Macrostemum brasiliense ( Fischer, 1970 ), Fischer, 1970

Pes, Ana M., Desidério, Gleison R., Barcelos-Silva, Patrik & Hamada, Neusa, 2019, A new species of Macrostemum Kolenati, 1859 from Brazilian Amazon and the immature stages of M. brasiliense (Fischer, 1970) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 534, pp. 1-20: 9-17

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.534

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EF7D7683-B108-4EAB-B2B9-968FA959AC4E

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F14B22-5067-6D3D-FDFB-22FD47B8FCFC

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Macrostemum brasiliense ( Fischer, 1970 )
status

 

Macrostemum brasiliense ( Fischer, 1970)  

Figs 5–9 View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig

Macrostemum brasiliense ( Fischer, 1970)   : 242 [nomen novum for Phryganea maculata Perty, 1833   , preoccupied in Phryganea   by Phryganea maculata Donovan, 1813   , which is now a synonym of Hydropsyche instabilis (Curtis, 1834)   ]. — França et al. 2013: 309 [♂; wings; status]. — Paprocki & França 2014: 29 [checklist]. — Holzenthal & Calor 2017: 154 [catalog].

Phryganea maculata – Perty 1833: 129   [Type locality: Brazil, inter St. Pauli civitatem et Villam riccam; ZSM; ♂].

Macronema tuberosum – Ulmer 1905: 82   [Type locality: Bahia, Brasilia; NMW; ♂; wings]. — Ulmer 1907a: 78, pl. 3 [♂; wings]. — Ulmer 1907b: 165 [distribution]. — Flint 1966: 7, pl. 1 [lectotype; ♂; wings]. — Ulmer 1913: 408 [distribution]. — Fischer 1963: 199 [bibliography, checklist]. — Burmeister 1983: 273 [to synonym of Macronema maculatum   ].

Macronema maculatum – Ulmer 1907a: 79   , pl. 3 [wings; ♀]. — Ulmer 1913: 395 [♂; distribution]. — Fischer 1963: 190 [bibliography]. — Flint & Bueno-Soria 1982: 358 [to Macrostemum   ]. — Burmeister 1983: 273 [type situation]. — Burmeister 1989: 259 [lectotype; ♂].

Macrostemum maculatum – Flint et al. 1999: 68   [catalog]. — Paprocki et al. 2004: 8 [checklist]. — Calor 2011: 321 [checklist]. — Barcelos-Silva et al. 2012: 1278 [distribution]. — Dumas & Nessimian 2012: 13 [checklist]. — França et al. 2013: 309 [to synonymy].

Material examined

BRAZIL: • 1 ♂; Minas Gerais, Poços de Caldas, Fazenda de Eucalipto, Second-order stream; 21º53′33.2″ S, 46º33′03.8″ W; alt. 1327 m; 14–15 Sep. 2017; G.R. Desidério, E.P. Brandão and L.M. Fusari leg.; INPA GoogleMaps   10 larvae, 1 pharate pupa ♂; São Paulo, Salesópolis, Estação Biológica Boracéia, Córrego Venerando ; 23°39′04.7″ S, 45°53′28.3″ W; alt. 864 m; 22 Sep. 2017; G.R. Desidério, E.P. Brandão and L.M. Fusari leg.; INPA GoogleMaps   4 ♂♂; São Paulo, Salesópolis, Estação Biológica Boracéia, tributary of the Córrego Venerando stream; 23º39′13.2″ S, 45º53′24.4″ W; 20–22 Sep. 2017; G.R. Desidério, E.P. Brandão and L.M. Fusari leg.; INPA GoogleMaps   .

Description

Larva (5 th instar) ( Figs 6–8 View Fig View Fig View Fig )

Length 19.6–21.2 mm (mean = 20.3 mm, SD = 0.66 mm, n = 5).

HEAD. Subrectangular and flattened in dorsal view, with anterior margin 1.5 × wider than posterior margin ( Fig. 6A View Fig ); dark-brown except for darker anterodorsal region; each stemmata surrounded by a pale-yellow oval spot; muscle scars inconspicuous. Dorsolateral carina prominent passing above eyes, extending to posterior region, diverging from the frontoclypeal suture ( Fig. 6A, C View Fig ). Chaetotaxy consisting of #2, #3, #7, #9, #11, #13, #14, #16, #17 [dorsal setae], #12 [lateral setae], #8, #10 [ventral setae]. Primary setae mostly long, thick and pale brown ( Fig. 6 View Fig A–C). Frontoclypeus with anterior margin straight, symmetrical ( Fig. 6A View Fig ). Labrum golden-brown, with large membranous basal region bearing 2 transverse sclerites adjacent to frontoclypeus; anterior margin protruding medially, with dense fringe of pale-yellow, hairlike setae over its entire length and a row of short, brown clavate setae; laterally with a pair of pectinate brushes of setae, long, yellowish-brown and anteriorly directed; mesodorsally surface with short, stout brown setae and one pair of long, parallel, submarginal setae ( Fig. 6E View Fig ). Mandibles asymmetrical, each external margin with pale, long, thin setae; left mandible with 1 obtuse molar tooth, 1 bilobed, mesal tooth, 2 subequal acute subapical teeth, 1 acute, apical tooth, 1 apicodorsal tooth; right mandible with 1 obtuse molar tooth, 1 obtuse mesal tooth, 1 obtuse subapical tooth, 1 acute apical tooth, 1 apicodorsal tooth; both mandibles without dorsomesal tuft of thin setae ( Fig. 6F View Fig ). Lateral sides of head with series of pale-brown muscle scars located posteriorly to occipital margin at posterior tentorial pit ( Fig. 6C View Fig ). Genae located ventrally, each with conspicuous patch of strongly marked, transverse stridulatory lines; widely separated at ⅓ anterior, gradually turning more closely-spaced posteriorly; pale-brown mark covering stridulatory lines and slightly narrowing to posterior region; muscle scars oval and pale grouped on posterior half and scarcely discernible ( Fig. 6B, D View Fig ). Submentum trapezoidal, large; anterior margin slightly accentuated medially, with long, dark anterolateral setae ( Fig. 6B View Fig ). Ventral ecdysial suture absent anteriorly on the right side; anterior ventral apotome subtriangular, wider than long; posterior ventral apotome triangular, minute, longer than wide ( Fig. 6D View Fig ).

THORAX.Nota sclerotized and covered with short, thin, brown, acuminate peg-like setae, mixed with long, slender, hair-like setae. Pronotum divided by longitudinal ecdysial line, dark-brown, muscle scars barely visible, grouped posterolaterally and with anterolateral pronotal margin slightly concave ( Fig. 7 View Fig A–B). Meso- and metanotum not divided by ecdysial lines, pale-brown, darker midlaterally, lateral diagonal grooves slightly visible, muscle scars barely visible, grouped posterolaterally ( Fig. 7B View Fig ). Prosternum without gills, broadly transverse, without triangular, posteromesal sclerite ( Fig. 7C View Fig ); mesosternum without gills; metasternum with 2 pairs of ventrolateral gills, each with long stalk and few regularly distributed lateral filaments ( Fig. 8 View Fig ). Foretrochantin triangular, tapered to apex with a row of numerous median, stout, brown, acuminate peg-like setae ( Fig. 7D View Fig 1 View Fig ). Foreleg dark-brown, shorter than mid- and hind legs; foreleg coxae with anterodorsal process slightly pronounced; with four long, dark, thick setae on posterodorsal region, ventral margin covered with numerous short, pale, slender setae and two long dark thick setae posteriorly; trochanters and femora each with numerous pale-yellow, long, slender setae on ventral margin, mixed with row of 11–13 dark, long, slender setae; femora each with slender, digitate basomesal process on internal surface; tibiae and tarsi with dense fringe of pale-yellow, medium-sized, slender setae on dorsal margin and row of thick setae on ventral margin ( Fig. 7D View Fig 1 View Fig ). Mid- and hind legs paler, similar in size, shape, and structure; femora each with numerous medium-sized, pale-yellowish, slender setae on ventral margin, mixed with 4 dark, long, slender setae, and 2 dark, long apicodorsal setae; tibiae and tarsi with numerous medium-sized pale-yellow, slender setae on ventral margin, and dark, long, slender dorsal setae ( Fig. 7D View Fig 2 –D View Fig 3 View Fig ).

ABDOMEN. Abdominal segments densely covered with long, dark, thin, hair-like setae; with slightly depression on cuticle. Lateral fringe of setae absent ( Fig. 7A View Fig ). Ventral gills on abdominal segments I–VII; ventrolateral gills on abdominal segments II–III; lateral gills on abdominal segments I–VII; shape and position of gills as indicated in table of Figure 8 View Fig . Sternum VIII with 2 small sclerites; each sclerite with 5–6 medium-sized, dark, slender setae ( Fig. 7E View Fig ). Segment IX with small, dorsolateral plate bearing 2 long, dark, slender setae, and with a row of long, dark setae laterally ( Fig. 7A View Fig ). Sternum IX with 2 subrectangular sclerites, longer than wide, bearing moderate-sized, pale-yellowish, spikelike setae with spines emanating from prominent sockets; each sclerite with 12–14 long slender, dark setae on external and posterior margin ( Fig. 7E View Fig ). Anal prolegs each with lateral sclerite bearing tuft of numerous, long, hair-like dorsal setae; anal claws stout, right-angled, each with 1 bent, simple, long, dark, ventrobasal seta ( Fig. 7A, E View Fig ).

LARVAL RETREAT. The larval retreat of M. brasiliense   is similar to that of Macrostemum   sp. described by Sattler (1963, 1968) and illustrated in Pes et al. (2005) from an unidentified species of Brazilian Amazonia, with an elaborate net for fine particle capture.

Pupa ( Fig. 9 View Fig )

Body length 16.7 mm (n = 1).

HEAD. Labrum with anterior margin rounded; anteromesal region without setae; basolateral lobes each with 2 medium-sized setae ( Fig. 9B View Fig ). Mandibles asymmetrical, broad basally, curved mesally, tapering to apex, each with long setal brush basolaterally; inner margin with acute teeth mesally, 3 on both mandibles, and apical half of mandibles finely serrated ( Fig. 9C View Fig ). Frons faces anteriorly with oval protruding lobe, mesally bilobed bearing 9–11 long, dark setae and one medium-sized seta on each lobe, posteriorly with 8 long, dark setae. Basal antennal article with 5 medium-sized, brown setae ( Fig. 9B View Fig ).

THORAX. Pale yellow, with dark spots laterodorsally. Tibia and tarsus of midleg broad and flattened, with well-developed lateral fringes of setae ( Fig. 9A View Fig ).

ABDOMEN. Numerous moderate-sized, yellowish-brown, spike-like setae covering abdominal terga II, III on its posterior portion, and a file of long, thin, dark, hair-like setae on tergum IV in its entire posterior portion ( Fig. 9A View Fig ). Lateral fringe absent. Abdominal terga with pairs of anterior hook plates (a) on segments III–VIII with hooks directed posterad; pair of posterior hook plates (p) on segment III with hooks directed anterad; hook-plate pair IIIa with 2–3 pointed, stout hooks; hook-plate pair IIIp with 56–60 sharply pointed, small hooks; hook-plate pair IVa each with 2 pointed, stout hooks; hook-plate pair Va with 2 pointed, stout hooks and 1–2 mesal, smaller; hook-plate pair VIa each with 1 bifid hook, 1 pointed, stout hook and 1 minute; hook-plate pair VIIa with 2 pointed, stout hooks and 1 smaller; hook-plate pair VIIIa each with 2 pointed, stout hooks ( Fig. 9D View Fig ). Apical processes of segments IX–X long, slender, widely separated, each with 23–24 long lateral, setae on external margin and 6–9 long subapical setae on internal margin ( Fig. 9E View Fig ).

PUPAL RETREAT. Inside the larval retreat, the 5 th instar constructs a tubular case of resistant sand covered with silk, with a small opening in the posterior region; in the anterior region the opening is closed with a cover of sand where the larva weaves the pupal cocoon, it is similar to that of the Amazonian undetermined species described by Sattler (1963).

Taxonomic remarks

In the larval stage, M. brasiliense   is similar to M. ulmeri   by the prominent dorsolateral carina extending to posterior region, diverging from the frontoclypeal suture. Both can be distinguished from other species in the genus with known immatures like the Nearctic M. carolina (Banks, 1909)   , M. transversum (Walker, 1852)   and M. zebratum (Hagen, 1861)   , which have carina closed passing over the posterior region from the frontoclypeal suture. Additionally, M. brasiliense   is characterized by the dark-brown head with darker anterodorsal region; frontoclypeus with anterior margin straight; left mandible with 1 obtuse molar tooth and 1 bilobed mesal tooth; right mandible with 1 obtuse mesal tooth and 1 obtuse subapical tooth; genae with transverse stridulatory lines widely separated at anterior ⅓, transition to closely-spaced posterior lines gradual; submentum with anterior margin convex with slight projection medially, with long, dark anterolateral setae; mesosternum without gills; foreleg coxae with anterodorsal process slightly pronounced; ventral gills on abdominal segments I–VII, ventrolateral gills on abdominal segments II–III and lateral gills on abdominal segments I–VII.

The pupa of M. brasiliense   is similar to that of M. ulmeri   by abdominal terga with pairs of anterior hook plates on segments III–VIII, with stout hooks directed posteriorly, and pair of posterior hook plates on segment III with hook directed anteriorly. However, M. brasiliense   has hook-plate pair IIIa and IVa each with 2–3 and 2 pointed hooks, respectively, and 56–60 sharply pointed, small hooks directed anteriorly of the posterior hook plates, while M. ulmeri   has 3 pointed hooks on each hook-plate pair IIIa and IVa and 23–35 sharply pointed, small hooks on posterior hook plates.

Bionomics

This species is commonly found in Brazilian Atlantic Forest ( Santos et al. 2018). In the present study it was collected in small mountain streams in rain forest reserve (Estação Biológica de Boracéia) in Salesópolis municipality, São Paulo state, at an elevation of 864 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 5 View Fig A–B) and in an extensive area with Eucalyptus   spp. ( Myrtaceae   ) plantations, in Poços de Caldas municipality, Minas Gerais state, at an elevation of 1327 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 5A View Fig ).

Distribution

Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo states).

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Trichoptera

Family

Hydropsychidae

Genus

Macrostemum

Loc

Macrostemum brasiliense ( Fischer, 1970 )

Pes, Ana M., Desidério, Gleison R., Barcelos-Silva, Patrik & Hamada, Neusa 2019
2019
Loc

Macrostemum maculatum – Flint et al. 1999: 68

Franca D. & Paprocki H. & Calor A. R. 2013: 309
Barcelos-Silva P. & Pes A. M. O. & Salles F. F. 2012: 1278
Dumas L. L. & Nessimian J. L. 2012: 13
Calor A. R. 2011: 321
Paprocki H. & Holzenthal R. W. & Blahnik R. J. 2004: 8
Flint O. S. Jr. & Holzenthal R. W. & Harris S. C. 1999: 68
1999
Loc

Macronema maculatum – Ulmer 1907a: 79

Burmeister E. G. 1989: 259
Burmeister E. G. 1983: 273
Flint O. S. Jr. & Bueno-Soria J. 1982: 358
Fischer F. C. J. 1963: 190
Ulmer G. 1913: 395
Ulmer G. 1907: 79
1907
Loc

Macronema tuberosum –

Burmeister E. G. 1983: 273
Flint O. S. Jr. 1966: 7
Fischer F. C. J. 1963: 199
Ulmer G. 1913: 408
Ulmer G. 1907: 78
Ulmer G. 1907: 165
Ulmer G. 1905: 82
1905
Loc

Phryganea maculata – Perty 1833: 129

Perty M. 1833: 129
1833