometimes brown markings in inner anteapical cells, sometimes other cells ( Fig. 8 al–ar). About 4% of examined specimens (mainly males) macropterous, hind wings normal ( Fig. 8 aq).

Male. Dimensions. (n = 107) Length: apex of vertex to apex of tegmina 2.3–2.7 mm; apex of vertex to apex of abdomen 2.5–2.9 mm; vertex medially 0.4–0.5 mm; vertex next to eye 0.3 mm; pronotum medially 0.3 mm. Width: head 0.8–0.9 mm; pronotum 0.7–0.8 mm. Ocellar diameter 26.8–29.5 µm; ocellocular distance 36.2–52.4 µm.

Genital capsule. Pygofer, in lateral view, rectangular ( Fig. 1 v) or square ( Fig. 1 w); ventral posterior margin broadly rounded; dorsal posterior margin lobate. Pygofer lobe subapical, short, bluntly rounded, base wide, about half as wide as pygofer ( Figs 1 v & w). Plate length, posterior margin shape: variable ( Figs 2 ak– ap). Length varies from wider than long to much longer than wide; commonly 0.7–1.0 times as long as wide; rarely more elongate (in 6 out of 346 examined specimens left and right plates were 1.2–1.6 times as long as wide). Posterior margin generally truncate, sometimes concave; base of plate roughly triangular; median margin straight or curved, lateral margin slightly sinuous. Posterior apex of plate variable, three states recognized: medial and lateral apex of equal length ( Fig. 2 ak); medial apex produced more than lateral apex ( Fig. 2 ao); lateral apex produced more than medial apex ( Figs 2 al–an & ap). Macrosetae uniseriate, distal setae often obscuring lateral margin of plate apex; lateral margin of plate apex usually weakly sclerotized. Medial posterior margin sometimes produced into sclerotized, dorsally directed tooth ( Figs 2 am–ap). Aedeagal shaft, in lateral view, arising dorsally from atrium; preatrium elongate; dorsal apodeme reduced; base C-shaped, apical third straight; shaft, dorsal view, wide basally, tapering towards apex; gonopore oblique, lateral ( Figs 3 i–k, 4 i). Style distal part far from anterior medial lobe; apophysis of variable length, parallel-sided; apex truncate, usually three ventral teeth; preapical angle and lobe acute; variant with elongate apophysis sometimes reaching beyond apical margin of plate ( Figs 5 v & w). Connective in lateral view with stem apex curved dorsally; in dorsal view, stem one third as long as arms, of similar width ( Fig. 6 h).

Female. Dimensions. (n = 39) Length: apex of vertex to apex of tegmina 2.5–2.9 mm; apex of vertex to apex of abdomen 3.0– 3.4 mm; vertex medially 0.5 mm; vertex next to eye 0.3–0.4 mm; pronotum medially 0.3–0.4 mm. Width: head 0.9–1.0 mm; pronotum 0.8–0.9 mm. Ocellar diameter 26.4–29.6 µm; ocellocular distance 41.7–61.1 µm.

Genitalia. Sternite 7 variable ( Figs 7 ax–bi). Usually posterior margin with small, shallow notch, flanked by short points; width of notch about one fifth as wide as width of sternite ( Figs 7 ay, az, bc, bd, bg & bh). Rarely posterior margin more variable; narrow triangular ligula with narrow V-shaped or rounded notch ( Figs 7 bb, bf & bi); ligula of variable length, often broken off or with margin variably frayed margin ( Figs 7 ax, ba & be).

Material examined. Holotype male. South Africa, Eastern Cape. Hartfell Farm, north Somerset East, 32°39ʹS, 25°36ʹE, 1396 m, 23.iv.2006, DVac, two grazed habitats, with more or less Themeda triandra   , and many other common grass species ( SANC). Paratypes. 515♂, 272♀, 31 nymphs. Eastern Cape. 1♂, Pirrie Dam, 32°43ʹS, 27°08ʹE, 15.xi.1944, J. Omer Cooper; 1♂, Tsolo, 31°15ʹS, 28°47ʹE, 24.v.1970, H. Geertsema; 10♂, 3♀, East London, 33°01ʹS, 27°55ʹE, 15.xii.1974; 8♂, Humansdorp, 34°01ʹS, 24°45ʹE, 3.ii.1977, sweeping; 1♂, Kareedouw, 33°57ʹS, 24°17ʹE, 8.ii.1977; 1♂, Joubertina, 33°50ʹS, 23°51ʹE, 20.i.1982; 1♂, Cathcart, 32°18ʹS, 27°12ʹE, 20.i.1984, sweeping; 2♂, King William’s Town, 32°50ʹS, 27°26ʹE, 21.i.1984, sweeping; 21♂, 8♀, Stutterheim, 32°33ʹS, 27°28ʹE, 21.i.1984, sweeping; 8♂, 3♀, Bathurst, 33°50ʹS, 26°49ʹE, 22.i.1984, sweeping; 2♂, Port Alfred, 33°40ʹS, 26°47ʹE, 22.i.1984; 6♂, 1♀, Aliwal North, 30°45ʹS, 26°45ʹE, 12.i.1986; 6♂, 3♀, Lady Grey, 30°40ʹS, 27°15ʹE, 12.i.1986; all J.G. Theron; 2♂, 1♀, Rhodes, 30°48ʹS, 27°58ʹE, 23.iv.2000, sweeping, grazed grass & forbs; 2♂, 1♀, Rhodes, 30°48ʹS, 27°58ʹE, 23.iv.2000, sweeping, grass; 15♂, 8♀, Lundin’s Neck road near Barkly East junction, 30°51ʹS, 27°57ʹE, 26.iv.2000, sweeping, short grass; 1♂, Balloch Peak, base, SE slope, near Lundin’s Neck, 30°40ʹS, 27°42ʹE, 2100 m, 28.iii.2005, sweeping, broad-leaved grass, no flower; 2♂, 1♀, Wildfell Farm, 30°40ʹS, 27°48ʹE, 2180 m, 29.iii.2005, sweeping, grazed grass; 5♂, 1♀, Halseton Krans, 30°42ʹS, 27°47ʹE, 2200 m, 1.iv.2005, sweeping, short grass; all M. Stiller; 6♂, Prentjiesberg, site 47, 31°06ʹS, 28°12ʹE, 1570 m, 11.xi.2005, MDTP survey, sweeping; 2♂, 1♀, Prentjiesberg, site 48, 31°06ʹS, 28°12ʹE, 1579 m, 11.xi.2005, MDTP survey, sweeping; 1♀, Prentjiesberg, site 52, 31°08ʹS, 28°11ʹE, 1460 m, 13.xi.2005, MDTP survey, sweeping; 3♂, 1♀, Wapadsberg Pass between Graaff Reinet and Cradock, 31°55ʹS, 24°54ʹE, 1700 m, 2.i.2006, sweeping; 2♂, 1♀, Bakenkop near Tarkastad, 32°16ʹS, 26°25ʹE, 1759 m, 19.iv.2006, DVac, roadside and grazed pasture; 8♂, 9♀, 1 nymph, Devil’s Bellows Neck, 32°25ʹS, 26°40ʹE, 1750 m, 19.iv.2006, DVac, Festuca sp.   ; 5♂, 1♀, Devil’s Bellows Neck, 32°25ʹS, 26°40ʹE, 1646 m, 19.iv.2006, DVac, grazed pasture, Festuca sp.   ; 6♂, 3♀, Freredell, north, 31°20ʹS, 26°42ʹE, 1741 m, 19.iv.2006, DVac, Miscanthus sp.   ; 2♂, 1♀, 1 nymph, Joubert Pass, Lady Grey, 30°43ʹS, 27°15ʹE, 1920 m, 19.iv.2006, DVac, grazed grass along roadside; 6♂, 1♀, between Molteno and Queenstown, 31°23ʹS, 26°40ʹE, 1788 m, 19.iv.2006, DVac, grass on road side; 9♂, 2♀, Penhoek, between Aliwal North and Queenstown, 31°26ʹS, 26°41ʹE, 1854 m, 19.iv.2006, DVac, pasture; 1♂, Greenbushes Station, west Port Elizabeth, 33°56ʹS, 25°25ʹE, 208 m, 21.iv.2006, DVac, Stenotaphrum sp.   ; 6♂, 5♀, Jeffrey’s Bay, 34°05ʹS, 24°55ʹE, 21.iv.2006, DVac, irrigated pasture: Cenchrus ciliaris   and Cynodon dactylon   dominant; 22♂, 9♀, Uitsig Farm, Humansdorp, 34°01ʹS, 24°49ʹE, 170 m, 21.iv.2006, DVac, grazed grass in valley on hill; 2♂, Glazenwood Farm, Bathurst, 33°32ʹS, 26°50ʹE, 116 m, 22.iv.2006, DVac; 2♂, Charlton Farm, north Somerset East, 32°40ʹS, 25°40ʹE, 1271 m, 23.iv.2006, DVac, unpalatable grass in pasture; 11♂, 12♀, 7 nymphs, at Grahamstown and Alicedale road junction, 33°24ʹS, 26°22ʹE, 560 m, 23.iv.2006, DVac, road reserve and grazed pasture; 11♂, 9♀, 2 nymphs, same data as holotype; 4♂, 2♀, Hartfell Farm, north Somerset East, 32°39ʹS, 25°37ʹE, 1362 m, 23.iv.2006, DVac, Eragrostis sp.   ; 6♂, 4♀, Olifantskop Pass, between Patterson and Cookhouse, 33°18ʹS, 25°57ʹE, 713 m, 23.iv.2006, DVac, disturbed grassland; 12♂, Stone Hill, Grahamstown, 33°20ʹS, 26°33ʹE, 698 m, 23.iv.2006, DVac, grass regrowth after fire; 1♂, 6♀, Tharfield Farm, east Port Alfred, 33°32ʹS, 27°00ʹE, 42 m, 23.iv.2006, DVac, pasture, Stenotaphrum sp.   ; 9♂, 7♀, Doon Farm, Thomas River Cathcart, 32°28ʹS, 27°17ʹE, 1115 m, 24.iv.2006, DVac, wet grass on ridge with Aloes; 2♂, 3♀, Henderson Heights, NE Cathcart, 32°15ʹS, 27°11ʹE, 1270 m, 24.iv.2006, DVac, grazed pasture; 6♂, 2♀, Granta Farm, Komga, 32°37ʹS, 27°46ʹE, 784 m, 25.iv.2006, DVac, two habitats: lightly & intensively grazed pasture; 6♂, 3♀, 1 nymph, between Dordrecht and Rossouw, 31°48ʹS, 26°06ʹE, 1767 m, 26.iv.2006, DVac, road reserve; 2♂, 2♀, Dordrecht, south, 31°26ʹS, 27°02ʹE, 1723 m, 26.iv.2006, DVac, road reserve, soggy soil, not grazed; 6♂, 4♀, Groendal, Dordrecht, 31°09ʹS, 27°06ʹE, 1804 m, 26.iv.2006, DVac, road reserve; 8♂, 3♀, 1 nymph, between Barkly East and Elliot, 31°12ʹS, 27°58ʹE, 1962 m, 27.iv.2006, DVac, road reserve and grazed pasture; 8♂, 4♀, between Elliot and Rhodes, 31°06ʹS, 27°52ʹE, 1884 m, 27.iv.2006, DVac, road verge: Eragrostis   , Miscanthus spp   and Themeda triandra   common; 1♂, between Maclear and Rhodes, 30°52ʹS, 28°11ʹE, 1739 m, 27.iv.2006, DVac, habitat around a pine plantation. Festuca sp.   along margin of plantation, and grass beyond plantation; 10♂, 4♀, 1 nymph, between Naude’s Neck and Maclear, 30°45ʹS, 28°07ʹE, 2279 m, 27.iv.2006, DVac, three habitats: grazed grass, Festuca sp.   and Andropogon   ? appendiculatus; 5♂, 2♀, between Rhodes and Naudé’s Neck, 30°43ʹS, 28°06ʹE, 2390 m, 27.iv.2006, DVac, Merxmuellera sp.   regrowth after fire, Merxmuellera sp.   ; 8♂, 8♀, Rhodes, 30°51ʹS, 27°54ʹE, 1965 m, 27.iv.2006, DVac, short grass and forbs, grazed pasture, Eragrostis sp.   dominant; 5♂, 1♀, Mdlandkomo Administration Area, east Umtata, 31°33ʹS, 28°55ʹE, 973 m, 28.iv.2006, DVac, long grass and sedges, in little grazed pasture, wet soil; 2♂, 3♀, junction between Umtata and Tsolo, 31°22ʹS, 28°49ʹE, 1048 m, 28.iv.2006, DVac, roadside reserve and grazed pasture; 12♂, 8♀, 4 nymphs, Prentjiesberg, 31°07ʹS, 28°10ʹE, 1428 m, 29.iv.2006; 5♂, 2♀, Zwelitcha near Tsolo, 31°10ʹS, 28°34ʹE, 1335 m, 29.iv.2006, DVac, pasture; 19♂, 18♀, 2 nymphs, Dwesa Nature Reserve, coastal dune, 32°17ʹ23.54ʺS, 28°51ʹ24.50ʺE, 50 m, 30.xii.2008, sweeping grass and forbs; 1♂, 6♀, Qumbu vicinity, 31°09ʹ30.04ʺS, 28°53ʹ30.54ʺE, 1018 m, 3.i.2009, sweeping short grazed grass; all M. Stiller. Free State. 15♂, 1♀, Golden Gate, 28°31ʹS, 28°37ʹE, 6.i.1971, R. Kluge; 1♂, Kroonstad, 27°46ʹS, 27°12ʹE, 21.i.1975; 4♂, 2♀, Reitz, 22°25ʹS, 30°16ʹE, 22.i.1975, sweeping; 1♂, Tweeling, 27°33ʹS, 28°31ʹE, 22.i.1975; 2♂, 2♀, Vrede, 27°26ʹS, 29°10ʹE, 22.i.1975; 1♂, Vrede, 27°26ʹS, 29°10ʹE, 8.iii.1976, G.D. van Rensburg; 5♂, 1♀, Ficksburg, 28°53ʹS, 27°53ʹE, 19.xii.1978; 2♂, Fouriesburg, 28°37ʹS, 28°13ʹE, 19.xii.1978; 13♂, 5♀, Kestell, 28°46ʹS, 28°40ʹE, 19.xii.1978; 4♂, 1♀, Ficksburg, 28°53ʹS, 27°53ʹE, 30.i.1981, sweeping; 8♂, 7♀, Warden, 27°56ʹS, 29°00ʹE, 30.i.1981, sweeping; 2♀, Golden Gate, 28°31ʹS, 28°37ʹE, 20.xii.1982; 1♀, Reddersburg, 29°38ʹS, 26°07ʹE, 23.i.1983; 1♂, Thaba Nchu, 29°13ʹS, 26°50ʹE, 7.i.1986, sweeping; 19♂, 6♀, Golden Gate Park, 28°31ʹS, 28°37ʹE, 8.i.1986; all J.G. Theron; 6♀, Clarens, 28°31ʹS, 28°29ʹE, 26.i.1991, sweeping; 3♂, Koppies Dam Nature Reserve, 27°15ʹS, 27°41ʹE, 22.ii.1993, Cynodon dactylon   ; 1♂, Buckland Downs Farm, near Harrismith, 27°58ʹS, 29°07ʹE, 15.iv.1998; 6♂, 7♀, Wonderwater Strip Mine, 26°47ʹS, 27°48ʹE, 1450 m, 11.ii.1998, old game park, seasonally wet marshland; grassland at entrance garden, translocated rehabilitation; wetland near Wonderfontein spring; 8♂, 6♀, same data as above, but, 17.xii.1998, old game park, marshland grassland; 1♂, 1♀, same data as above, but, 12.v.1999, old game park, marshland grassland; 2♂, same data as above, but, 23.xi.1999, grassland at entrance garden, translocated rehabilitation; 2♂, same data as above, but, 10.iv.2000 grassland at entrance garden, translocated rehabilitation; 2♂, Cornelia vicinity, 27°13ʹS, 28°47ʹE, 22.x.2000, sweeping, moribund grass near river; all M. Stiller; 1♀, Zastron, 1 km N, 30°15ʹS, 27°04ʹE, 1550 m, 5.iii.2002, DVac, dry embankment on road verge, with Themeda triandra   dominant; 6♀, Harrismith, 20 km NNE, 28°07ʹS, 29°10ʹE, 1740 m, 6.iii.2002; 6♂, 4♀, Kommandonek, NE Ficksburg, 28°48ʹS, 28°00ʹE, 1650 m, 6.iii.2002, sweeping; all M. Stiller, J. du Plessis; 7♂, 2♀, Koloniesplaas, Memel, 27°42ʹS, 28°36ʹE, 1850 m, 14.xi.2003, sweeping, short, grazed grass (> 50 mm long); 1♀, Woudsicht road, 14 km S Vrede, 27°34ʹS, 29°00ʹE, 1800 m, 4.i.2004, sweeping, grass in road reserve; 5♂, 3♀, 1 nymph, Clarens, 8 km N on Bethlehem road, 28°27ʹS, 28°25ʹE, 1700 m, 2.i.2006, sweeping; 4♂, 1♀, between Tweeling and Frankfort, 27°27ʹS, 28°31ʹE, 1550 m, 2.i.2006, sweeping; 8♂, 9♀, 13 km W Memel on route R34, 27°39ʹ53.35ʺS, 29°27ʹ05.37ʺE, 1910 m, 25.xii.2008, sweeping grass and forbs in grazed pasture; all M. Stiller. Gauteng. 3♂, Devon, 26°27ʹS, 28°46ʹE, 8.iii.1976, G.D. Van Rensburg; 1♂, 1♀, Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, 26°31ʹS, 28°14ʹE, 21.ii.1995, DVac meadow; 13♂, 13♀, Devon, 2 km S, 26°24ʹS, 28°45ʹE, 1680 m, 14.iii.2002, DVac, Themeda triandra   dominated grassland in waterlogged soil; 1♂, Colbyn Nature Area, 25°44ʹS, 28°16ʹE, 1400 m, 4.iv.2003, sweeping; 2♂, 1♀, Diepkloof summit, Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, 26°29ʹS, 28°12ʹE, 1840 m, 22.iii.2005, DVac, Themeda triandra   dominated grassland on the summit, collected at 11h30; 7♂, 10♀, Toringkop, Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, 26°30ʹS, 28°13ʹE, 1900 m, 22.iii.2005, DVac, grass and forbs on rock outcrop, with Melinis repens   dominant; 11♂, 9♀, Leondale, SE Johannesburg, 26°17ʹS, 28°10ʹE, 13.iv.2005, DVac, grass along margin of marsh; 7♂, 2♀, Vaal Dam near Aeolians Sailing Club, 26°49ʹS, 28°10ʹE, 1500 m, 20.iii.2006, sweeping, grass in overgrazed meadow, and grass in wetland, with Setaria sp.   dominant; all M. Stiller. KwaZulu-Natal. 2♂, Durban, 29°53ʹS, 31°00ʹE, 7.i.1971, R. Kluge; 1♂, 2♀, Van Reenen, 28°22ʹS, 29°24ʹE, 19.xii.1978, J.G. Theron, sweeping; 1♂, Elandslaagte, 28°27ʹS, 29°29ʹE, 21.i.1981, J.G. Theron; 7♂, 5♀, Evatt Police Station, 30°02ʹS, 29°21ʹE, 1790 m, 23.iv.2002, DVac, heavily grazed grassland, as well less grazed pasture; 1♂, 1♀, Orange River catchment, wetland, 28°54ʹS, 29°00ʹE, 2870 m, 16.iv.2006, sweeping, wetland grasses and sedges; 15♂, 8♀, 5 nymphs, Mt. Currie, 30°29ʹS, 29°23ʹE, 1524 m, 30.iv.2006, DVac, wet grass in road reserve; all M. Stiller. Mpumalanga. 2♂, 2♀, Ermelo, 26°32ʹS, 29°59ʹE, 24.xi.1971, R. Kluge; 1♂, Bethal, 26°27ʹS, 29°28ʹE, 22.i.1975, J.G. Theron, sweeping; 1♂, 1♀, Suikerboschfontein Farm, 25°56ʹS, 30°19ʹE, 1700 m, 3.ii.2001, M. Stiller, sweeping; 1♂, Ossewakop, Wakkerstroom, 27°23ʹS, 30°09ʹE, 2160 m, 7.iii.2002, M. Stiller, J. du Plessis, DVac, grassland, tall grass growing in deep soil; 1♀, Carolina, 7 km SE, 26°09ʹS, 30°08ʹE, 1650 m, 8.iii.2002, M. Stiller, J. du Plessis; 2♂, 2♀, Lawreston Farm, 26°28ʹS, 28°54ʹE, 1600 m, 14.iii.2002, M. Stiller, DVac, short grass after mowing; 8♂, 3♀, 6 nymphs, Cedarmont Road, 26°44ʹS, 29°03ʹE, 1550 m, 4.i.2004, M. Stiller, sweeping. North West. 3♂, 2♀, Ventersdorp, 26°15ʹS, 26°45ʹE, 23.i.1975, J.G. Theron, sweeping; 1♂, Vredefort Dome near Parys, 26°48ʹS, 27°22ʹE, 26.xii.2000, M. Stiller, sweeping; 1♂, Middelwater Farm, 25°41ʹS, 28°00ʹE, 18.iv.2003, M. Stiller, sweeping, grass and forbs on summit of mountain. Western Cape. 2♂, Prince Alfred’s Pass near Uniondale, 33°46ʹS, 25°10ʹE, 1.ii.1977, J.G. Theron, sweeping ( BMNH, INHS, SANC).

Remarks. This species is highly variable, but without morphological features that consistently suggest that it is a complex of species. Generally the aedeagus is consistent in shape and size throughout all examined specimens ( Figs 3 i–k). In some specimens the aedeagal shaft is broken, which appears to be a common occurrence in this species. No discrete patterns were recognized in the plate and shape of the style apophysis. For instance a long style apophysis is present in the short plate ( Fig. 2 al) (Bathurst specimen) and in the long plate ( Fig. 2 ak) (East London and Zwetlitcha specimens). The combination of a long plate and long style apophysis was not common and was often sympatric with specimens with the short plate and short style apophysis (e.g. Bathurst specimens, Fig 2 al–an). Generally most specimens have a short plate and short style apophysis that does not project beyond the posterior margin of the plate ( Figs 2 am–ap). Parasitized specimens possess a Y-shaped connective, and sometimes have an enlarged style.

Two types of female sternite 7 are recognized (e.g. Figs 7 ay & az, and Figs 7 bb & bf, respectively) with both present at some of the localities. The small shallow notch was found in 68% of all examined specimens (n = 225) and appears to be most common in the more northern range of the species. The short ligula in 14% of specimens and long ligula in 4%. This more elongate ligula was more common in the southern range. Female recognition is further complicated by the apparently common breakage of the ligula of the 7th sternite. This occurred in about 14% of all examined females.


Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute


Illinois Natural History Survey