Thelepus setosus ( Quatrefages, 1866 ),

Carrerette, Orlemir, Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos & Hutchings, Pat, 2017, The genus Thelepus Leuckart, 1849 (Annelida, Thelepodidae) in Brazil, with a redescription of the holotype of T. setosus (Quatrefages, 1866), Zootaxa 4250 (6), pp. 587-599: 588-590

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Thelepus setosus ( Quatrefages, 1866 )


Thelepus setosus ( Quatrefages, 1866) 

( Figs 1–2View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2)

Phenacia setosa Quatrefages 1866: 376  –377. Thelepus setosus Hilbig 2000: 231  –294.

Material examined. Holotype ( MNHN type 464): Atlantic Ocean, northern coast of France, Normandie, Saint Vaast ; slides: uncini segs 9, 19, 33 and 75; notochaetae segs 51 and 53. 

Description. Holotype in excellent state of preservation, complete, with ~93 segments, ~ 110 mm long, 3.9 mm wide at widest point (segment 19); body progressively wider until segment 19, then of uniform width through

1. not Pseudothelepus nyanganus Augener, 1918  , which is a species of Streblosoma  .

segment 22, strongly tapering on segments 23–29, then uniformly cylindrical (~ 1 mm wide) through posterior body, slightly tapering near pygidium ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A –B). Transverse prostomium attached to dorsal surface of upper lip; basal part of prostomium without eyespots (perhaps eyespots originally present, but faded out in holotype now); distal part of prostomium shelf-like, several buccal tentacles present ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A –H), longest tentacles accidentally removed due to manipulation, but originally reaching ~segment 14 if directed posteriorly. Peristomium restricted to lips, not continuing dorsally; upper lip wider than long, with almost straight margins; rectangular lower lip, surrounded by mid-ventral lobe originated from segment 1, holotype with pharyngeal organ everted ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, C – D, F –H). Anterior body highly glandular ventrally, crenulate to slightly corrugated between neuropodia until segment 9 ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, C –D, F –H); segment 1 with dorsal crest originating from anterior margin and ventral lobe around lower lip; segments 2–7 progressively longer, segment 3 distinctly shorter ventrally than segments 2 and 4 (possibly another artefact, due to muscular contraction at time of preservation), then segments progressively increasing in length very slightly until segment 19; progressively less marked ventral crests on anterior margins of segments 2–7 ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A –H). Three pairs of branchiae, on segments 2–4, at most 20 filaments (considering scars) on segment 2, 10–15 on segment 3 and less than 10 on segment 4; origin of filaments of segment 2 extending slightly laterally to level of notopodia, those of following segments originating dorsally to level of notopodia; filaments of either side within pairs separated by distinctly narrow mid-dorsal gap, almost inconspicuous on segment 2; filaments originating directly from body wall, no cushion-like areas present (but body wall slightly swollen at point of insertion); filaments gently curled, reaching in length at most half of body width at corresponding segment ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B –C, E –G). Notopodia present on segments 3–56; notopodia of segments 3–8 inserted very slightly progressively more laterally, then longitudinally aligned ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B –C, E –G); notopodia progressively shorter from mid-body, last pairs almost inconspicuous; most chaetae shaved off, entire chaetae only present on posterior notopodia; narrowly-winged notochaetae in both rows, well marked difference in length between rows, wings only present on distal halves of chaetae, broader at base, lanceolated ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A –B). Neuropodia as fleshy ridges on anterior body, progressively narrower and more raised from mid-body segments, as narrow pinnules after termination of notopodia ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C, F –G, I), internal support rods only present after notopodia terminate; uncini with terminal dorsal button, remarkably short prow, as protruding triangular knob, crest with 2 rows of secondary teeth, basal row with 2 large teeth, distal row with single minute tooth in between teeth of first row, and strongly convex base, with medial indentation ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C –G). Distinctly small nephridial and genital papillae, posterior to bases of notopodia and between parapodial lobes of segments 4–7 ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 E –G). Pygidium smooth ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A, I).

Remarks. The study of the holotype of T. setosus  revealed an important mistake in the original description. According to Quatrefages (1866) the holotype has 45–46 thoracic segments and 34–35 abdominal ones, while it in fact has ~93 segments, with notopodia present until the segment 56 (= “thorax”), but thorax and abdomen are not well defined in this species, as the uniformly cilindrical region begins well before the termination of notopodia (see Nogueira et al. 2010, 2013), meaning there are ~37 abdominal segments, the last ones in formation, very compacted and difficult to count. Besides the number of thoracic and abdominal segments, the original description only provides some unclear information about the insertion of the branchial filaments ( Quatrefages 1866).

Finally, the description above says eyespots are absent, but this may be an artefact due to the holotype being in ethanol for more than 150 years. Perhaps eyespots were originally present, but they are completely faded now, only remaining a thin darker line at base of basal part of prostomium ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 G).

Type locality. Atlantic Ocean, France, Normandy, St. Vaast.  


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Thelepus setosus ( Quatrefages, 1866 )

Carrerette, Orlemir, Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos & Hutchings, Pat 2017

Phenacia setosa

Hilbig 2000: 231
Quatrefages 1866: 376